2Objectives Define common terms associated with reproduction Label reproductive organs and describe their functionCompare estrous cycles and gestation of different speciesList stages of development from conception to parturitionDescribe signs of parturition and dystociaDescribe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologies
3A. Define common terms associated with reproduction Pregnancy -- carrying a fetusFertilization -- the union of the EGG and SPERM nucleiConception - occurrence of fertilizationOvulation - release of an ovule from the female.Gestation - the time from fertilization or conception of a female until she gives birth
4A. Define common terms associated with reproduction Ovaries - FEMALE reproductive gland in which eggs are formed and hormones are produced.Egg or Ovule- Female Reproductive CellTestes - MALE reproductive gland that produces sperm and testosterone.Sperm- Male Reproductive CellSemen- Fluid that carries sperm
5Female Reproductive Organs B. Label reproductive organs and describe their functionFemale Reproductive Organs
6Function of Female Reproductive Organs B. Label reproductive organs and describe their functionFunction of Female Reproductive OrgansVulva -opening of reproductive tractVagina - channel for birth and copulationCervix - divides vagina and uterusUterus - provides nourishment for fetusHorns of Uterus - where fetus growsFallopian Tube - where fertilization occursOvaries - produces eggs and hormones
7Male Reproductive Organs B. Label reproductive organs and describe their functionMale Reproductive Organs
8Function of Male Reproductive Organs B. Label reproductive organs and describe their functionFunction of Male Reproductive OrgansTestes - produce sperm and testosteroneEpididymis - collects and stores spermVas deferens - transports spermPenis - places sperm in femaleCowper's GlandProstate Gland produce semenSeminal VesicleScrotum - protects testes & maintains temp.Sheath - opening of reproductive tract
9Length of Estrus (heat) C. Compare estrous cycles and gestation of different speciesEstrous Cycle-Time between periods of estrus, or “heat”-often influenced by of hours of light in the daySpeciesEstrous CycleLength of Estrus (heat)OvulationCow2112-18 hours10-14 hours after estrusMare226-8 days1-2 days before estrus endsDoe (goat)30-40 hoursAt end of estrusDoe (rabbit)Constant8-10 hours after matingSow20-2140-72 hoursMid estrusEwe1724-36 hoursLate estrusDog-9 days1-2 days after estrus beginsCat14-215 days24 after mating
10C. Compare estrous cycles and gestation of different species 1. Estrus- also known as “heat.” The period of time when female is receptive to male and conception can occur.-Hormone: Estrogen2. Metestrus- Follows estrus. Usually when ovulation occurs.-Hormone: LH (leutenizing hormone)3. Diestrus- Period of cycle whensystem assumes pregnancy.-Hormone: ProgesteroneProestrus- If not pregnant, prepares body for Estrus-Progesterone drops1-Estrus2-Metestrus4-Proestrus3- Diestrus
11Gestation Length of PREGNANCY. C. Compare estrous cycles and gestation of different speciesGestationLength of PREGNANCY.Begins with FERTILIZATION and ends with PARTURITION (BIRTH).All animals have different gestation lengths. Usually the LARGER the animal, the LONGER the gestation.
12Cattle Gestation- 283 days or 9 Months C. Compare estrous cycles and gestation of different speciesCattleGestation- 283 days or 9 MonthsBreeding Season- Dairy: Year round Beef: Summer-fallCycle: Year round, every 21 days
13Sheep & Goats Gestation: 145-150 days or 5 months C. Compare estrous cycles and gestation of different speciesSheep & GoatsGestation: days or 5 monthsBreeding Season- Fall (dairy goats year round)Cycle: Late fall when days get short“Short day breeders”
14Swine Gestation- 115 days Breeding Season- year round C. Compare estrous cycles and gestation of different speciesSwineGestation- 115 daysOR 3 months, 3 weeks, 3 daysBreeding Season- year roundCycle- Year round every 21 days
15Horses Gestation- 336 days or 11 months Breeding Season- Spring C. Compare estrous cycles and gestation of different speciesHorsesGestation- 336 days or 11 monthsBreeding Season- SpringCycle- Spring/Summer when days are long“Long day breeders”
16Rabbits Gestation- 30 days Breeding Season- Year round C. Compare estrous cycles and gestation of different speciesRabbitsGestation- 30 daysBreeding Season- Year roundCycle- Constantly, year round
17Chickens Gestation- 21 days Breeding Season- Year round or spring C. Compare estrous cycles and gestation of different speciesChickensGestation- 21 daysBreeding Season- Year round or springCycle- Year round, but more productive when days are long
18D. List stages of development from conception to parturition 3 periods of development from pregnancy to birth- Zygote- A cell formed by union of egg and sperm- Embryo- Organism in early stages of development- Fetus- Unborn animal in late stages of development
19Stages of Development Fetus Embryo Newborn Calf Zygote D. List stages of development from conception to parturitionStages of DevelopmentFetusEmbryoNewborn CalfZygote
20E. Describe signs of parturition and dystocia Parturition- The act of giving birthSigns:-Milk develops in udder-Abdomen drops-Nesting-Restlessness or pacing-Abdomen muscles contract (watch for young!)
21Stages of Parturition Stage 1 - Preparatory Stage (Labor) E. Describe signs of parturition and dystociaStages of ParturitionStage 1 - Preparatory Stage (Labor)Stage 2 – Delivery of FetusStage 3 - Expulsion of the placentaStage 4 - Period of RestVideo
22Dystocia- Difficulty giving birth E. Describe signs of parturition and dystociaDystocia- Difficulty giving birthCauses:-Presentation-Oversized fetus-Multiple births-Exhaustion, uterine contractions stopSolutions: Call vet or assist yourself-Cesarean Section (c-section)-Assist manually
23Presentation (position the fetus is coming out) E. Describe signs of parturition and dystociaPresentation (position the fetus is coming out)Upside down & BackwardBreechNormalHead BackLeg Back
24F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologies Reproductive TechnologyAny method of reproduction that is different from natural methods
251-Artificial Insemination F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologies1-Artificial Inseminationplacing sperm into the female reproductive tract by means other than natural mating
26Steps of Artificial Insemination F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologiesSteps of Artificial Insemination1- Collect & Store Semen-Collect Semen-Extend sample and place in straws-Store in liquid nitrogen
27Steps of Artificial Insemination F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologiesSteps of Artificial Insemination2- Inject semen into female reproductive tract at the right stage of estrus
28Advantages of A.I. Wider selection and use of outstanding sires F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologiesAdvantages of A.I.Wider selection and use of outstanding siresExample - one bull if used for natural reproduction could have calves per year for 8-9 years = calves; one bull used to A.I. Could produce over 100,000 calves.
29Advantages of A.I. Rapid Genetic and herd improvement F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologiesAdvantages of A.I.Rapid Genetic and herd improvementCan overcome physical barriers to matingexample - behavior or injuriesDanger of the bull is eliminatedElimination of cost of purchasing and keeping a bull
30Disadvantages of A.I. Skilled technicians are required F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologiesDisadvantages of A.I.Skilled technicians are requiredCloser supervision of female is required
31Synchronized Ovulation F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologiesSynchronized Ovulationthe process of causing a herd of cows or heifers to come into estrus and ovulate at or near the same timeMethods:-Prostoglandin F2a -- hormone which can be used to synchronize estrusExamples: Brand Names -- Lutalyse, Esrumate, Bovilene, Synchro-Mate B
32F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologies Embryo TransferThe transfer of FERTILIZED egg(s) from a DONOR female to one or more RECIPIENT females
33“Scamper” First Million Dollar Cowgirl, 1990 Most Professional Rodeo F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologies“Scamper”First Million Dollar Cowgirl, 1990Most Professional Rodeo11 Consecutive Barrel Racing ChampionshipsFirst WPRA Member listed in Guinness Book of World Records, 1987&92WPRA Record Most NFR Qualifications, 19 (consecutive)All won on her beloved horse, “Scamper”Few people involved in the horse industry haven't heard the legendary story of Gill's Bay Boy, affectionately known as "Scamper," and his jockey and partner Charmayne James who together set the world of pro rodeo on fire beginning in Scamper came to Charmayne as an untrained young prospect with a renegade reputation and was best known in those days for bucking off ranch cowboys. At the tender age of 14 Charmayne did the inconceivable. She trained and cared for Scamper and in the process revealed the limitless potential concealed beneath his common exterior. With dedication and careful attention to conditioning Charmayne produced an equine legend whose historical achievements will not soon if ever be duplicated. The young horsewoman was herself a prodigy honing her training skills to take Scamper from the anonymity of the feedlot to the spotlight of the rodeo arena. The two inevitably raced to unforgettable performances in arenas from Houston to Las Vegas and most everywhere in between along the way. Scamper and Charmayne's list of accolades together are endless and include Scamper's induction into the PRCA Hall of Fame, as well as Charmayne's place in the National Cowgirl Hall of Fame, National Cowboy Hall of Fame, and Texas Cowboy Hall of Fame, among others.
34Is Cloning a NEW technology?? F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologiesCloningThe production of an exact GENETIC COPY of an organismIs Cloning a NEW technology??
35Cloning www.breedtoclayton.com F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologiesCloning
36F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologies Mule: Cloned at USU
37Sheep: Cloned in 1996 “Dolly” F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologiesSheep: Cloned in 1996 “Dolly”
38F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologies Clone a Ding DongCarefully hold the ding dong and remove the filling with the strawSuck the nucleus (cream) out of the donor cell and insert it into the egg cell (ding dong)Don’t break it open. Damaged cells won’t survive!
39Clone a Ding Dong Ding Dong= Donor Cell Ding Dong filling= F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologiesClone a Ding DongDing Dong= Donor CellDing Dong filling=Cup= cell of animal you want clonedColored Cream= Nucleus of animal to be cloned (genetic info)Straw=Pipette
40Clone a Ding Dong What does the ding dong represent? F. Describe the purpose and benefits of reproductive technologiesClone a Ding DongWhat does the ding dong represent?What does the cup represent?Why do we have to take the nucleus out of the ding dong first?What will the ding dong grow up to be? ( a cup or a ding dong? ) why?
41Bell Quiz What is the difference between “estrous” and “estrus?” How long is the gestation of a sheep or goat?How does daylight effect the estrous cycle of some animals?What is unique about a rabbit’s reproductive system that allows them to reproduce quickly?
42Bell Quiz What is the definition of dystocia? What does the word, parturition mean?Name 3 signs that could indicate that an animal will give birth soon.What purpose does the placenta serve in the growth and development of a fetus?What is a zygote?
43Bell QuizWhat reproductive technology is used to enhance the # of offspring a superior SIRE can haveWhat reproductive technology is used to enhance the # of offspring a superior DAM can haveWhat are 2 benefits of Artificial insemination?What are 2 disadvantages of Artificial Insemination?