Presentation on theme: "Prenatal Care Labor and Delivery Mr. Van Saders Mr. Keith."— Presentation transcript:
Prenatal Care Labor and Delivery Mr. Van Saders Mr. Keith
Teen Pregnancy Misconceived Ideas corrected: Girl can get pregnant during her __________ _______(period) Girl (can – can not) get pregnant while having sexual intercourse standing or in a hot tub _____ can break during protected sexual intercourse. Woman can get pregnant while breast _______ Douching (will – will not) prevent pregnancy Babies born to teenagers are ____ times more at risk to die in the first year (crib death, etc) Risk of maternal death (mother dies) during pregnancy, birth, post delivery are ____ greater for teenagers
Fertilization Process Human reproduction usually begins with the physical act of sexual intercourse. How is this different from 100 years ago? Spontaneous generation just magically happened Homunculus man plants a perfect tiny human being inside the woman. ______ century it was scientifically verified the part sexual intercourse plays in human reproduction - combination of both the male and female genetics. ______ hugging, kissing, caressing to get the person sexually aroused - the male gets an erection and the female vagina lengthens, widens & moistens, Scene's Glands & Bartholin's Glands ________ when the man reaches orgasm he ejaculates up to 500 million sperm inside the woman, usually around the cervix. Within hours many sperm make their way into the woman’s body with only a few ______ make their way into the fallopian tubes. The female does not have an ejaculation, she may experience orgasm but not necessarily at the same time as the male. She does not release an ____ cell when she has an orgasm but she may become moist. If no egg is present in the fallopian tubes the sperm will _____ in a few days. If an egg is present in the _________ ______ fertilization may take place.
Fertilization Process Sperm surround the egg – releasing _______ to break down the protective cells surrounding the mature egg. Only the ______ of one sperm enters the egg. No other sperm may enter because the egg cell outer ________ changes sealing out all other sperm. The two nuclei combine – 23 chromosomes from the male and 23 from the woman combine to form __ pairs of chromosomes. Chromosomes are small thread-like structures in the nucleus of the cell that are made up of ______, carriers of hereditary traits, that determine which traits we inherit from our parents. Sex of the child: Egg has a ______ chromosome pattern gene Sperm has a ______ or ______ chromosome pattern gene ______ chromosome pattern will be a girl XY chromosome pattern will be a ________ The _________ determines the sex of the child
Development of a Human Being With in the first 36 hours the fertilized egg (zygote) cleaves (divides) forming two identical connected cells, 4 cells, 8 cells, 16 cells, until a hollow ball of cells is formed (blastula). Once the blastula is implanted in the uterus (1 to 2 weeks) it is called an embryo. This cleaving process will continue for the next 9 months. Super Structures: ______: looks like the yellow part in an egg – it provides nourishment for the embryo until the placenta is developed. ______holds the embryo to the _______ ____ and becomes the umbilical cord ___________ cord – rope like structure –width of your thumb, 14 to 36 inches long, & all nourishment and waste pass through this structure. It has no _________. Placenta – network of _______ ______ and other tissues which is attached to the wall of the uterus. It serves as a ________ point for all nourishment & waste. The blood of the mother and the fetus never _________. The blood vessels grow side by side & are not _______. Blood type of the fetus can be _________ from that of the mother.
Development of a Human Being - Terms Super Structures: Placenta – there is a space between mother and fetuses blood systems. ________ & ________ diffuses across this space. _______ Sac: fluid filled membrane that surrounds the growing embryo and fetus. Called the bag of water. Functions: controls temperature, provides room to grow and move, and protects the fetus from injury. __________: a fertilized egg (ovum) _________: A hollow ball a cells that divides as it travels to the uterus. It gets its nourishment from the blood enriched walls of the womb. _____________: implanted blastocyst in the uterus _______ :from the 10 th week until the birth and now looks like a tiny human being.
Development of a Human Being 1 st month; ¼th inch,1/1000 th oz. heart, lungs & spinal cord are forming. Heart beats on the ____ day. 2 nd month: 1/30 th oz, 1 to 1 &1/2 inches, limbs, eyes, milk teeth, ____ divisions of the ______, skin, all organs developing. 3 rd month: 1 oz and ___ inches in length, fingers, toes, open & close mouth, heart fully formed, movement can be felt, called a fetus 4 th month: 6 oz, _ inches, lanugo (______) forms over the body, swallowing and sucking reflexes, ___ identifiable, grab with hands, amniocentesis. 5 th month: 1 lb, 8 to10 inches, nails, scalp hair, heart =beat can be _____ with a stethoscope, skin is translucent. 6 th month: 12 inches, 2 lbs, kicks, _________ & ________, covered with vernix, mother can feel the fetus move freely. 7 th month:3 lbs, 14 to 16 inches, fat layer forms, hiccup, cry, and suck thumb, eyes are open, _________produced to prepare the lungs to breathe 8 th month: 18 inches, 5 lbs, extensive ________ growth, hair, kidneys mature. All internal organs are _________ development. 9 th month; 18 to 22 inches, 6 to 9 lbs,, lungs are mature, ____ _____ have developed enough to ___________ on their own, very little _________ fluid, maternal ________ are transferred to the fetus to fight disease and infection.
Changes in the mother 1 st month: no weight gain, _________ ______ ______, produces __ __ __ menstrual cycle _______, breasts become tender and may swell, ________ sickness – _________ system slows down, ________ change, good to exercise, stop drinking alcohol, smoking and taking drugs. Check with her doctor for common ailments and medications. 2 nd month: _____ weight gain, urinates more frequently, same as 1 st month 3 rd month: 2 to 3 lbs, _________ of blood volume 30% to 40%. 4 th month: 3 to 4 lbs, total 5 to 7 lbs, increase _______ _______, itchiness 5 th month: 3 to 4 lbs, total 8 to 11 lbs, ______________ – produced to prepare for nursing, 6 th month; 3 to 4 lbs, total 11 to 15 lbs, nipples ________ as they come closer to the surface, _______ blood pressure & ______ ______bleeds. 7 th month: 3 to 4 lbs, total 14 to 19 lbs, may feel fetal ________ – hiccups, muscle cramps – legs, heart burn and indigestion. 8 th month: 3 to 5 lbs, total 17 to 24 lbs, ________ _______, constipation, & _______________ 9 th month: 3 to 6 lbs, total 20 to 30 lbs, urinates frequently, muscle fatigue, Pituitary Gland produces __________ that starts the uterine ___________.
3 Stages of Labor 1 st Stage Phase 1 – ________ – contractions approximately hour apart and gradually quicken Water breaks – ________ sac breaks Phase 2 – _______ cervix is stretched apart 8-10 centimeters 2 nd Stage – _________ Forceful contractions, 2-3 minutes apart Episiotomy – incision made from vagina to anus to enlarge opening for baby Baby is being born 3 rd Stage ____________ Labor begins again and the remains of __________ _______ & __________ are forced out of body Stitch mother up Conditions that have aided birth process: The vagina (birth canal) is extremely __________. Ligaments (connects bone to bone) in the mothers pelvis ________. The bones in the babies head have _______ ________ together and compress slightly The baby breathes through the __________ ________ until it is born.
Changes & Things Done to Baby at Birth Nasal and throat passages ________ once the head has cleared the mothers body Umbilical cord is _____ and ______a few inches from the babies body and in 5 to 10 days will fall off forming the _______. Give baby physical (_______ Test) Check: color, respiration, heart rate, etc. Clean baby and put on an __________ ______. Take footprints – 3 copies: permanent records, hospital and home copy Place ________ in eyes and on body Placed in recovery room to monitor pulse, temp, HR, respiration Weigh and measure Put in nursery At first the baby will _________ weight – must rely on its own organs for __________ and __________. It will take 6 to 8 weeks for the mothers _______ and _________ ______ to return to normal. __________ is its’ most important way of communication: there are different types of cries: hungry, hurt, TLC etc. The sex organ may be ________ when a baby boy is first born. Eyes may __________ color over time
Types of Deliveries Head First Birth (__________) Presentation) normal face down birth, umbilical cord goes past the hips and legs. Spontaneous Abortion (miscarriage) The fetus is forced out of the mothers body before it is developed enough to ________. _____ of the zygotes do not become implanted into the uterus Many different reasons: drugs, genetics, previous miscarriages, accident, placenta detaches or umbilical cord collapse, disease, etc 1 out of __ couples have trouble with pregnancy Premature Birth: Born _______ full term, often multiple births Still Birth: Baby is delivered _______ Reasons: genetics, oxygen cut off, disease, drugs, etc. Breech Birth: _____ ____ or buttocks first birth – the head comes out ______. Problem is not enough room & it could get stuck, blood supply in the umbilical cord becomes cut off or it become wrapped around the neck tangled Caesarian: The fetus is _______ removed from womb – doctor make a ____ inch surgical cut through the skin, abdomen and _______ _____. It take about 5 to 10 minutes for the baby to be born and 20 minutes to an hour to stitch her back up again. It is _______ surgery and has a higher risk of infection and complications. Reasons for a C-Section: baby is to big or pelvic girdle too small, baby is breech, mother is sick, mother has disease (AIDS, herpes – 30% increase, etc.), long – tough labor, addiction to drugs, mother has accident
Multiple Births Fraternal Twins Each has own amniotic sac, umbilical cord, placenta 00 ____ eggs and ___ sperm – diff genetic material 0000 Identical Twins 1 2 __ egg and __ sperm cleaves and separates forming 2 ________ zygotes Same _________, genes, everything physical is the same0 Each has its’ own umbilical cord, amniotic sac, _______ may or may 0 0 not be shared Fraternal Triplets 1 2 __ eggs fertilized by _ different sperm, each has its own amniotic umbilical cord, and placenta. They each have their own genetic material1 2 3 Combination Triplet _eggs, _ sperm, 1 develops ________the other zygote 0 0 forms an _______ twin. 2 must look alike the other is a a fraternal zygote Identical Triplets 2 3 _ egg cell, _ sperm cell, during cell division it separates forming 0 an identical ________. One of those zygotes develops normally 0 0 and the other separates again. Each has its own umbilical cord and amniotic sac and must look alike Siamese Twin (Conjoined Twins)– share common body part 2 3
Pregnancy Terms to Know Tests during pregnancy Sonogram – (___________) uses sound waves to determine size and position of fetus Amniocentesis – small amount of ________ ______ is drawn to check for defects (genetic diseases) Miscarriage Loss of fetus before it is _______ __ ______. 1 in ______pregnancies result in miscarriage 60 % of first pregnancies Ectopic Pregnancy Implantation of a fertilized egg in the ________ ______ Medical emergency – death of mother (hemorrhage)
Birthing Techniques Lamaze Most common taught Controlled _________ techniques to cope with labor The Bradley Method ___________ Child Birth Drug/ Substance Free Tuning into own body
Dangers to Fetus Alcohol – ________ _______ _______ (FAS) List Risks Tobacco premature or low _______ ______ Mothers more likely to ________/_________ Dangers b/c of second hand smoke Medications and Drugs Birth ________ and mental retardation Physical dependency - __________ Caffeine – risk of birth _________ and other problems Rubella – birth defects before third month STD’s HIV - all mothers are _______ along with doctor’s pregnancy test passed to fetus _____ - ______ of time Blood during labor – episiotomy/ c-section Treatment to reduce risk Radiation – direct exposure can result in deformity Dental x-rays not to worry Other – use radiation shield
Breastfeeding - La Leche League Breastfeeding Benefits – Baby Low Cost Gastrointestinal problems, respiratory problems, ear infections, protect from Developing Allergies, boost intelligence May protect against obesity, Leukemia, type I diabetes, High Blood Pressure, SIDS, osteoporosis Benefits to the Mother NO sterilizing bottles, formula to buy or mix Nursing burns calories – mother looses weight sooner Stimulates uterus to contact to original size Encourages mother to rest