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Lecture 18: Microbial diseases of the urinary and reproductive system Edith Porter, M.D. 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 18: Microbial diseases of the urinary and reproductive system Edith Porter, M.D. 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 18: Microbial diseases of the urinary and reproductive system Edith Porter, M.D. 1

2 2  Structure & function and normal microbiota of the urinary and reproductive system  Ports of entry  Diseases of the urinary system  Bacterial  Diseases of the reproductive system  Bacterial  Viral  Fungal  Protozoan  TORCH

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4 Note the short urethra and proximity to anus 4

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6  Urinary bladder and upper urinary and reproductive tract sterile  Urethral opening colonized with skin flora (mainly gram+ bacteria) and in men, Mycobacterium smegmatis  Lactobacilli predominant in the vagina  Urine is normally sterile but can be contaminated by the microbiota of the urethral opening 6

7  Microbes usually enter the urinary system through the urethra  Microbes usually enter the reproductive system through the vagina (females) or urethra (males) 7

8  Urinary bladder infection  Dysuria: difficult, painful and imperative urination  Usually caused by  E. coli  S. saprophyticus (in female)  May also be caused by  Associated with kidney stones: Proteus  Nosocomial: Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus faecalis  Antibiotic-sensitivity tests should guide treatment 8

9  Clean catch urine (midstream urine after urethral opening had been cleansed)  Refrigerate until urine is processed, because there is typically some contaminating normal flora present (< 10,000/ml)  In general > 100,000 bacteria/ml = infection  Single organism 9

10  If cystitis left untreated pyelonephritis may follow  Fever, flank or back pain  75% caused by E. coli  In the elderly danger of sepsis  i.v. antibiotics 10 Normal kidneyDiseased kidney

11  Major public health impact  In the US ~15 Mio new cases/year (or ~30 new infections /min)  Female often without major symptoms  Major cause of infertility  Prevented by (properly used) condoms and vaccination (genital warts) 11

12  Most common bacterial STIs  Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhoea)  Chlamydia trachomatis (non-gonococcocal urethritis, NGU)  Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)  Treated with antibiotics  Most common viral STIs  Herpes simplex 2 (genital herpes)  Papilloma virus (genital warts, cervical cancer)  Other STIs  Fungal: candidiasis  Protozoan: trichomonas 12

13  Gram negative diplococci  Attaches to columnar epithelial cells via pili  Oropharyngeal, eyes, rectum, urethra, opening of cervix, external genitals of pre-pubertal females  Antigenic variation of pilin and expression of opa which blocks T cells and immunological memory  Typically urethritis, cervicitis  Females may be asymptomatic; males have painful urination and pus discharge  Old disease (name coined in A.D. 150 “flow of semen”)  In rare untreated cases systemic spread and joint infection  Arthritis (one knee joint only)  Upon birth  Ophthalmia neonatorum 13

14 14 Neutrophil

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17  Chlamydia trachomatis  May be transmitted to newborn's eyes  Painful urination and watery discharge  Mycoplasma hominis  Ureaplasma urealyticum Watery discharge in CT 17

18  Infects epithelial cells  Special life cycle with 2 life forms  Elementary body, resistant and infectious  Reticulate body, sensitive and proliferating  Infection must be treated through 2 life cycles of CT 18

19 19 48 h -72 h

20 20  Contribute to intracellular survival and proliferation  In part secreted via Type III secretion apparatus  Effect actin rearrangement and endocytic uptake of CT  CT inserts proteins in inclusion (endosome) membrane that prevent fusion of host lysosomes  CT releases proteins into the cytoplasma that interfere with NF  B signal transduction, a key pathway of the acute inflammatory and innate immune response

21  N. gonorrhoeae  C. trachomatis  Scarring can block uterine tubes  Chronic abdominal pain  Infertility and ectopic pregnancies 21 Laparascopic image showing acute inflammation of right tube, fimbriae and ovaries

22  Nulceic acid amplification tests most accurate  PCR based  Antigen detection (ELISA)  Culture (gonorrhoea > NGU) 22

23  Treponema pallidum, gram negative spirochete  Invades mucosa or enters through skin breaks 23

24 24  1. stage: acute ulcer (painless, hard), highly infectious  2. stage: systemic spread into skin, highly infectious  3. stage: gumma, immunological response in tissue, neurosyphilis,

25  Direct diagnosis:  Darkfield microscopic identification of bacteria  Staining with fluorescent-labeled, monoclonal antibodies  Indirect serological diagnosis  Reagins: antibodies against conserved structures on Treponema  Specific antibodies 25

26  Herpes simplex virus 2 (Human herpesvirus 2 or HHV 2)  Burning sensation followed by development of fluid filled vesicles  Sometimes non-symptomatic  Neonatal herpes transmitted to fetus or newborn  Spontaneous abortion of severe fetal damage  Virus enters latency with recurrence 26

27 27 “Unlike love herpes is forever”

28  Human papillomaviruses  HPV 16 causes cervical cancer and cancer of the penis  DNA test to detect cancer- causing strains  Vaccination against HPV strains 28

29  Candida albicans  Severe itching and thick yellow cheesy discharge  Result from opportunistic overgrowth  Increased during pregnancy and in diabetic women 29

30  Trichomonas vaginalis  Protozoan  Found in semen or urine of male carriers  Vaginal infection causes irritation and profuse discharge (foul smelling, frothy)  Diagnosis by microscopic identification of protozoan 30

31  Toxoplasma  Other  Treponema pallidum  Listeria monocytogenes  Rubella  Cytomegalovirus  Herpes simplex 31

32  Urethra opening (gram+ bacteria, Mycobacterium smegmatis) and vagina (Lactobacillus spec.) are populated by normal microbiota.  The female urethra is much shorter than the male. This and close vicinity to anus makes women more prone for urinary tract infections.  Diseases of the urinary system are mainly of bacterial origin. In out patients: E. coli, S. saprophyticus; associated with kidney stones: Proteus; noscomial: Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas.  Females often have less symptoms than men during an STI.  Infertility is a frequent complication after STI.  Diseases of the reproductive system of bacterial origin: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum; of viral: Herpes simplex 2, Papilloma virus; of fungal: Candida albicans; of protozoan: Trichomonas vaginalis  Birth defects are in particular associated with TORCH (Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex). 32

33 1) Cystitis is most often caused by A) Escherichia coli. B) Leptospira interrogans. C) Candida albicans. D) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. E) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 2) Which of the following is often diagnosed by detection of antibodies against the causative agent? A) Nongonococcal urethritis B) Gonorrhea C) Syphilis D) Cystitis E) Candidiasis 3) Normal microbiota of the adult vagina consist primarily of A) Lactobacillus. B) Streptococcus. C) Mycobacterium. D) Neisseria. E) Candida. 33

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