3Risk Are Usually Expressed as Probabilities A risk is the probability of suffering harm from hazard that can cause injury, disease, economic loss, or damage.It is usually expressed as a mathematical statement about how likely it is that a harm will be suffered from a hazard.1 of every 250 people who smoke a pack of cigarettes every day will likely develop lung cancer over a typical lifetime.Risk Assessment is the process of using statistical methods to estimate how much harm a particular hazard can cause to human health or the environmentRisk Management involves deciding whether or how o reduce a particular risk to a certain and at what cost.A major problem with risk management is that most people are not good at understanding and comparing risk.Educating people and members of the news media about the meaning of risk assessments and about how to make risk comparisons is an important priority.
4We Face Many Types of Hazards We all are at risk every day.Choose to drive or ride in a car through heavy traffic.Talking on a phone or texting while driving.Eating foods with a high cholesterol or fat content that contributes to heart attacks. Heart attacks kill more people in a year then any other risk.Drink AlcoholSmoking or being in an enclosed space with a smokerLying out in the sun or going to a tanning parlor. This would increase the risk or getting skin cancerLiving in a hurricane-prone area
5Five Major Types of Hazards Biological Hazard- from more than 1,400 pathogens that can infect humans. A pathogen is an organism that can cause disease in another organism. Examples are bacteria, viruses, parasites, protozoa, and fungi.Chemical Hazard- from harmful chemicals in the air, water, soil, food, and human-made products.Natural Hazard- such as fire earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, and storms.Cultural Hazard- such as unsafe working conditions, unsafe highways, chemical assault, and poverty.Lifestyle choices- such as smoking, making poor food choices, drinking too much alcohol, and having unsafe sex.
7Some Diseases Can Spread From One Person to Another An infectious disease is caused when a pathogen such as bacterium, virus, or parasite invades the body and multiplies in its cells and tissues. Examples are flue, malaria, tuberculosis, and measles.A bacterial disease such as tuberculosis spreads as the bacteria multiply. A viral disease such as flu or HIV spreads as viruses take over a cell’s genetic mechanisms to copy themselves.Transmissible disease is an infectious disease that can be transmitted from one person to another. Examples are flu, tuberculosis, and measles.A Nontransmissible disease is caused by some- thing other than a living organism and does not spread from one person to another. Examples are cardiovascular disease, most cancers, asthma, diabetes, and malnutrition.
8Infectious Diseases Are Still Major Health Treats Infectious diseases remain as serious health threats, especially in less-developed countries.A large-scale outbreak of an infectious disease in an area or a country is called an epidemic.A global epidemic such as tuberculosis or AIDS is called a pandemic.One reason why infectious disease is still a serious threat is that many disease-carrying bacteria have developed genetic resistance to widely used antibiotics.Also, many disease-transmitting species of insects such as mosquitoes have become immune to widely used pesticides such as DDT that once helped to control their populations.
9Case Study: The Growing Global Threat from Tuberculosis Since 1990, one of the world’s most underreported stories has been the rapid spread of tuberculosis, an extremely contagious bacterial infection of the lungs.One of three people are infected by tuberculosisTuberculosis strike about 9 million people per year and kills 1.8 million-about 84% of them in less-developed countries.There are two factors that account to the spread of TB. One is that there are too few TB screenings and control programs. The second reason is that most strains of the TB bacterium have developed genetic resistance to the majority of the effective antibiotics.
10Viral Diseases and Parasites Kill Large Numbers of People Viruses evolve quickly, are not affected by antibiotics, can kill large numbers of people.The biggest viral killer is influenza; transmitted by body fluidsThe second biggest viral killer is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); infects 2.5 million people each year.The third biggest viral killer id the hepatitis B virus (HBV); damages the liver an kills about a million people a year.You can greatly reduce your chances of get- ting infectious diseases by practicing good old-fashioned hygiene.Wash your hands thoroughly and frequently, avoid touching your face, and stay away from people who have flu or other viral diseases.
11Case Study: The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic The global spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is a major global health threat.Total of about 33 million people worldwide (more than 1 million in the United States) were living with HIV. About 72% of them were in African countries located south of the Sahara Desert.Treatment that includes combinations of expensive antiviral drugs can slow the progress of AIDS, but they are expensive.HIV I high in less developed countries and that is where most of the HIV people are living, they aren’t able to afford the drugs.The deaths of teachers, health-care workers, young productive adults lead to many problems for that country and the generations to come.
12Case Study: Malaria-The Spread of Deadly Parasite About one of every five people in the world- most of them living in poor African countries- is at risk from malariaMalaria is caused by a parasite that is spread by mosquitoes.It infects and destroys red blood cells, causing intense fever, chills, drenching sweats, severe abdominal pain, vomiting, headaches, and increased susceptibility to other diseases.For types of parasites can cause malaria.Foundations have made medicines and way to prevent malaria.Health officials believe that it should be controlled.
13We can Reduce The Incidence of Infectious Diseases Increase research on tropical diseases and vaccinesReduce povertyDecrease malnutritionImprove drinking water qualityReduce unnecessary use of antibioticsEducate people to take all of an antibiotic prescription
14Reduce antibiotic use to promote livestock growth Require careful hand washing by all medical personnelImmunize children against major viral diseasesProvide oral rehydration for diarrhea victimsConduct global campaign to reduce HIV/AIDS
1517-3 What Types of Chemicals Hazards Do We Face?
16Some Chemicals Can Cause Cancers, Mutations, and Birth Defects A toxic chemical is one that can cause temporary or permanent harm or death to humans and animals.There are three major types of potentially toxic agents.Carcinogens are chemicals, types of radiation, or certain viruses that can cause or promote cancers.Mutagens includes chemicals of forms od radiation that can cause or increase the frequency of mutations, or changes, in the DNA molecules found in cells.Teratogen are chemicals that cause harm or birth defects to a fetus or embryo.
17Case Study: PCBs Are Everywhere- A Legacy of Industry PCBs are a class of more than 200 chlorine-containing organic compounds that are very stable and nonflammable.They exist as oily liquids or solids that, under certain conditions, can enter the air as a vapor.The U.S. Congress banned the domestic production of PCBs in 1977 after research showed that they could cause liver and other cancers in test animals and, according to the EPA, probably can cause cancers in humans.CBs are now found almost every- where—in soil, air, lakes, rivers, fish, birds, your body, and even the bodies of polar bears in the ArcticFound even in milkAccording to the EPA, about 70% of all the PCBs made in the United States are still in the environment.
18Some Chemicals May Affect Our Immune and Nervous Systems Research on wildlife and laboratory animals, along with some studies of humans, have yielded a growing body of evidence that suggests that long- term exposure to some chemicals in the environment can disrupt the body’s immune, nervous, and endocrine systemsThe immune system consists of specialized cells and tissues that protect the body against disease and harmful substances by forming antibodies that render invading agents harmless.Such as arsenic, methylmercury, and dioxins can weaken the human immune system and leave the body vulnerable to attacks by allergens and infectious bacteria, viruses, and protozoa.
19Some natural and synthetic chemicals in the environment, called neurotoxins, can harm the human nervous system (brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves).Effects can include behavioral changes, learning dis- abilities, retardation, attention deficit disorder, paralysis, and death.Examples of neurotoxins are PCBs, arsenic, lead, and certain pesticides
20Some Chemicals Affect the Human Endocrine System The endocrine system is a complex network of glands that release tiny amounts of hormones into the bloodstreams of humans and other vertebrate animals.Estrogen mimics and hormone blockers are some- times called gender benders because of their possible effects on sexual development and reproduction.The scientific and economic controversies over possible health risks from exposure to chemicals such as BPA and phthalates highlight the difficulty in assessing possible harmful health effects from exposure to very low levels of various chemicals widely found in the environment and in the products that we use.
22Many Factors Determined the Harmful Effects of a Chemical Toxicology is the study of the harmful effects of chemicals on humans and other organisms. In effect, it is a study of poisons.Toxicity is a measure of the harmfulness of a sub- stance-its ability to cause injury, illness, or death to a living organism.A key factor is the dose, the amount of a harmful chemical that a person has ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin.Solubility and persistence; effect the level of harmThe damage to health resulting from exposure to a chemical is called the response
23Case Study: Protecting Children from Toxic Chemicals Everyone on the planet is exposed to an array of toxic chemicals whose long-term effects are largely unknown.For children they face increasing rates of autism, childhood asthma, and learning disorders.Exposure to air pollution by pregnant women can cause children to have health problems.Infants and young children are more susceptible to the effects of toxic substances than are adults for three major reasons.One- they generally breathe more air, drink more water, and eat more food per unit of body weight than do adults.Second- hey are exposed to toxins in dust or soil when they put their fingers, toys, or other objects in their mouths.Third- children usually have less well-developed immune systems and body detoxification processes than adults have
24Scientists Use Live Laboratory Animals and Non-Animal Tests to Estimate Toxicity The most widely used method for determining toxicity is to expose a population of live laboratory animals to measured doses of a specific substance under controlled conditions.Scientists estimate the toxicity of a chemical by determining the effects of various doses of the chemical on test organisms and plotting the results in a dose-response curveMore humane methods for toxicity testing are avail- able and are being used more often to replace testing on live animals.There are many people against the use of animal testing.
25There Are Other Ways to Estimate the Harmful Effects of Chemicals Scientists use several other methods to get information about the harmful effects of chemicals on human health.Case reports, usually made by physicians, provide information about people suffering some adverse health effect or dying after exposure to a chemical.Epidemiological studies, which compare the health of people exposed to a particular chemical (the experimental group) with the health of a similar group of people not exposed to the agent (the control group).
26Four factors can limit the usefulness of epidemiological studies. First, in many cases, too few people have been exposed to high enough levels of a toxic agent to detect statistically significant differencesSecond, the studies usually take a long time.Third, closely linking an observed effect with exposure to a particular chemical is difficult because people are exposed to many different toxic agents throughout their lives and can vary in their sensitivity to such chemicals.Fourth, we cannot use epidemiological studies to evaluate hazards from new technologies or chemicals to which people have not yet been exposed.
27Are Trace Levels of Toxic Chemicals Harmful? Almost everyone is now exposed to potentially harmful chemicals that have built up to trace levels in their blood and in other parts of their bodies.One source of such chemicals is wastewater.Some scientists view trace amounts of such chemicals with alarm, especially because of their potential long-term effects on the human immune, nervous, and endocrine systemsChemists are now able to detect increasingly smaller amounts of potentially toxic chemicals in air, water, and food.
28Why Do We Know So Little about the Harmful Effects of Chemicals? Typically set allowed levels of exposure to toxic sub- stances at 1/100 or even 1/1,000 of the estimated harmful levels.Only 10% of 100,000 registered synthetic chemicals in commercial use have been thoroughly screened for toxicity, and only 2% have been adequately tested to determine whether they are carcinogens, mutagens, or teratogens.Because of insufficient data and the high costs of regulation, federal and state governments do not supervise the use of nearly 99.5% of the commercially available chemicals in the United States.
29How Far Should We Go in Using Pollution Prevention and the Precautionary Principle? Pushing for much greater emphasis on pollution prevention.Pollution prevention is a strategy for implementing the precautionary principleLook or harmless or less harmful substitutes for toxic and hazardous chemicals.Most laws and technologies for dealing with pollution have focused on cleaning up or diluting pollution after it has been produced.
3017-5 How Do We Perceive Risk and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them?
31The Greatest Health Risks Come from Poverty, Gender, and Lifestyle Choices Risk analysis involves identifying hazards and evaluating their associated risks, ranking risks, determining options and making decisions about reducing or eliminating risks.First effective are poverty and gender.Lifestyle choices-avoid any harmful activities like smoking and drinking.There is also a problem with eating problems causing many deaths as well.
32Case Study: Death from Smoking 100 million people during the 20th century and could kill 1 billion people during this centuryIs highly addictive, and kills an average of about 14,800 people every day, or about one every 6 secondsSome scientists hypothesize that smoking is also related to various mental illnesses.Many health experts urge that a $3–5 federal tax be added to the price of a pack of cigarettes in the United States.Some other countries are enacting smoking bans.The average number of cigarettes smoked per person in the United States declined by 56% between 1976 and 2006 and dropped globally by 16% between 1988 and 2004.
33Estimating Risks from Technologies Is Not Easy he more complex a technological system and the more people needed to design and run it, the more difficult it is to estimate the risks of using the system.With careful design, quality control, maintenance, and monitoring, a highly complex system such as a nuclear power plant or space shuttle can achieve a high degree of technological reliability.Move more of the potentially fallible elements from the human side to the technological side.
34Most People Do a Poor Job Evaluating Risk Many people deny or shrug off the high-risk chances of death (or injury).Many activities are overlooked like motorcycling, smoking, hang gliding, and driving.Five factors can cause people to see a technology or a product as being more or less risky than experts judge it to be.First-fearSecond- our estimation of risk is the degree of control we have in a given situation.Third- whether a risk is catastrophic, not chronic.Fourth- Some people suffer from optimism bias, the belief that risks that apply to other people do not apply to them.Fifth- many of the risky things we do are highly pleasurable and give instant gratification, while the potential harm from such activities comes later
35Several Principle Can Help Us Evaluate and Reduce Risk Compare riskDetermine how much risk you are willing to acceptDetermine the actual risk involvedConcentrate on evaluating and carefully making important lifestyle choices.
36Three Big IdeasWe face significant hazards from infectious diseases such as flu, AIDS, diarrheal diseases, malaria, and tuberculosis, and from exposure to chemicals that can cause cancers and birth defects, and disrupt the human immune, nervous, and endocrine systems.Because of the difficulty in evaluating the harm caused by exposure to chemicals, many health scientists call for much greater emphasis on pollution prevention.Becoming informed, thinking critically about risks, and making careful choices can reduce the major risks we face.