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Alcohol and other Drugs Social & Health Consequences

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Presentation on theme: "Alcohol and other Drugs Social & Health Consequences"— Presentation transcript:

1 Alcohol and other Drugs Social & Health Consequences

2 Use, Misuse, Abuse and Addiction
Use – Ingestion of Alcohol or other Drugs without the experience of negative consequences Misuse – Ingestion of Alcohol or other Drugs experiencing negative consequences such as: DWI, MIP Abuse – Continued use of Alcohol and other Drugs in spite of negative consequences Addiction - A habitual repetition of excessive behavior that a person is unable and unwilling to STOP regardless of negative and harmful consequences. Use: Experimental: User tries the drug out of curiosity. Misuse: Recreational: Use is infrequent but the user seeks out drug. - Habituation: Use becomes a definite pattern. Abuse: use continues in spite of impaired functioning. Addiction does not have to be the last point of the spectrum. ● Using substances to gain relief (acting out) • Losing control over the behavior. • Developing feelings of remorse, guilt and shame, which lead to feelings of dissatisfaction. • Making a promise or resolve to oneself to stop the behavior or substance use.

3 Addiction is a “chronic brain disorder and not simply a behavioral problem.”
Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Addiction affects neurotransmission and interactions within reward structures of the brain. Memory of previous exposures to rewards leads to a biological and behavioral response to external cues, in turn triggering craving. The first time people experiment with drugs, it’s usually a conscious choice they’ve made. But once addiction takes place, they are dealing with a chronic brain disorder. Our brains are wired to make sure we will repeat activities, like eating, sleeping, etc., by associating those activities with pleasure or reward. When the reward circuit is activated, the brain will automatically repeat an activity without thinking about it.

4 Treating Addiction must go beyond just fixing the brain chemistry
Pharmacological Treatments Behavioral Therapy We need to treat the whole person! Pharmacological Treatment - Medications can be used to help reestablish normal brain function and to prevent relapse and diminish cravings. Medical Services - Address any medical and psychiatric needs. Social Services - Facilitate family healing through a family program. Provide Substance Abuse Education. Behavioral Therapy - Develop a formulate a workable aftercare plan and relapse prevention plan. Medical Services Social Services

5 Alcohol is the drug most commonly used, misused and abused among youth and adults.
Motor vehicle crashes. Every day, 28 people in the United States die in motor vehicle crashes that involve an alcohol-impaired driver. Intimate partner violence. About 2 of 3 incidents of intimate partner violence are associated with alcohol. Risky sexual behaviors. Excessive drinking increases risky sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Any alcohol use by a pregnant woman can cause harm to a developing fetus. Chronic conditions. Excessive drinking can lead to alcohol dependence, liver disease, high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, and certain kinds of cancer. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorders, also known as FAS – Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. A fetus can not metabolize either alcohol or drugs while in utero. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration FARS data, 2013 CDC stats for

6 Alcohol and Drugs have a great impact on Brain Development
Young people who begin drinking before the age of 15, are five times more likely to develop alcohol dependence than those who wait until they are 21. Alcohol can cause permanent brain damage while brain is under its developmental stages. Exposure to substances that inhibit cell growth can have a devastating effect on the developing brain. Alcohol and other Drugs limits the Brain’s ability to form new pathways and connections that are essential to learning and memory. Adults who abuse drugs often have problems thinking clearly, remembering, and paying attention.

7 Alcohol and Adolescent Brain Development
The frontal lobes, responsible for reasoning and thinking are the last areas of the brain to develop fully. Brain Developing from ages 5 to 20 Paul Thompson, Ph.D. UCLA Laboratory of Neuroimaging

8 Brain affected by Alcohol
Drinkers have less Active Brains Brain scans of two females. Top view of the brain. Note Differences In back of the Brain Healthy Control Alcohol Dependent Colored areas show active brain areas during memory task. Alcohol primarily interferes with the transfer of information from short - term to long - term storage.

9 Drinking Alcohol while pregnant:
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Each year between 1,300 and 8,000 babies in the United States are born with FAS. FAS include retardation, behavior problems, ADHD, seizures, and autism. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

10 Drug Facts Thanks to medical and drug research, there are thousands of drugs that help people. But there are also lots of illegal, harmful drugs that people take to help them feel good or have a good time. In the brain, drugs may either intensify or dull your senses, alter your sense of alertness, and sometimes decrease physical pain. Some drugs severely impair a person's ability to make healthy choices and decisions. Different drugs affect the body in different ways, but all drugs chemically alter the brain. The drug effects that occur in individuals who consume drugs depend on how the brain processes the chemicals in each drug. The amount of drugs needed to cause certain effects vary as well. All of an individual's perceptions are controlled by the brain; therefore, the brain dictates the effects of drug abuse in individuals. National Survey on Drug Use & Health

11 Marijuana Opponents of legalization assert that it will have a significant, negative impact on public health, leading to an increase in marijuana-related accidents and widespread addiction. Many marijuana users believe smoking pot has no negative effects, scientific research indicates that marijuana use can cause many different health problems. Its history repeating itself. Like Alcohol, Marijuana places a significant strain on our health care system, and poses considerable danger to the health and safety of the users themselves, their families, and our communities. We know that marijuana use, particularly long-term, chronic use that begins at a young age, can lead to dependence and addiction. Marijuana is not a benign drug except for severe cases of health related ailments and pain relief for terminally ill patients.

12 Long Term effects of Marijuana Use
Marijuana has serious harmful effects on the skills required to drive safely – Short term and long term use. Reduced resistance to common illnesses (colds, bronchitis, etc.) Suppression of the immune system. Increase of abnormally structured cells in the body. Reduction of male sex hormones. Rapid destruction of lung fibers and lesions (injuries) to the brain could be permanent. Reduced sexual capacity. Study difficulties: reduced ability to learn and retain information. Apathy, drowsiness, lack of motivation. Inability to understand things clearly.

13 Long term effects of Marijuana on the Brain
Surface SPECT of a healthy brain. MARIJUANA USE Effects of smoking marijuana use typically cause decreased activity in the posterior temporal lobes bilaterally.

14 Prescription Drugs One Death Every 24 Minutes
Prescription Meds are now The number ONE accidental killer in the U.S. 40 people die every day from overdoses involving narcotic pain relievers . New Mexico has the highest overall drug overdose death rate in the country. According to newly released numbers by the New Mexico Department of Health, 486 people died in New Mexico in 2012 of prescription drug overdose. One Death Every 24 Minutes Center of disease Control - CDC

15 Prescription Drug Abuse - Facts
Nonmedical use of prescription drugs remains high, while teens’ perception of the risk of such abuse is low. After alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, prescription and over-the-counter medications account for most of the top drugs abused by 12th graders in the past years The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) show that nearly one-third of people aged 12 and over who used drugs for the first time in 2009 began by using a prescription drug non-medically. The number of overdose deaths from prescription opiates has tripled over the past decade; they now kill more than heroin and cocaine combined. Some individuals who misuse prescription drugs, particularly teens, believe these substances are safer than illicit drugs because they are prescribed by a healthcare professional and dispensed by a pharmacist NIDA / PeerX-

16 Heroin on the rise among New Mexican Teens
New Mexico had the second highest drug overdose mortality rate in the United States. In 2012 there were 486 drug overdose deaths in New Mexico. The small town of Espanola is in the grips of a heroin epidemic. In 2009, for example, the city saw 42.5 drug-related deaths per 100,000 residents. As Heroin keeps increasing in popularity and easy access young adults have to it, the problem doesn’t seem to be slowing down anytime soon. Once you get involved with heroin – you have to fight your way out. New Mexico has been particularly hard-hit. According to KRQE 13 news station, heroin has overtaken other hard drugs like cocaine and crystal meth as the fastest-growing teen drug trend, and an estimated $300,000 worth of heroin is sold in Albuquerque every day. Stats: Rio Arriba had the highest drug overdose death rate in the state with a 2008‐2012 average of 67.2 deaths per 100,000 persons. Second highest was Mora County (65.0), followed by Sierra County (44.8). Among the most populous counties, the Bernalillo County rate was 28.7, the Dona Anna County rate was 18.5, and the Santa Fe County rate was 26.4. There were 191 drug-related arrests of youth under age 18 in 2012, according to Las Cruces police spokesman Dan Trujillo. The offenses ranged from the sale or manufacture of illegal substances to possession, and included synthetic and narcotic substances, opiates and cocaine. Most, however, were marijuana arrests.

17 Heroin: Not a “back alley” drug anymore.
Philip Seymour Hoffman. Cory Monteith. Janis Joplin. River Phoenix. John Belushi.

18 Synthetic Drugs (a.k.a. K2, Spice, Bath Salts)
Synthetic drugs represent a dangerous trend in substance abuse. Teens who use synthetic marijuana, also called K2 or spice, could end up in the emergency room experiencing some serious side effects such as seizures, hallucinations, rapid heart rate, vomiting or even death from overdose. Bath salts are probably more dangerous than synthetic cannabis and can cause psychotic breaks and suicidal ideation. K2 and Spice are synthetic cannabis and it's generally sold in head shops -- businesses that cater to the drug world. It is marketed as potpourri and incense. It has been outlawed in New Mexico, and at least 38 other states have laws regarding the substance. A long list of possible side effects includes more marijuana-like reactions such as euphoria and increased interest in food and music. But it can also cause fear, panic and hallucinations.

19 Using Drugs while pregnant:
Babies exposed to legal and illegal drugs in the womb may be born premature and underweight. Drug exposure can slow the child's intellectual development and affect behavior later in life. NIDA – National Institute of Drug Abuse

20 Alcohol Poisoning / Overdose
National Center for Health Statistics - National Vital Statistics - New Mexico Department of Health

21 Facts: A person with Alcohol Poisoning / Overdose Cannot Sleep it Off.
Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) continues to rise even after person stops Drinking. It takes about one hour for the liver to metabolize one drink. (In the female this number will be about 20% longer, regardless of body weight. Forced Fluids like Coffee, Cold Showers, Walking it Off or Sleeping it Off is a Myth. Drugs combined with alcohol accounts for increasing numbers of drug overdoses and emergency room visits. New Mexico leads the Nation in Drug overdose deaths, second to car crashes. Never Leave The Victim Alone!

22 Know The Signs of an Alcohol Overdose.
Cannot Follow Directions or is Unconscious. Slow or Irregular Breathing. Very Low or Very Rapid Pulse Rate. Vomiting While Passed Out. No Response to Shaking or Pinching.


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