7CIRCUMCISION Parental choice. Called the foreskin, covering the head (Glans) of the penis. In circumcision, the foreskin is surgically removed, exposing the end of the penis.
8CORPUS SPONGIOSUMThe inside of a penis is filled with spaces and fill with blood during an erectionThis is why the penis gets larger, and harder during an erection.
9URETHRAThe tube through which the bladder empties urine outside the body and through which the male ejaculate exists (Semen).
10VAS DEFERENSThe ‘duct’ that transports sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
11GLANDS Prostate Gland: Seminal Vesicle: Cowper’s Gland: Walnut sized gland surrounds a portion of the urethra and produces some of the fluids in semenSeminal Vesicle:Located at the base of the bladder, the 2 seminal vesicles secrete a thick fluid that nourishes spermCowper’s Gland:A pea-sized gland in the male located behind and to the side of the urethra that discharges a component of seminal fluid into the urethra
14OVARIESSTRUCTURE: Each of the ovaries contains hundreds of thousands of immature eggs (ova) from the time of birth (~40, ,000)FUNCTION: Produce the two hormones; Estrogen and Progesterone. Holds the immature eggs until puberty. Then one egg matures each month and is released in a process known as OVULATION.LOCATION: A few inches below the waist. One on each side of the body.
15HORMONES PROGESTERONE: ESTROGEN: A hormone that signals the endometrium to develop in preparation for a zygote (fertilized egg)ESTROGEN:A hormone produced by the ovaries; levels in the blood helps control the menstrual cycle.Matures egg, builds up endometrium
16LH FSH Makes ovulation occur Choose an egg in ovaries Helps with ovulation
17FALLOPIAN TUBESSTRUCTURE: Thin, soft tubes. The end that lies on the ovary has finger-like structures called FIMBRAE that help sweep the egg into the tube. Tiny cilia line the tube to move the egg along.FUNCTION: Carry the released egg from the ovary to the uterus. If sperm are present, fertilization MUST occur in the tube!!LOCATION: Begin at the ovaries and end at the uterus
18UTERUSSTRUCTURE: AKA ‘The Womb’ A pear shaped hollow organ with very thick, muscular walls lined with ENDOMETRIUM (a rich supply of blood vessels). The base of the uterus is called the CERVIX. The cervix opening must expand dramatically during labor/birth.FUNCTION: To nurture the developing embryo and fetus.The fertilized egg will implant in the endometrium and continue to develop in the uterus. If no egg implants, the lining is shed during MENSTRUATION.LOCATION: At the top of the Vagina behind the bladder between the two ovaries.
19VAGINASTRUCTURE: A hollow, tunnel like structure,(~4.5 inches) very muscular passage that has the ability to expand dramatically during birth to allow baby to come through, and provides and exit for menstrual flow. Also, is coated with vaginal secretions that are slightly acidic to control infection.FUNCTION: The“birth canal”, and a passage way for sperm and menstrual blood.LOCATION: Leads from the base of the uterus (cervix) to the outside of the body.
20CERVIXMouth of the uterus, through which the Vagina extends
21ENDOMETRIUM:Inner most layer of uterus and is loaded with blood vessels to provide nourishment necessary to sustain a developing fetus. Fertilized egg attaches and is nourished as it develops before birth.
22MENSTRUATION MENARCHE: The time when a female begins her first menstrual cycle, usually 8 to 16 years old.Blood is discharged (endometrium) from uterus through the vagina for several days.Latin origin: Menstruation is mensis, meaning ‘month’
23AmenorrheaAbsence of menstruation in a woman who should be menstruating.
25Preparation for a healthy pregnancy begins far before conception. Concerns Before Pregnancy:Men as well as women’s health habits before conception are importantBoth should prepare healthy bodies; limit drinking, smoking, drugs of all sorts, increase exercise and eat a proper diet.Females- born with all eggs- release ONE every month starting at pubertyMales- produce millions of SPERM everyday starting at puberty.
26FERTILIZATION & PREGNANCY If a female and male have sex within several days of the female's ovulation (egg release), fertilization can occur.YES, SEVERAL DAYS!!!When the male ejaculates (which is when semen leaves a man's penis), between 0.05 and 0.2 fluid ounces (1.5 to 6.0 milliliters) of semen is deposited into the vagina.
27FERTILIZATION & PREGNANCY Between 75 and 900 million sperm are in this small amount of semen, and they "swim" up from the vagina through the cervix and uterus to meet the egg in the fallopian tube.It takes only ONE sperm to fertilize the egg.
28FERTILIZATION & PREGNANCY About a week after the sperm fertilizes the egg, the fertilized egg (zygote) has become a multi-celled blastocystA blastocyst is about the size of a pinhead, and it's a hollow ball of cells with fluid inside. The blastocyst burrows itself into the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium.
29FERTILIZATION & PREGNANCY The hormone estrogen causes the endometrium to become thick and rich with blood. Progesterone, another hormone released by the ovaries, keeps the endometrium thick with blood so that the blastocyst can attach to the uterus and absorb nutrients from it. This process is called implantation
30DEFINITIONSGestation- THE PERIOD FROM CONCEPTION TO BIRTH-about weeksZYGOTE-Fertilized Egg- 3 weeks-cell division-3 layers from different organ systems of the bodyNervous system and skin-Muscles and internal organ systems-Glands and linings of the digestive, respiratory and urinary tract system form
31EMBRYO- 3rd week to 8th week -Number of cells double approximately every 24 hours- At 8 weeks embryo is a little more than an INCH long but already has complete CNS and digestive system, a beating heart, well defined fingers and toes, beginnings of facial features
32FETUS- 9 weeks until Birth -Gain weight and size during this time-Critical periods for each organ occur-If any organ is limited by some factor, that organ will be permanently damaged-During the critical period, the fetal brain increases by 100,000 cells a minute.
33PLACENTA:an organ that develops during pregnancy- permits the exchange of materials between maternal and fetal bloodHas 2arteries and 1 veinNo direct exchange of blood, only nutrientsFetal wastes are also carried away by the mother’s blood here
34UMBILICAL CORD- Rope-like structure through which the fetus’s veins and arteries extend to and from the placentaAMNIOTIC SAC- Bag of water in the uterus in which the fetus floatsLIGHTENING: Sensation woman experiences when the fetus settles into the birth position
35Conception:1st Sexual intercourse or sperm come close to the vaginal opening2nd OVULATION3rd Sperm must meet egg4th ONE sperm out of millions must penetrate the EGG5th Once one sperm gets in, a protective coating surrounds egg and no other sperm can get in.6th Genetic material of the 2 cells unite with in the fertilized egg7th Must implant itself into the UTERINE WALL- implantation8th Cell DIVISION- form a baby
36Signs One is PregnantMissed Period- Not always an accurate measureBreasts become tender and swollenNauseaCan take a home Pregnancy TestCan take a blood or urine test at the doctor’s office
37EMBRYONIC STAGEAs cells from the blastocyst take in nourishment, the embryonic stage, begins.The inner cells form a flattened circular shape called the embryonic disk, which will develop into a baby.The outer cells become thin membranes that form around the baby. The cells multiply thousands of times and move to new positions to eventually become the embryo
38EMBRYONIC STAGEAfter approximately 8 weeks, the embryo is about the size of an adult's thumb, but almost all of its parts — the brain and nerves, the heart and blood, the stomach and intestines, and the muscles and skin — have formed, complete CNS and digestive system, a beating heart, well defined fingers and toes, beginnings of facial features
39FETAL STAGELasts from 9 weeks after fertilization to birth, development continues as cells multiply, move, and change.The fetus floats in amniotic fluid inside the amniotic sac.The amniotic fluid and membrane cushion the fetus against bumps and jolts to the mother's body.The fetus receives oxygen and nourishment from the mother's blood via the placenta, a disk-like structure that sticks to the inner lining of the uterus and connects to the fetus via the umbilical cord
41PREGNANCY Pregnancy lasts an average of 280 days — about 9 months. When the baby is ready for birth, its head presses on the cervix, which begins to relax and widen to get ready for the baby to pass into and through the vagina.The mucus that has formed a plug in the cervix loosens, and with amniotic fluid, comes out through the vagina when the mother's water breaks… YES, the Water does BREAK!
43LABORWhen the contractions of labor begin, the walls of the uterus contract as they are stimulated by the pituitary hormone oxytocin.The contractions cause the cervix to widen and begin to open.After several hours of this widening, the cervix is dilated (opened) enough for the baby to come through.
44LABORThe baby is pushed out of the uterus, through the cervix, and along the birth canal.The baby's head usually comes first; the umbilical cord comes out with the baby and is cut after the baby is delivered.
45LABOR STAGES Stage one: Dilation: cervix is opening Contractions become harder and harder and closer togetherCrowning: Baby’s head is seenEpisiotomies: surgical cut made in the vagina to help so the vagina does not ripCesarean Section: Surgical birth, in which the infant is take through a cut in the women’s abdomen
46Stage Two: Stage Three: Baby is born Afterbirth is delivered, placenta and membranes are expelled
47During pregnancy some women experience: ConstipationShortness of breathFrequent urinationBackachesMorning sickness
48Nutrition during pregnancy is important: Gain pounds7 ½ lb infant at birth= Average1lb-placenta4lbs mother’s added blood4lbs Mother’s added fluid2 ½ lbs Growth of Uterus3lbs Growth of breasts2lbs fluid surrounding infant7lbs Mother’s fat stores-Pregnant for 38-42weeks.When it becomes too cramped for the fetus- Labor Begins….