2Table of Contents The Endocrine System The Male and Female Reproductive SystemsThe Human Life Cycle
3Functions of Endocrine Glands The Endocrine SystemFunctions of Endocrine GlandsThe endocrine glands include the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, thymus, and pancreas.
4Functions of Endocrine Glands The Endocrine SystemFunctions of Endocrine GlandsThe ovaries in females and testes in males are also endocrine glands.
5Functions of Endocrine Glands The Endocrine SystemFunctions of Endocrine GlandsThe pituitary gland communicates with the hypothalamus to control many body activities.
6The Endocrine SystemNegative FeedbackThrough negative feedback, when the amount of a particular hormone in the blood reaches a certain level, the endocrine system sends signals that stop the release of that hormone.
7Negative Feedback Activity The Endocrine SystemNegative Feedback ActivityClick the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about negative feedback.Web Code : cep-4071
8Relating Cause and Effect The Endocrine SystemRelating Cause and EffectAs you read, identify the effects of pituitary hormones. Write them in a graphic organizer like the one below.EffectsActivate other glandsCauseRegulate growthPituitary hormonesRegulate water balanceRegulate blood pressure
9Male Reproductive System The Male and Female Reproductive SystemsMale Reproductive SystemThe male reproductive system is specialized to produce sperm and the hormone testosterone. The structures of the male reproductive system include the testes, scrotum, and penis.
10Female Reproductive System The Male and Female Reproductive SystemsFemale Reproductive SystemThe role of the female reproductive system is to produce eggs and, if an egg is fertilized, to nourish a developing baby until birth. The organs of the female reproductive system include the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina.
11The Male and Female Reproductive Systems The Menstrual CycleDuring the menstrual cycle, an egg develops in an ovary. At the same time, the uterus prepares for the arrival of an embryo.
12The Male and Female Reproductive Systems SequencingAs you read, make a cycle diagram like the one below that shows the menstrual cycle. Write each event of the process in a separate circle.The Menstrual CycleDays 1–4 Menstrual dischargeDays 23–28Egg enters uterusDays 5–13 Developing eggDays 16–22Egg moves through oviductDays 14–15 Ovulation
13End of Section: The Male and Female Reproductive Systems
14Protection and Nourishment The HumanLife CycleProtection and NourishmentThe membranes and other structures that form during development protect and nourish the developing embryo, and later the fetus.
15The HumanLife CycleBirthThere are two types of twins: identical twins and fraternal twins.
16The HumanLife CycleBuilding VocabularyAfter you read section 3, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write a sentence using each Key Term.Key Terms:Examples:umbilical cordadolescencepubertyKey Terms:Examples:embryoA ropelike structure called the umbilical cord forms between the fetus and the placenta.Until the ninth week of pregnancy, the developing baby is called an embryo.fetusThe stage of development during which children become adults physically and mentally is called adolescence.From the ninth week of development until birth, the developing human is called a fetus.amniotic sacOne membrane surrounds the embryo and develops into a fluid-filled sac called the amniotic sac.Puberty is the period of sexual development in which the body becomes able to reproduce.placentaThe placenta is the link between the embryo and the mother.
17Click the SciLinks button for links on before birth. The HumanLife CycleLinks on Before BirthClick the SciLinks button for links on before birth.Web code: scn-0473
18Growth and Development The HumanLife CycleGrowth and DevelopmentClick the Video button to watch a movie about growth and development.