B RIEF O VERVIEW Requirements Terminology Safety Reporting
T RAINING R EQUIREMENTS Initial Training on Radiation Safety. “Radiation Safety Guide for Users of Radiation Producing Devices” Yes there is a Test RPD or Radiation Source Specific Training. Given by a RSO approved Trainer Annual refresher on Radiation Safety.
T RAINING Is required of all persons who work with radiation producing devices or radiation sources. All workers, student and worker who may be exposed the radiation are required to complete annual training. The training is done on an academic calendar schedule.
S IGNAGE All areas that contain Radiation Producing and/or Radioactive material must have signage to indicate the level activity present. Signage is available from the RSO.
S IGNAGE L OCATION Should be posted at each entrance to the lab and within the work area.
E MPLOYEE N OTIFICATION A “Notice to Employees” must be displayed in all areas that may contain radiation. Available from RSO.
U NAUTHORIZED S IGNAGE Only Areas that contain or may contain radiation are to have signage. They are not to be use in any other way. Please report any misuse of signage.
ALARA Basic principle to follow whenever working with radioactive material. All exposures should be As-Low-As-Reasonably-Achievable.
R ADIOACIVITY Refers to the process by which nuclei spontaneously decay or disintegrate by one or more energy steps until a stable state is reached.
R ADIATION U NITS Are specified for activity, absorbed dose, dose equivalent and exposure.
A CTIVITY Normally expressed in units of Curies (millicurie or microcurie). 1 Curie is equal to 3.7 X 10 (10) disintegrations/sec. 1 Becquerel equals 1 disintegrations/sec
U NITS OF R ADIATION D OSE A Rad is equal to an absorbed dose of 0.01 joule/kg. A Rem is equal to the absorbed dose in rads multiplied by the quality factor. 1Rem is equal to 0.01 Sievert.
E XPOSURE Expressed in Roentgen (R).1R is equal to 2.58 X 10(-4) Coulomb/Kg(-1). Exposures at MSU are generally measured in microR (uR). This is a very low level. In terms of exposure it is insignificant.
I ONIZING R ADIATION Radiation capable of displacing electrons from atoms or molecules producing ions. Alpha Beta Gamma
N ON -I ONIZING R ADIATION Not enough energy to displace an electron but cause damage through thermal energy. Radiowaves Microwaves Visible Light (Laser pointers)
B ACKGROUND R ADIATION The average American receives 240-500 millirems of radiation from all background sources.
W ORK A REA S URVEYS Following the use of unsealed sources the work area must be surveyed for possible contamination and cleaned as needed.
R EGULATORY D OSE L IMITS Radiation Worker Whole body-5rem/yr Extremities-50rem/yr Skin-50rem/yr Organs-50rem/yr Lens-15rem/yr Non Radiation Worker Fetus-0.5rem Public-0.1/yr Declared Pregnant Rad Worker Fetus-0.5rem
A CUTE E XPOSURE Absorption of a relatively large amount of radiation over a short period of time. Seen in early radiologists, atomic bomb survivors, people near Chernobyl and certain medical treatments.
C HRONIC E XPOSURE Absorption of radiation over a long period of time.
B IOEFFECTS May be prompt and appear quickly or delayed which may take years to appear.
G ENETIC E FFECTS May be somatic which damages genetic material in the cell and may lead to cancer or heritable changes which are passed on to offspring.
R ADIATION D AMAGE Is more likely in rapidly dividing cells such as: Blood forming cells Intestinal lining Hair follicles fetus
R ADON A problem in the Minnesota Valley area. MSU Radon Project http://www.mnsu.edu/radon/
P RENATAL E XPOSURE Very hazardous because the rapidly dividing cells are very radiosensitive. Potential adverse effects include low birth weight, retardation and increased risk of cancer.
D OSIMETRY Quarterly dosimetry is used for persons who work with x-ray units and certain isotopes. Labs that use C14 or Tritium are not issued dosimetry, the energy is too low to be detected.
L AB S ECURITY Make sure your lab is locked at all times when no one is present. If the area is a shared space than all persons using that space must have Radiation Safety Training.
B ASIC P ROTECTION G UIDELINES Time-limit your time around radiation. Distance-stay as far away as possible. Shielding-use shielding whenever possible. Do not modify or disable any device safety features.
MSU,M D OCUMENTS /F ORMS Radiation Protection Manual. Initial Training and Annual Refresher. RPU and Radioactive Material Self-Audit Checklist. Radiation Safety Guide For Users of Radiation Producing devices.
R EQUIRED L ABORATORY D OCUMENTATION RPD Logbooks. RPD Training records. RPD Operating Procedures (Start-up & Shut- Down). Complete inventory of radioactive material in area. Emergency Contact.
D OCUMENTATION ON FILE IN RSO Up to date experiment procedures. Users training experience form. Dosimetry records.
G OVERNING R ULES AND R EGULATIONS Minnesota Rules 4731: Radioactive Materials Minnesota Rules 4732: X-Ray Ionizing Radiation NRC 10 CFR Part 20: Standards for Protection against Radiation ANSI Z136.1: American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers OSHA: 29 CFR 1910 Subpart G: Occupational Health and Environmental Control
M N D O H I NSPECTION The Minnesota Department of Health does unannounced inspections. The last inspection was in 2006. We are due.