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14.3 Blood Groups and Transfusions

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1 14.3 Blood Groups and Transfusions
Sponge: Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 85 Topic: 14.3 Blood Groups and Transfusions Essential Questions: 1. What is the main concern when blood is transfused from one individual to another? 14.3 Blood Groups and Transfusions 2.1 Atoms, Ions, and Molecules

2 In the 1800’s human blood was being used for blood transfusions (earlier animal blood was used)
Results were very unpredictable Some people were cured But many were killed The success rate was so poor, many nations banned transfusions

3 Karl Landsteiner: Began investigating why some blood transfusions work, and some do not In 1900, he determined that blood was of differing types and that only certain combinations of them were compatible By 1910, the identification of the ABO blood antigen gen explained the observed blood type incompatibilities

4 Blood Transfusions (2m8s)

5 Antigens and Antibodies
Agglutination: the clumping of red blood cells resulting from a transfusion reaction May result in death Symptoms Anxiety Breathing difficulty Facial flushing Headache Severe pain in head/neck/back RBCs burst Jaundice Kidneys fail resulting in death

6 Agglutination

7 Antigens: RBC surface molecules
Antibodies: proteins carried in the blood’s plasma Called “anti” because they are “against” specific antigens Avoiding the mixture of certain kinds of antigens and antibodies prevents agglutination

8 ABO Blood Group ABO Blood Group: Based on the presence or absence of two major antigens on red blood cell membranes antigen A antigen B

9 Type A Blood Contains: Antigen A Anti-B Antibody
Will clot in the presence of Anti-A Antibody

10 Type B Blood Contains: Antigen B Anti-A Antibody
Will clot in the presence of Anti-B Antibody

11 Type AB Blood Contains: Antigen A Antigen B No Antibodies
Will clot in the presence of Anti-A or Anti-B Antibody

12 Type O Blood Contains: No Antigens Anti-A Antibody Anti-B Antibody
Will not clot in the presence of Anti-A or Anti-B Antibody

13 Blood Types: Antigens and Antibodies

14 ABO Blood Group

15 Universal Donor: If a blood type lacks antigens, it can theoretically be transfused into persons with any other type of blood Which type of blood is considered the “universal donor”? Type O Universal Recipient: If a blood type lacks antibodies, it can theoretically receive blood from any other type of blood Which type of blood is considered the “recipient”? Type AB BUT…It is always best to use donor blood of the same type for transfusions!!!!!

16 Blood Types for Transfusion

17 Rh Blood Group Rh positive: presence of antigen D or and other Rh antigens on the red blood cell membranes Can receive Rh+ or Rh- blood Rh negative: lack of antigen D or Rh antigens Can only receive Rh- blood



20 Erythroblastosis Fetalis: A condition when an Rh- woman is pregnant with an Rh+ fetus
First pregnancy might be uneventful At birth- infants blood may mix with mothers causing her to produce anti-Rh antibodies Second Rh+ pregnancy: mother’s anti-Rh antibodies may attack fetal red cells causing possible miscarriage, brain damage, or death

21 The Blood Typing Game Or Google: Nobel Prize Blood Typing Game

22 Blood Typing Lab Objective: The students will determine the ABO/Rh antigens present in unknown blood samples and learn the importance of blood types and blood typing to transfusions and the immune response Problem: Mr. Walker is brought into the emergency room after a car accident. He is in need of a blood transfusion. He has type A blood. There are four donors available. Based on the antigens and antibodies in the blood for Mr. Walker and the donors, determine from whom Mr. Walker can safely receive a transfusion.

23 Blood Typing Lab Directions
Follow the directions on your Procedure paper for each of the two lab activities. Use the Ward’s Blood Typing Poster to help you analyze your results

24 Type A Blood: (Antigen A)
Anti-A: agglutination (+) Anti-B: no agglutination (-) Type B Blood (Antigen B) Anti-A: no agglutination (+) Anti-B: agglutination (-) Type AB Blood: (Antigen A &B) Anti-A: agglutination (+) Anti-B: agglutination (-) Type O Blood: No Antigens Anti-A: no agglutination (+) Anti-B: no agglutination (-)

25 Rh Factor: Antigen D or Rh Antigens
Anti-Rh: Rh+:agglutination Rh-: no agglutination

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