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C HILD C ARE & D EVELOPMENT Chapter 5 Prenatal Care & Childbirth.

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Presentation on theme: "C HILD C ARE & D EVELOPMENT Chapter 5 Prenatal Care & Childbirth."— Presentation transcript:

1 C HILD C ARE & D EVELOPMENT Chapter 5 Prenatal Care & Childbirth

2 S IGNS OF P REGNANCY Presumptive Signs – could be cause of pregnancy or something else (often menstruation) Amenorrhea – delay (10 or more days) in the menstrual cycle Nausea – present in 1/2 to 2/3 of all pregnancies, usually happens at the same time daily from Week 4 – Week 12 Frequency of Urination – the growing uterus puts pressure on the bladder; also due to hormones Swelling/tenderness of Breast – often the first sign a woman notes Other signs: Tiredness, skin discoloration, backache, groin pain, leg cramps, dizziness

3 S IGNS OF P REGNANCY Positive Signs – definitely caused by pregnancy HCG – hormone found in blood and urine of pregnant women; detected as early as first two weeks of pregnancy Fetal Heartbeat – heard through a Doppler at 12 Weeks and a stethoscope at 16 Weeks Fetal Movement – Begins at 11 Weeks, not felt until around Weeks Fetal Image – through ultrasound Fetal Shape – may be felt through abdominal wall Uterine contractions – painless; a doctor may notice during routine exams

4 M EDICAL C ARE Obstetrician – doctor who specializes in pregnancy and childbirth The First Appointment – the doctor will: Gather general health info from both parents Ask details of the woman’s menstrual cycle and past pregnancies Physical exam of mother-to-be Urine and/or blood test Estimate due date (40 weeks after beginning of last menstrual cycle) Make next appointment

5 M EDICAL C ARE Doctor visits: First six months – once a month Seventh and eighth month – twice a month Ninth month – at least once a week

6 Factors That Affect the Baby’s Health High Risk Mothers-to-be Age – women over 36 tend to have babies with more health problems, disabilities and disorders; teens tend to have babies who are premature, have low birthweight, disabilities, or are born dead Low birthweight – babies who weigh less than 5 ½ lbs. Rh factor – only a factor when the mother is Rh negative; baby may develop Rh disease that destroys its red blood cells Emotional stability – when the mother is stressed, the adrenaline crosses the placenta to the baby, carrying stress signals; long lasting, severe, frequent stress may result in a difficult delivery or a baby who is smaller, fussy, or quite active

7 Health Habits During Pregnancy Good nutrition is vital for: Mother’s weight Baby’s weight gain Baby’s growth Baby’s mental capacity Baby’s physical performance By Week 12, the baby completely depends on the mother for food Pregnant teens under 17 years of age have more nutritional problems because they are still growing themselves

8 Health Habits During Pregnancy Diets for pregnant women include: Calcium Iron Folic acid Protein At least eight 8 oz. glasses of water Limited caffeine (no more than one cup of coffee; in tea, soft drinks, and chocolate as well) Suggested weight gain is between 25 and 35 lbs. Women need to eat 300 extra calories starting in the fourth month

9 Health Habits During Pregnancy Mothers-to-be should get eight to nine hours of sleep, with at least one minute rest period Never take drugs, even over-the-counter medicines, unless doctor prescribes Continue physical activity within normal limits, avoiding contact sports

10 Illnesses in the Mother Gestational Diabetes – appears in pregnant women who did not have diabetes prior to pregnancy; usually goes away soon after pregnancy Women with gestational diabetes usually have larger babies (10-12 lbs.) Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (preeclampsia or toxemia) – sudden increase in blood pressure, protein in urine, and swelling; happens late in pregnancy Treatment includes bed rest, medicine, or early delivery of the baby

11 Drugs Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) – happens when mothers drink heavily during pregnancy; babies are shorter, weigh less, have slow growth and development Nicotine – reduces baby’s oxygen, can cause brain to develop abnormally; babies are smaller than average or premature; could result in miscarriage Illegal drugs – cross the placenta quickly and reach the baby; babies have low birthweight or are born premature; may be born addicted and have to go through withdrawal

12 Complications of Pregnancy Miscarriage – the expulsion of the baby before Week 20, most common in the first three months; also called spontaneous abortion Stillbirth – the loss of a fetus after 20 Weeks of pregnancy; the baby is born dead About 1/3 of all pregnancies end in the loss of a baby See p for other complications of pregnancy

13 Monitoring the Baby’s Development Ultrasound – sound waves bounce off the fetus to produce an image of the fetus inside the womb Sonogram – the picture of the fetus that ultrasound produces Chorionic Villus Sampling – test done between Weeks 8 and 12 to detect serious problems with the fetus Amniocentesis – test done between Weeks 14 and 16 to check for multiple congenital problems CVS and Amnios are not routine procedures; only done when problems are suspected

14 Decisions Concerning Childbirth Home vs. hospital delivery Method of delivery Natural childbirth – no drugs Lamaze – breathing techniques Sedation – drugs administered by IV Anesthesia – includes Epidural Leboyer – comfort of baby the focus

15 The Last Weeks of Pregnancy Labor – the process that moves the baby out of the mother’s body Signs of Labor Increased adrenaline/energy Mucous plug in cervix becomes loose (bloody show) Amniotic sac breaks; may also break after labor has begun Contractions – the length and strength gradually increases throughout labor; once contractions start, the mother should not eat or drink False labor – irregular contractions prior to true labor; also called Braxton-Hicks contractions

16 The Last Weeks of Pregnancy Lightening – the change in the baby’s position; lower in the pelvis, head toward birth canal Breech – the baby is in butt-first position; 2% of births Stages of Labor Dilation/opening of cervix Delivery of Baby Delivery of Placenta See p for complications of delivery

17 The Last Weeks of Pregnancy Version – the doctor manually rotates the baby’s position Oxytocin/Pitocin – drugs used to speed up labor by causing contractions to start and/or stregthen Forceps – curved instrument that fits around baby’s head to ease baby down birth canal during contractions Vacuum Extraction – a suction is used to gently pull the baby down the birth canal Cesarean Section – abdomen and uterus are surgically opened and baby removed

18 Hospital Care Birthing Room – homelike delivery room in hospital; furnished like a bedroom, used for labor, delivery, and recovery Rooming-in – baby stays in mother’s hospital room as much as possible Mother and baby home within 24 to 48 hours, unless C-section or other complications Nurses on duty in the nursery at all times Some restrictions on visitors, including young children, brothers and sisters

19 Postpartum Care Postpartum care – the care the mother receives during the six to eight weeks after delivery Eat a nutritious diet, especially if breastfeeding Rest Slowly get back into exercise Use support system Postpartum Mood Disorders Baby Blues – mild; 40-85% of all deliveries Postpartum Depression – 10-15% of all deliveries; % in teens Postpartum Psychosis – 0.1% of all deliveries; severe mental illness


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