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1. If you damage one system, you may damage several like smoking which irritates the lungs and also destroys the cells of the immune system Ardi Rizal.

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Presentation on theme: "1. If you damage one system, you may damage several like smoking which irritates the lungs and also destroys the cells of the immune system Ardi Rizal."— Presentation transcript:

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2 If you damage one system, you may damage several like smoking which irritates the lungs and also destroys the cells of the immune system Ardi Rizal 2 years old Musi Banyuasin, Indonesia May

3 If you get excited, the nervous system works with the circulatory system by increasing your heart rate. 3

4 AIDS destroys the Immune System As a result you may get: 1. pneumonia (respiratory ), 2.yeast infection (reproductive ), 3.Candida affecting esophagus (digestive) 4. Kaposi’s sarcoma (integumentary). 4

5 How does the body get the systems to work together? To answer this question, we need to recall the organizational structure of multicellular organisms. 5

6 Levels Of Organization ATOMS CELLS TISSUES ORGANS ORGAN SYSTEM ORGANISM 6

7 The Human Body has 4 Main Types of Tissues 7

8 A group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions. 8

9 A group of organs that work together to perform a single function. 9

10 There are 11 organ systems in the human body 1. Integumentary System 2. Skeletal System 3. Muscular System 4. Nervous System 5. Endocrine System 6. Cardiovascular System 7. Lymphatic & Immune System 8. Respiratory System 9. Digestive System 10. Urinary System 11. Reproductive System 10

11 Your skeleton has five major functions. It provides shape and support Enables you to move Protects your internal organs Produces blood cells Stores certain materials until your body needs them 11

12 Major Organs of the Skeletal System Bones Tendons connect bones to muscles. Ligaments connect bone to bone. Cartilage cushions places where bones connect and offers flexibility. 12

13 Your muscles control all movements of the body tissues, organs and bones. 13

14 Your body has three types of Muscle tissue. skeletal muscle smooth muscle cardiac muscle 14

15 The main functions is to transport Oxygen Nutrients Waste throughout the body 15

16 The main parts of the Circulatory System are: Heart Blood Vessels Blood 16

17 Your respiratory system moves oxygen from the outside environment into your body. It also removes carbon dioxide and water from your body. 17

18 Nose Mouth Trachea Lungs Diaphragm 18

19 The main functions of the digestive system Breaks down food into molecules the body can absorb. Passes these molecules into the blood to be carried throughout the body. Eliminates solid wastes from the body. 19

20 The Main Parts of the Digestive System are: 20

21 Your excretory system collects wastes produced by cells and removes these wastes from your body. The removal process is known as excretion. Each kidney is about 4 ½ inches long Weight is 4 – 6 ounces The urine output varies from 1 to 2 liters per day. 21

22 The Main Parts of the Excretory System 22

23 Your Skin has many important functions: Covers body and prevents water loss. Protects body from injury and infection. Helps regulate body temperature. Eliminate wastes Gathers information about the environment Produces Vitamin D 23

24 Skin Hair Nails 24

25 It’s role is to protect you from foreign invaders. Special cells react to each kind of pathogen with defensive tactics targeted specifically at that type of pathogen. A pathogen is a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease. 25

26 White blood cells that target specific pathogens are called lymphocytes. T-cells and B-cells are two major types of lymphocytes. Each type has a specific job. T- Cells B- Cells 26

27 Antibodies are special proteins that recognize and defeat invading pathogens. Antibodies are made by the B-cells. Once a pathogen is encountered by the B-cells it memorizes it and next time it encounters the pathogen it will have antibodies ready to fight the pathogen. 27

28 An antigen is any substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an antibody immune response. Antigens include:  Toxins  Bacteria  Foreign blood cells  Cells of transplanted organs. 28

29 Antigen – Antibody Diagrams 29 Each antibody binds to a specific antigen by way of an interaction similar to the fit between a lock and a key of enzyme activity.

30 Immunity is a state in which the body has sufficient defenses to fight infection, disease or invasion by pathogens. Non- Specific Immunity refers to the defenses that are in place at all times and are not specific to the pathogen to which the system is responding. Skin, mucous membranes, hairs in nose and ears, enzymes in mouth and tears in eyes. 30

31 Specific Immunity is a specific antibody response to the pathogen and has been acquired in one of several ways. Antibodies were transferred from mother to fetus across the placenta. Antibodies were transferred through breast milk from mother to child. Antibodies were built up due to prior exposure to the pathogen. Antibodies were built up through a vaccination process. 31

32 Most vaccines contain a little bit of a disease germ that is weak or dead. Vaccines DO NOT contain the type of germ that makes you sick. Having this little bit of the germ inside your body makes your body's immune system build antibodies to it. Vaccines can be administered by a needle, mouth and some thorough a nasal spray. In the US children are vaccinated before they can enter school for: Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Diphtheria, and Tetanus 32

33 The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage network that helps keep bodily fluid levels in balance and defends the body against infections. It filters out organisms that cause disease, produces certain white blood cells and generates antibodies. 33

34 It is made up of a network of lymphatic vessels that carry lymph — a clear, watery fluid that contains protein molecules, salts, glucose, urea, and other substances — throughout the body. It works closely with the immune system and the circulatory system. The Spleen stores many of the white blood cells needed for the immune response. 34

35 Regents Practice Question A pathogen passing from a mother to her fetus could cause (1) a decrease in the chromosome number of the fetus (2) an increase in milk production in the mother (3) gamete production to increase (4) an infection in the fetus 35

36 Regents Practice Question A pathogen passing from a mother to her fetus could cause (1) a decrease in the chromosome number of the fetus (2) an increase in milk production in the mother (3) gamete production to increase (4) an infection in the fetus 36

37 Regents Practice Question It is recommended that people at risk for serious flu complications be vaccinated so that their bodies will produce (1) antigens to fight the flu virus (2) antibodies against the flu virus (3) toxins to fight the infection caused by the flu virus (4) antibiotics to reduce symptoms caused by the flu virus 37

38 Regents Practice Question It is recommended that people at risk for serious flu complications be vaccinated so that their bodies will produce (1) antigens to fight the flu virus (2) antibodies against the flu virus (3) toxins to fight the infection caused by the flu virus (4) antibiotics to reduce symptoms caused by the flu virus 38

39 1. The endocrine system is a collection of ductless glands that secrete special proteins called hormones. 2. The glands release the hormones into the bloodstream and they travel to the target cells or organs. 3. The main function of the endocrine system is to maintain a stable environment within the body or homeostasis. 4. The hormones also help the body to regulate:  Growth  Sexual development  Metabolism  Sugar, salt and fluid levels in the blood 39

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41 41 GlandHormone ProducedEffects HypothalamusAntidiuretic hormoneActs on the kidney to regulate fluid balance Pituitary9 different hormonesGrowth and regulates other glands ThyroidThyroxineMetabolism PancreasInsulin & glucagonBlood sugar AdrenalEpinephrineHeart rate & blood pressure TestesTestosteroneSperm & male characteristics OvariesEstrogen & progesteroneEggs & female characteristics

42 The diagram below shows how a chemical message produced by one cell is received by other cells. If these chemical messages are destroyed, the target cells will (1) produce their own chemical messages (2) not respond with appropriate actions (3) develop different receptors (4) no longer be produced in the organism 42

43 The diagram below shows how a chemical message produced by one cell is received by other cells. If these chemical messages are destroyed, the target cells will (1) produce their own chemical messages (2) not respond with appropriate actions (3) develop different receptors (4) no longer be produced in the organism 43

44 Feedback Mechanisms  Homeostasis is maintained by the endocrine system through the use of various feedback mechanisms.  A feedback mechanism is in use when the biological reaction is actually being controlled by the end products of that reaction.  Negative feedback loop are most common. original stimulus reversed most feedback systems in the body are negative used for conditions that need frequent adjustment 44

45 Receptor Structures that monitor a controlled condition and detect changes. Control center Determines next action. Effector Receives directions from the control center produces a response that restores the controlled condition. 45

46 Thermostat detects a temperature lower than the desired value. Thermostat detects a temperature higher than the desired value. Furnace Turns On Furnace Turns Off 46

47 Brain senses a drop in body temperature Brain detects increase in body temperature Impulses sent to muscles to begin shivering Impulses sent to muscles to stop shivering 47

48 48 Activities in the human body are represented in the diagram Which title would be appropriate for the diagram? (1)Rate of Excretion Varies in Response to Intake of Water (2) Feedback Mechanisms Help to Maintain Homeostasis (3) Respiratory Rate Responds to an Increase in Muscle Activity (4) The Nervous System Responds to Changes in Blood Sugar Levels

49 49 Activities in the human body are represented in the diagram Which title would be appropriate for the diagram? (1)Rate of Excretion Varies in Response to Intake of Water (2) Feedback Mechanisms Help to Maintain Homeostasis (3) Respiratory Rate Responds to an Increase in Muscle Activity (4) The Nervous System Responds to Changes in Blood Sugar Levels

50 50 1.What happens to a person’s blood glucose level after eating? 2.What 2 hormones does the pancreas secrete? 3.Which hormone lowers glucose levels? 4. Which hormone raises glucose levels?

51 51 The function of the human nervous system is to control and coordinate functions throughout the body. It does this by responding to internal and external stimuli. A stimulus is a signal from inside or outside the body that can be detected. A response is a signal sent to reply to the stimulus.

52 52 The basic unit of the nervous system is the Neuron. Messages are picked up from the environment or other neurons by the dendrites and are sent to the cell body; which contains most of the cytoplasm of the cell.

53 53 The neuron acts like an electric wire. Electrical impulses travel through the axon (wire). The axon is insulated by the Myelin sheath which prevents the impulse from leaving the neuron. Messages leave the neuron through the axon terminals where they are sent to other neurons.

54 54 The gaps between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another are called synapses.

55 55 As an electrical impulse travels to the axon of a neuron it stimulates the release of neurotransmitters. These are contained in small vesicles at the axon terminals. The neurotransmitter molecules move across the synapse and attach themselves to receptors on the membrane of the next neuron. A neurotransmitter is a chemical that carries messages between different nerve cells or between nerve cells and muscles.

56 56 Sensory Neurons Pick up stimuli from the outside environment or from inside the body. These are found in organs called receptors (skin, eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and glands.) They transmit the message to interneurons. Interneurons Receive messages from the sensory neurons and interpret them. They then decide where they should be sent. Motor Neurons Receive messages from interneurons and sends them to organs called effectors (muscles and glands).

57 57 REFLEX ARC

58 58 The Central Nervous System consists of the Brain and Spinal Cord. The Peripheral Nervous System consists of all the nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord

59 59 Central Nervous System

60 60 The Peripheral Nervous System

61 61

62 62 Gametes are reproductive cells that unite during sexual reproduction to form a new cell called a zygote. In humans, male gametes are sperm and female gametes are eggs or ovums. They contain ½ of the normal chromosome number for the species. Human gametes have 23 chromosomes. EGG SPERM

63 63 Gametes are made through a special type of cell division called meiosis. In humans, Meiosis occurs in the ovary of the female to produce egg cells and in the testicles of the male to produce sperm cells.

64 64 Metaphase Prophase

65 65 Crossing over is the exchange of segments between homologous chromosomes resulting in new combinations of genes. It provides for genetic variety in offspring.

66 66 Which statement concerning the reproductive cells in the diagram below is correct? (1) The cells are produced by mitosis and contain all the genetic information of the father. (2) If one of these cells fertilizes an egg, the offspring will be identical to the father. (3) Each of these cells contains only half the genetic information necessary for the formation of an offspring. (4) An egg fertilized by one of these cells will develop into a female with the same characteristics as the mother.

67 67 Which statement concerning the reproductive cells in the diagram below is correct? (1) The cells are produced by mitosis and contain all the genetic information of the father. (2) If one of these cells fertilizes an egg, the offspring will be identical to the father. (3) Each of these cells contains only half the genetic information necessary for the formation of an offspring. (4) An egg fertilized by one of these cells will develop into a female with the same characteristics as the mother.

68 68 The diagram below shows a process that affects chromosomes during meiosis. This process can be used to explain (1) why some offspring are genetically identical to their parents (2) the process of differentiation in offspring (3) why some offspring physically resemble their parents (4) the origin of new combinations of traits in offspring

69 69 The diagram below shows a process that affects chromosomes during meiosis. This process can be used to explain (1) why some offspring are genetically identical to their parents (2) the process of differentiation in offspring (3) why some offspring physically resemble their parents (4) the origin of new combinations of traits in offspring

70 70 The role of the female reproductive system is to produce eggs, and if an egg is fertilized, to nourish a developing baby until birth.

71 71 Can you name the parts of the female reproductive system?

72 72 Can you name the parts of the female reproductive system? 1. Vagina 2. Fallopian tube 3. Ovary 4. Uterus

73 73 The role of the male reproductive system is to produce sperm. Sperm are tiny packages of chromosomes that can swim to fertilize the egg, and the hormone testosterone, which controls the development of the male’s physical characteristics.

74 74 Can you name the parts of the male reproductive system?

75 75 Can you name the parts of the male reproductive system? 1. Penis 2. Testicle 3. Vas deferens

76 76 The diagram below represents the human male reproductive system. Which activity would be prevented by blockages at X and Y? (1) transport of urine out of the body (2) passage of testosterone to the female to stimulate egg production (3) movement of sperm out of the body (4) movement of testosterone to the testes to stimulate sperm production

77 77 The diagram below represents the human male reproductive system. Which activity would be prevented by blockages at X and Y? (1) transport of urine out of the body (2) passage of testosterone to the female to stimulate egg production (3) movement of sperm out of the body (4) movement of testosterone to the testes to stimulate sperm production

78 78 The diagram below represents a system in the human body The primary function of structure X is to (1) produce energy needed for sperm to move (2) provide food for the sperm to carry to the egg (3) produce and store urine (4) form gametes that may be involved in fertilization

79 79 The diagram below represents a system in the human body The primary function of structure X is to (1) produce energy needed for sperm to move (2) provide food for the sperm to carry to the egg (3) produce and store urine (4) form gametes that may be involved in fertilization

80 80 A sperm enters an egg, and the two nuclei combine to form a zygote with 46 chromosomes. This occurs in the fallopian tube or oviduct.

81 81 The diagram below shows stages of human reproduction. The direct result of fertilization is represented at (1) A (2) C(3) B (4) D

82 82 The diagram below shows stages of human reproduction. The direct result of fertilization is represented at (1) A (2) B(3) C (4) D

83 83 The fertilized egg, called a zygote undergoes cell division to produce a two-celled embryo. These cells divide again and again to form a ball of cells. This series of mitotic cell divisions is called cleavage.

84 84 Four days after fertilization, the embryo is a solid ball of about 50 cells called the morula.

85 85 As the embryo grows, a fluid filled cavity forms in the center turning the embryo into a hollow structure. It is now known as a blastula. It secretes enzymes that allow it to embed itself into the wall of the uterus. This is called implantation.

86 86

87 87 Some stages in the development of an organism are represented in the diagram below. Which levels of biological organization do stages 2 and 7 have in common? (1) cells and organs (2) tissues and organelles (3) cells and tissues (4) organelles and cells

88 88 Some stages in the development of an organism are represented in the diagram below. Which levels of biological organization do stages 2 and 7 have in common? (1) cells and organs (2) tissues and organelles (3) cells and tissues (4) organelles and cells

89 89 The diagram below represents a process that occurs during human reproduction. The process represented by the arrow will ensure that the (1) zygote contains a complete set of genetic information (2) gametes contain a complete set of genetic information (3) zygote contains half of the genetic information (4) gametes contain half of the genetic information

90 90 The diagram below represents a process that occurs during human reproduction. The process represented by the arrow will ensure that the (1) zygote contains a complete set of genetic information (2) gametes contain a complete set of genetic information (3) zygote contains half of the genetic information (4) gametes contain half of the genetic information

91 91 The human female reproductive system is represented in the diagram below. Production of gametes and support of the fetus normally occur in structures (1) 1 and 2 (2) 3 and 5 (3) 2 and 4 (4) 4 and 5

92 92 The human female reproductive system is represented in the diagram below. Production of gametes and support of the fetus normally occur in structures (1) 1 and 2 (2) 3 and 5 (3) 2 and 4 (4) 4 and 5

93 93 Sexual reproduction involves the processes listed below. Processes A. Differentiation B. Fertilization C. Gamete production D. Mitosis Which sequence represents the order in which these processes occur? (1) A → B → C → D (2) B → A → C → D (3) C → B → D → A (4) D → B → C → A

94 94 Sexual reproduction involves the processes listed below. Processes A. Differentiation B. Fertilization C. Gamete production D. Mitosis Which sequence represents the order in which these processes occur? (1) A → B → C → D (2) B → A → C → D (3) C → B → D → A (4) D → B → C → A

95 95 A dogfish shark contains 24 chromosomes in each of its muscle cells. How many chromosomes are normally found in each of its gametes? (1) 6 (2) 24(3) 12 (4) 48

96 96 A dogfish shark contains 24 chromosomes in each of its muscle cells. How many chromosomes are normally found in each of its gametes? (1) 6 (2) 24(3) 12 (4) 48


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