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LECTURE 11 DEVELOPMENT Visiting Assistant PROFESSOR YEE-SAN TEOH Department of Psychology National Taiwan University GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY Unless noted, the course materials are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan
PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND BIRTH RISKS IN THE PRENATAL ENVIRONMENT BIRTH COMPLICATIONS
RISKS IN PRENATAL ENVIRONMENT The Effects of Teratogens Teratogens = external agents that may cause developmental deviations in the fetus. Include environmental factors and characteristics of the mother. Effects include physical defects, mental impairments, changes in life experiences.
EFFECTS OF TERATOGENS 1. Effects occur largely during critical periods (e.g. vulnerable period for heart is days after conception) 2. Specific effects (e.g. Rubella in mother affects mainly fetus’s heart, eyes, brain) 3. Maternal / fetal genotypes may counteract a teratogen’s effects (e.g. Some genotype is more resistant to effects of Rubella)
EFFECTS OF TERATOGENS 4. Effects of one teratogen may intensify effects of another (e.g. Malnutrition in mother exacerbates negative effects of drugs) 5. Different teratogens may produce same effect (e.g. Rubella & consumption of drug such as quinine => deafness) 6. Longer exposure intensifies effects, increases risk of harm (e.g. Consistent exposure to polluted water = more severe harm)
Premature/preterm babies = born before full gestational period, at/< 37 weeks. Low birthweight = preterm or small-for-date babies, < 5lbs. Handbook of Parenting 2nd vol 1, Children and Parenting / Marc H. Bornstein P329
CONSEQUENCES OF VERY LOW BIRTHWEIGHT Some catch up in motor and intellectual development, but some continue to show cognitive deficits (Goldberg & DeVitto, 2002). Problems in academic achievement, hyperactivity, motor skills, speech & hearing disorders (Anderson et al., 2003). Adverse environmental circumstances － long-term developmental difficulties (Goldberg & DeVitto, 2002). Journal of Pediatric Health Care / Visual Perceptual Skills in Children Born With Very Low Birth Weights P363–368
LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF PREMATURITY Particularly marked & enduring for economically disadvantaged families (Klebanov et al, 2001). Often combined with effects of : (i)Child responsiveness (ii)Mother’s competence (iii)Family’s environmental stresses (iv)Social support (family, nursing staff, self-help groups) (Gross et al., 1997) Long-term maternal effects of early childhood intervention: Findings from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP)
PERCEPTUAL & MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
NEW BABY’S REFLEXES Involuntary response to external stimuli. Some disappear during 1st year, some replaced by voluntary responses that are learnt (e.g. sucking). Ensure survival, e.g. eyeblink shields eyes from light.
NEW BABY’S REFLEXES Abnormalities in 1 st few days/weeks help: (i)Identify visual & hearing problems (ii)Predict abnormal functions that may appear later. Weak, absent, unusually strong reflexes, reflexes that don’t disappear when expected -> neurological problems
EXAMPLES OF NEWBORN’S REFLEXES ReflexMethod of Testing Baby’s Response Significance of Response Develop-mental Course Knee JerkTap on tendon below kneecap Quickly extends or kicks leg Weak/absent in depressed babies or those with muscular disease Permanent, most pronounced in first 2 days Babinski reflex Stroke bottom of foot from heel to toes Big toes curves, other toes fan & curl Absent in defects of lower spine Temporary, usually disappears end of 1 st yr Rooting response Stroke baby’s cheek lightly Turns head toward finger, opens mouth Absent in depressed babies Temporary, disappears at abt 3-4mo, becomes voluntary
MOTOR DEVELOPMENT In first 2 yrs of life, reaching out and grasping an object are key motor skills. Success at abt 5 months. By 1 st yr – begin to use objects as tools (e.g. spoon), gestures in social communication (Goldin-Meadow, 2006).
LOCOMOTION – LEARNING TO WALK -Walking skills are determined by interplay of (i)Emotion & Motivation (ii)Perception (iii)Attention (iv)Posture (v)Anatomy Increased independence allows exploration of environments and contact with other people.
THE ROLE OF EXPERIENCE & CULTURE IN MOTOR GROWTH -Zambia: mothers leave infants sitting alone for long periods of time, opportunities for motor skill practice. (Hopkins & Westra, 1988). -Jamaica: regular massage of infants, practice in stepping. (Hopkins & Westra, 1990) -China: cramped living environment, restricted room for crawling (Campos et al., 2000) INFANT MOTOR DEVELOPMENT AND THE HOME ENVIRONMENT /Andrea L Abbott P4 INFANT MOTOR DEVELOPMENT AND THE HOME ENVIRONMENT /Andrea L Abbott P4 Motor Development /Karen E. Adolph and Sarah E. Berger P31
HEARING BABIES ARE GOOD LISTENERS
Newborn’s hearing is very well developed, but not as well as adult’s (Saffran et al., 20006). Babies as young as 2 days old prefer human voice over other sounds, particularly high in pitch (Hoff, 2005) Preference for melodious vs non-melodious sounds. (Winner, 2006) Challenge: hearing difficulties are hard to diagnose, deafness not apparent until yrs.
VISION HOW BABIES SEE THEIR WORLDS
CLARITY Newborn’s visual acuity is poor unless object held close to face. Improves rapidly, by 6 months-1 yr, within normal adult range. By 4 months, color vision similar to adult’s (Keller & Arterberry, 2006)
A PREFERENCE FOR FACES Newborns as young as 30mins old show preference for facelike images (Mondloch et al., 1999). Face expertise and category specialization in the humanoccipitotemporal cortex / Isabel Gauthier, Ph.D. P6
DEPTH PERCEPTION By 3-5mo, babies can coordinate both eyes, begin to see depth using stereoscopic vision (sense of 3 rd spatial dimension) (Birch, 1993). The Visual Cliff experiment (Gibson & Walk, 1960) shows that babies 6-14mo would not cross fake cliff to their mothers, even with encouragement. Interestingly, fear of heights does not exist in very young infants, presumably because they are unable to crawl then (Campos et al., 1970, 1992). 不確定能否合理使用 t_resources/ _rathus/ps/ps05.html The "Visual Cliff" / ELEANOR J. GIBSON AND RICHARD D. WALK reat-DetectionChildhood.pdf Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews / P. Boyer, B. Bergstrom P4
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PIAGET’S THEORY
Children construct their understanding of reality from their own experiences. Over development children acquire qualitatively new ways of thinking and understanding of the world. Development occurs through organization & adaptation.
ORGANIZATION Over development, children organize their knowledge into increasingly complex cognitive structures – schemas. Growth + experience = schemas shift from motor activities to mental activities – operations.
ADAPTATION – 2 COMPLEMENTARY PROCESSES 1. Assimilation -Fit new experiences into current cognitive schemas 2. Accommodation -Adjust current schemas to fit the new experiences
PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SENSORIMOTOR 0-2 yrs Action schemes & sensory experiences Object Permanence PREOPERATIONAL 2-7 yrs Symbolic Function Animistic Thinking Egocentrism, Centration Intuition CONCRETE OPERATIONS 7-12 yrs Logical reasoning of physically present things Conservation, Reversibility Decentration FORMAL OPERATIONS 12 onwards Flexibility & complexity of thought processes Hypothesis testing Alternatives in problem-solving
IMPORTANT POINTS Stages are built through experience, so children do not reach stages at exactly same ages. All children pass through stages in same order, no skipping.
SENSORIMOTOR STAGE Object permanence – understanding that objects and people continue to exist independent of the child’s seeing or interacting with them. Test – Ask child to look for object that has been moved.
PREOPERATIONAL STAGE Symbolic Function – The ability to use symbols (images, words), gestures, to represent objects and events in the world. Animistic Thinking – Attribute life to inanimate objects.
Egocentrism – Tendency to view the world from one’s own perspective and to have difficulty seeing things from another’s viewpoint. Test – Three-mountain Test: Child is asked to identify picture that illustrates mountain viewpoint of a doll seated away from the child.
Challenges to Egocentrism finding: Children performed better when i.Familiar objects were introduced (Borke, 1979), ii.Purpose of task was more understandable (hide from police, Hughes, 1975). 36
Centration – Focusing attention on only one dimension or characteristic of an object or situation. Test – lack of understanding of conservation.
CONCRETE OPERATIONS STAGE Reversibility – Understanding that steps of a procedure/operation can be reversed and that the original state of the object/event can be obtained.
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN CONSERVATION UNDERSTANDING Dasen (1984) – people develop skills and concepts that are useful in the daily activities required in their ecocultural settings. Example: Agricultural tribe that deals with quantitative activities daily – produce, store, and sell food – develop conservation, measurement skills earlier. Page 411
FORMAL OPERATION STAGE IS NOT UNIVERSAL Not all adolescents or adults in all societies reach this stage and achieve the same flexibility in problem- solving. Some cultures emphasize symbolic skills, some do not. Some societies provide a wide range of educational experiences, some do not.
ATTACHMENT Strong emotional bond that forms in second half of 1 st yr between infants and their caregivers. Visible signs – warm greetings, active efforts to make contact, proximity in unfamiliar situations Enhances effectiveness of parent socialization – children eager to conform to parents’ goals and rules
JOHN BOWLBY’S THEORY OF ATTACHMENT Rooted in infant’s instinctual responses that are important for the protection and survival of the species. Responses/reflexes (e.g. crying, smiling) elicit parental care and protection. Parental response promotes contact between child and parent. Children and their parents are biologically programmed to respond to each other - attachment.
DEVELOPMENT OF ATTACHMENT Babies develop attachment to specific people – regular caregivers Early learning of discrimination between familiar and unfamiliar people Innate Preference for humans over inanimate objects
EXTENDING THE ATTACHMENT THEORY TO FATHERS Depends on level of involvement in caregiving Lamb (1997,2004) – older babies showed similar attachment to mother and fathers in stranger’s visit to home Cultural factors –role as caregiver, playmate Play-related attachment differs according to gender FATHERS
ASSESSING ATTACHMENT Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Procedure (Ainsworth, 1973) Attachment can be seen in caregiver-infant interaction that emphasizes caregiver’s role as secure base. SS procedure = testing scenario that assesses and classifies the type of attachment a caregiver-infant pair shares.
THE STRANGE SITUATION SCENARIO (8/9 MONTHS) 1.Begins with mother and baby in a playroom. 2.Stranger enters, eventually interacts with baby. 3.Mother leaves room. 4.Mother enters – 1 st reunion. 5.Baby alone. 6.Stranger enters. 7.Mother enters – 2 nd reunion. 8.Stranger leaves.
FACTORS INFLUENCING ATTACHMENT Caregiving Style Sensitive care – consistent & responsive caregiving Parents’ Internal Working Models (Bowlby) Parents’ mental representation of themselves as children, their parents, and their prior interactions with their parents.
Infant Temperament Link between infant temperament and later parent- child attachment is not clear cut. Depends on social context & support (Sroufe, 1996). Help and support from other family members & friends enable parents of difficult infants to cope better.
IMPLICATIONS OF ATTACHMENT QUALITY Securely attached……. 2-yr-olds = more enthusiastic, persistent, cooperative, effective in solving problems. 7-yr-olds = more attentive & participative in the classroom up to 15yrs of age, maintained higher grades. Quality of attachment facilitates learning process
Securely attached children & teenagers are more likely to be: -Socially competent -Empathetic -Peer oriented -Have more friends
Sense of Self Cassidy (1998) -Securely attached 6-yr-olds viewed themselves in positive way, acknowledged flaws. -Insecurely attached viewed themselves as perfect or negative
DEVELOPMENT OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR Eisenberg (2006) – prosocial behavior increases with age. Ability to recognize others’ needs and emotions is important. Begins early with behaviors such as caring for siblings & friends, comforting others in distress. By 18 months, children not only approach those in distress but offer specific kinds of help (offer toy, hug). Prosocial tendencies are stable across development.
DETERMINANTS OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR Biological Influences Human beings have biological predisposition to respond with empathy. Prosocial behavior may have genetic basis. Identical twins more alike in prosocial behavior than fraternal twins (Davis et al., 1994). Children with Williams Syndrome (genetic abnormality) are more sociable, empathetic and prosocial than typical children.
DETERMINANTS OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR Environmental Influences Social learning (Eisenberg et al., 2006). Mothers who are empathetic, sensitive and responsive to emotions. Opportunities to engage in prosocial actions (e.g. volunteering) Prosocial peer groups reinforces prosocial attitudes. TV programs that teach prosocial behavior (e.g. Sesame Street). Culture – some emphasize prosocial, cooperative values.
AGGRESSION – THE OPPOSITE OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR
DEVELOPMENT OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR Preschool children are more prone to instrumental aggression. Older children resort to hostile aggression. Older children rely less on physical, begin to use more verbal aggression (Dodge et al., 2006).
DEVELOPMENT OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR Highly aggressive children have more difficulty ‘reading’ others’ intentions – make more hostile attributions of others’ behaviors than normal (Guerra & Huesmann, 2003). Aggressiveness generally remains stable through adulthood – related to deviant/antisocial behaviors.
DETERMINANTS OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR Biological Influences Genes – identical twins more similar in parents’ ratings of aggressive behavior than fraternal twins (Dionne et al., 2003) Hormones – rise in testosterone levels during adolescence related to violent offending (Brooks & Reddon, 1996). Low Serotonin level – neurotransmitter involved in emotional states & regulation of attention – higher level of aggression, especially with high family conflict (Moffitt & Caspi, 2006) Biological risk influenced by social environment, [criminal] parents, prenatal risks.
DETERMINANTS OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR Environmental Influences Physical punishment likely to lead to aggressive behavior when parent-child relationship lacks warmth (Caspi & Moffitt, 2006) or when parents are abusive (Lansford et al., 2002). Lack of parental monitoring (Patterson, 2004). Television viewing, video games – desensitized to violence, view violence as acceptable resolution (Comstock & Scharrer, 2006). Delinquent peers, association with gangs, high-crime neighborhood – combined with family environment (Thornberry et al, 2003).
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