Presentation on theme: "Prenatal Care Labor and Delivery"— Presentation transcript:
1 Prenatal Care Labor and Delivery Mr. Van SadersMr. Keith
2 Teen Pregnancy Misconceived Ideas corrected: Girl can get pregnant during her __________ _______(period)Girl (can – can not) get pregnant while having sexual intercourse standing or in a hot tub_____ can break during protected sexual intercourse.Woman can get pregnant while breast _______Douching (will – will not) prevent pregnancyBabies born to teenagers are ____ times more at risk to die in the first year (crib death, etc)Risk of maternal death (mother dies) during pregnancy, birth, post delivery are ____ greater for teenagers
3 Fertilization Process Human reproduction usually begins with the physical act of sexual intercourse. How is this different from 100 years ago?Spontaneous generation just magically happenedHomunculus man plants a perfect tiny human being inside the woman.______ century it was scientifically verified the part sexual intercourse plays in human reproduction - combination of both the male and female genetics.______ hugging, kissing, caressing to get the person sexually aroused - the male gets an erection and the female vagina lengthens, widens & moistens, Scene's Glands & Bartholin's Glands________ when the man reaches orgasm he ejaculates up to 500 million sperm inside the woman, usually around the cervix.Within hours many sperm make their way into the woman’s body with only a few ______ make their way into the fallopian tubes.The female does not have an ejaculation, she may experience orgasm but not necessarily at the same time as the male. She does not release an ____ cell when she has an orgasm but she may become moist.If no egg is present in the fallopian tubes the sperm will _____ in a few days.If an egg is present in the _________ ______ fertilization may take place.Takes
4 Fertilization Process Sperm surround the egg – releasing _______ to break down the protective cells surrounding the mature egg.Only the ______ of one sperm enters the egg. No other sperm may enter because the egg cell outer ________ changes sealing out all other sperm.The two nuclei combine – 23 chromosomes from the male and 23 from the woman combine to form __ pairs of chromosomes.Chromosomes are small thread-like structures in the nucleus of the cell that are made up of ______, carriers of hereditary traits, that determine which traits we inherit from our parents.Sex of the child:Egg has a ______ chromosome pattern geneSperm has a ______ or ______ chromosome pattern gene______ chromosome pattern will be a girlXY chromosome pattern will be a ________The _________ determines the sex of the child
5 Development of a Human Being With in the first 36 hours the fertilized egg (zygote) cleaves (divides) forming two identical connected cells, 4 cells, 8 cells, 16 cells, until a hollow ball of cells is formed (blastula). Once the blastula is implanted in the uterus (1 to 2 weeks) it is called an embryo. This cleaving process will continue for the next 9 months.Super Structures:______: looks like the yellow part in an egg – it provides nourishment for the embryo until the placenta is developed.______holds the embryo to the _______ ____ and becomes the umbilical cord___________ cord – rope like structure –width of your thumb, 14 to 36 inches long, & all nourishment and waste pass through this structure. It has no _________.Placenta – network of _______ ______ and other tissues which is attached to the wall of the uterus. It serves as a ________ point for all nourishment & waste. The blood of the mother and the fetus never _________ . The blood vessels grow side by side & are not _______. Blood type of the fetus can be _________ from that of the mother.
6 Development of a Human Being - Terms Super Structures:Placenta – there is a space between mother and fetuses blood systems. ________ & ________ diffuses across this space._______ Sac: fluid filled membrane that surrounds the growing embryo and fetus. Called the bag of water. Functions: controls temperature, provides room to grow and move, and protects the fetus from injury.__________: a fertilized egg (ovum)_________: A hollow ball a cells that divides as it travels to the uterus. It gets its nourishment from the blood enriched walls of the womb._____________: implanted blastocyst in the uterus_______ :from the 10th week until the birth and now looks like a tiny human being.
7 Development of a Human Being 1st month; ¼th inch,1/1000th oz. heart, lungs & spinal cord are forming. Heart beats on the ____ day.2nd month: 1/30th oz, 1 to 1 &1/2 inches, limbs, eyes, milk teeth, ____ divisions of the ______, skin, all organs developing.3rd month: 1 oz and ___ inches in length, fingers, toes, open & close mouth, heart fully formed, movement can be felt, called a fetus4th month: 6 oz, _ inches, lanugo (______) forms over the body, swallowing and sucking reflexes, ___ identifiable, grab with hands, amniocentesis.5th month: 1 lb, 8 to10 inches, nails, scalp hair, heart =beat can be _____ with a stethoscope, skin is translucent.6th month: 12 inches, 2 lbs, kicks, _________ & ________, covered with vernix, mother can feel the fetus move freely.7th month:3 lbs, 14 to 16 inches, fat layer forms, hiccup, cry, and suck thumb, eyes are open, _________produced to prepare the lungs to breathe8th month: 18 inches, 5 lbs, extensive ________ growth, hair, kidneys mature. All internal organs are _________ development.9th month; 18 to 22 inches, 6 to 9 lbs,, lungs are mature, ____ _____ have developed enough to ___________ on their own, very little _________ fluid, maternal ________ are transferred to the fetus to fight disease and infection.
8 Changes in the mother1st month: no weight gain, _________ ______ ______, produces __ __ __ menstrual cycle _______, breasts become tender and may swell, ________ sickness – _________ system slows down, ________ change, good to exercise, stop drinking alcohol, smoking and taking drugs. Check with her doctor for common ailments and medications.2nd month: _____ weight gain, urinates more frequently, same as 1st month3rd month: 2 to 3 lbs, _________ of blood volume 30% to 40%.4th month: 3 to 4 lbs, total 5 to 7 lbs, increase _______ _______, itchiness5th month: 3 to 4 lbs, total 8 to 11 lbs, ______________ – produced to prepare for nursing,6th month; 3 to 4 lbs, total 11 to 15 lbs, nipples ________ as they come closer to the surface, _______ blood pressure & ______ ______bleeds .7th month: 3 to 4 lbs, total 14 to 19 lbs, may feel fetal ________ – hiccups, muscle cramps – legs, heart burn and indigestion.8th month: 3 to 5 lbs, total 17 to 24 lbs, ________ _______, constipation, & _______________9th month: 3 to 6 lbs, total 20 to 30 lbs, urinates frequently, muscle fatigue,Pituitary Gland produces __________ that starts the uterine ___________.
9 3 Stages of Labor 1st Stage Phase 1 – ________ – contractions approximately hour apart and gradually quickenWater breaks – ________ sac breaksPhase 2 – _______ cervix is stretched apart 8-10 centimeters2nd Stage – _________Forceful contractions, 2-3 minutes apartEpisiotomy – incision made from vagina to anus to enlarge opening for babyBaby is being born3rd Stage ____________Labor begins again and the remains of __________ _______ & __________ are forced out of bodyStitch mother upConditions that have aided birth process:The vagina (birth canal) is extremely __________.Ligaments (connects bone to bone) in the mothers pelvis ________.The bones in the babies head have _______ ________ together and compress slightlyThe baby breathes through the __________ ________ until it is born.
10 Changes & Things Done to Baby at Birth Nasal and throat passages ________ once the head has cleared the mothers bodyUmbilical cord is _____ and ______a few inches from the babies body and in 5 to 10 days will fall off forming the _______.Give baby physical (_______ Test) Check: color, respiration, heart rate, etc.Clean baby and put on an __________ ______.Take footprints – 3 copies: permanent records, hospital and home copyPlace ________ in eyes and on bodyPlaced in recovery room to monitor pulse, temp, HR, respirationWeigh and measurePut in nurseryAt first the baby will _________ weight – must rely on its own organs for __________ and __________.It will take 6 to 8 weeks for the mothers _______ and _________ ______ to return to normal.__________ is its’ most important way of communication: there are different types of cries: hungry, hurt, TLC etc.The sex organ may be ________ when a baby boy is first born.Eyes may __________ color over time
11 Types of DeliveriesHead First Birth (__________) Presentation) normal face down birth, umbilical cord goes past the hips and legs.Spontaneous Abortion (miscarriage) The fetus is forced out of the mothers body before it is developed enough to ________._____ of the zygotes do not become implanted into the uterusMany different reasons: drugs, genetics, previous miscarriages, accident,placenta detaches or umbilical cord collapse, disease, etc1 out of __ couples have trouble with pregnancyPremature Birth: Born _______ full term, often multiple birthsStill Birth: Baby is delivered _______Reasons: genetics, oxygen cut off, disease, drugs, etc.Breech Birth: _____ ____ or buttocks first birth – the head comes out ______. Problem is not enough room & it could get stuck, blood supply in the umbilical cord becomes cut off or it become wrapped around the neck tangledCaesarian: The fetus is _______ removed from womb – doctor make a ____ inch surgical cut through the skin, abdomen and _______ _____. It take about 5 to 10 minutes for the baby to be born and 20 minutes to an hour to stitch her back up again. It is _______ surgery and has a higher risk of infection and complications.Reasons for a C-Section: baby is to big or pelvic girdle too small, baby is breech, mother is sick, mother has disease (AIDS, herpes – 30% increase, etc.), long – tough labor, addiction to drugs, mother has accident
12 Multiple Births Fraternal Twins Identical Twins 1 2 Each has own amniotic sac, umbilical cord, placenta____ eggs and ___ sperm – diff genetic materialIdentical Twins__ egg and __ sperm cleaves and separates forming 2 ________ zygotesSame _________, genes, everything physical is the same 0Each has its’ own umbilical cord, amniotic sac, _______ may or may not be sharedFraternal Triplets__eggs fertilized by _ different sperm, each has its own amnioticumbilical cord, and placenta. They each have their own genetic materialCombination Triplet_eggs, _ sperm, 1 develops ________the other zygote forms an _______ twin. 2 must look alike the other is aa fraternal zygoteIdentical Triplets_ egg cell, _ sperm cell, during cell division it separates forming an identical ________. One of those zygotes develops normally and the other separates again. Each has its own umbilical cord and amniotic sac and must look alikeSiamese Twin (Conjoined Twins)– share common body part
13 Pregnancy Terms to Know Tests during pregnancySonogram – (___________) uses sound waves to determine size and position of fetusAmniocentesis – small amount of ________ ______ is drawn to check for defects (genetic diseases)MiscarriageLoss of fetus before it is _______ __ ______.1 in ______pregnancies result in miscarriage60 % of first pregnanciesEctopic PregnancyImplantation of a fertilized egg in the ________ ______Medical emergency – death of mother (hemorrhage)
14 Birthing Techniques Lamaze The Bradley Method Most common taught Controlled _________ techniques to cope with laborThe Bradley Method___________ Child BirthDrug/ Substance FreeTuning into own body
15 Dangers to Fetus Alcohol – ________ _______ _______ (FAS) Tobacco List RisksTobaccopremature or low _______ ______Mothers more likely to ________/_________Dangers b/c of second hand smokeMedications and DrugsBirth ________ and mental retardationPhysical dependency - __________Caffeine – risk of birth _________ and other problemsRubella – birth defects before third monthSTD’sHIV - all mothers are _______ along with doctor’s pregnancy testpassed to fetus _____ - ______ of timeBlood during labor – episiotomy/ c-sectionTreatment to reduce riskRadiation – direct exposure can result in deformityDental x-rays not to worryOther – use radiation shield
16 Breastfeeding - La Leche League Breastfeeding Benefits – BabyLow CostGastrointestinal problems, respiratory problems, ear infections, protect from Developing Allergies, boost intelligenceMay protect against obesity, Leukemia, type I diabetes, High Blood Pressure, SIDS, osteoporosisBenefits to the MotherNO sterilizing bottles, formula to buy or mixNursing burns calories – mother looses weight soonerStimulates uterus to contact to original sizeEncourages mother to rest