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Conception is when sperm and egg meet and fertilization occurs Sperm - one of the tiniest cells in the human body Conception occurs in the outer third.

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Presentation on theme: "Conception is when sperm and egg meet and fertilization occurs Sperm - one of the tiniest cells in the human body Conception occurs in the outer third."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conception is when sperm and egg meet and fertilization occurs Sperm - one of the tiniest cells in the human body Conception occurs in the outer third of the fallopian tube Zygote - fertilized egg 1

2 Improving the Chances of Conception Time intercourse so it occurs around time of ovulation Sperm live inside a woman’s body for up to 5 days Egg is capable of being fertilized for about the first 12 to 24 hours after ovulation Position during and after intercourse is important 2

3 Symptoms of Pregnancy Missed menstrual period Breast tenderness Morning sickness More frequent urination 3

4 Diagnostic Signs of Pregnancy Presumptive Signs: breast changes, amenorrhea, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, frequent urination Probable Signs: Positive pregnancy test, physical changes in the uterus Positive Signs: Ultrasound or X-ray of fetus, fetal heartbeat, fetal movement 4

5 Pregnancy Tests Physician tests: – Immunologic test based on detection of hCG – Beta-hCG radioimmunoassay Home pregnancy tests 5

6 Development of the Conceptus Nine months of pregnancy are divided into three equal periods of three months - called trimesters – First trimester - months 1 to 3 – Second trimester - months 4 to 6 – Third trimester - months 7 to 9 6

7 The Embryo and Its Support Systems Placenta - an organ formed on the wall of the uterus through which the fetus receives oxygen and nutrients and gets rid of waste products Human chorionic gonadotropin - a hormone secreted by the placenta; it is the substance detected in pregnancy tests 7

8 The Embryo and Its Support Systems Umbilical cord - the tube that connects the fetus to the placenta Amniotic fluid - the watery fluid surrounding a developing fetus in the uterus 8

9 Fetal Development During the First Trimester Develops into a fetus with most of the major organ systems present 4th to 8th week - external body parts develop 9

10 Fetal Development During the First Trimester 7th week - liver, lungs, pancreas, kidneys, and intestines have formed and begun limited functioning End of 12th week - 10 centimeters long; weighs 19 grams 10

11 Fetal Development During the Second Trimester Quickening occurs - women becomes aware of fetal movements – around the end of the 14th week Fetal heart beat can be detected Fetus opens its eyes 11

12 Fetal Development During the Third Trimester Fetus’s skin is wrinkled and covered with downlike hair Fetus turns in uterus to assume a head-down position Fetus experiences rapid growth 12

13 Physical Changes: First Trimester Large increase in levels of hormones Breasts swell and tingle; development of mammary glands Need to urinate Morning sickness Vaginal discharges may increase Feelings of fatigue and sleepiness 13

14 Psychological Changes Depression is common Negative emotions Positive feelings 14

15 Physical Changes: Second Trimester Morning sickness disappears Constipation and nosebleeds sometimes occur Edema - water retention and swelling Colostrum may come out of the nipple 15

16 Psychological Changes Psychological well-being is greater among women who have social support Depression higher in some studies 16

17 The Father’s Role in Pregnancy Couvade syndrome - male pregnancy Symptoms(a condition in which a man experiences some of the same symptoms and behavior of an expectant mother.) The father-to-be - many choose to be actively involved Diversity in the contexts of pregnancy - there are lots of various family contexts that exist today 17

18 Sex During Pregnancy Intercourse can continue safely until 4 weeks before the baby is due 18

19 Nutrition During Pregnancy Diet during is extremely important Woman must get enough protein, folic acid, calcium, magnesium and vitamin A The fetus comes first – it draws the nutrients it needs first, and whatever is left is for mom 19

20 Nutrition Deficiencies Calcium – future risk of bone and tooth loss Folic acid – (folate) much higher risk of neural tube defects. (decreases risk by 50%) Zinc – malformations of the central nervous system 20

21 Effects of Drugs Taken During Pregnancy Teratogens - a substance that produces defects in a fetus Antibiotics - may damage fetus Alcohol - may cause fetal alcohol syndrome Cocaine - increased risk of premature birth 21

22 Effects of Drugs Taken During Pregnancy Steroids - can cause masculinization of a female fetus and other fetal damages Other drugs - check with physician and “when in doubt, don’t” Dads and drugs – drugs can damage sperm and their genetic content 22

23 Birth: The Beginning of Labor Bloody show(During pregnancy, your cervical opening becomes blocked with a thick plug of mucus that prevents bacteria from entering the uterus. When your cervix begins to loosen, this mucous plug is dislodged.) Amniotic sac ruptures Progesterone-withdrawal theory 23

24 The Stages of Labor Labor divided into 3 stages Parturition - whole process of childbirth 24

25 First-Stage Labor Regular contraction of uterus muscles Effacement Dilation Divided into 3 stages: – Early first-stage labor (0-5 cm) – Late first-stage labor (5-8 cm) – Transition phase (8-10cm) 25

26 Second-Stage Labor: Delivery Begins when cervix is fully dilated Urge to push or bear down Crowning – top of the head is visible Episiotomy may be performed – incision that is sometimes made at the vaginal entrance during birth Baby is born 26

27 Third-Stage Labor Placenta detaches from walls of the uterus Afterbirth is expelled Several contractions may accompany placental expulsion Episiotomy and tears are sewn up 27

28 Cesarean Section A method of delivering a baby surgically, by an incision in the abdomen Reasons to have a C Section: – Baby is too large, mother’s pelvis is too small – Cervix is not dilating – Umbilical cord prolapses(comes out of place) – Excessive bleeding – Placenta previa(blocks cervix) 28

29 After the Baby is Born: The Postpartum Period Physical changes – Hormones levels return to normal – Woman may feel exhausted – Discomfort from episiotomy Psychological changes – Postpartum depression 29

30 Attachment to the Baby Bonding can occur before baby is born Critical period of bonding occurs in minutes and hours immediately after birth 30

31 Sex During Postpartum Couple should wait at least 2 weeks before resuming intercourse If woman had an episiotomy, she may experience vaginal discomfort Sex may not be resumed for up to 6 weeks in some cases. 31

32 Breast-Feeding Biological mechanisms – Prolactin - stimulates breasts to produce milk – Oxytocin - stimulates breasts to eject milk Physical and mental health – Breast feeding is encouraged 32

33 Problem Pregnancies Ectopic pregnancy - fertilized egg implants somewhere other than the uterus Pseudocyesis - false pregnancy Pregnancy-induced hypertension – too much stress for mother to be able to handle. 33

34 Problem Pregnancies Viral illness during pregnancy Birth defects Rh incompatibility Miscarriage - spontaneous abortion Preterm birth 34

35 Infertility Refers to a woman’s inability to conceive and give birth to a living child, or a man’s inability to impregnate a woman Causes - can be either female factors or male factors 35

36 Causes in the Female Pelvic inflammatory disease Failure to ovulate Blockage of the fallopian tubes Hostile mucus 36

37 Causes in the Male Infections in the reproductive system caused by sexually transmitted diseases Low sperm count Low motility of the sperm 37

38 Combined Factors Immunologic response Lack of knowledge 38

39 Psychological Aspects of Infertility Couple subjected to psychological stress Man may feel that his masculinity or virility is in question 39

40 Treatment of Infertility Fertility drugs Microsurgery New reproductive technologies 40

41 Assisted Reproductive Technologies Artificial insemination - sperm are placed into vagina by means other than sexual intercourse Sperm banks Embryo transfer - embryo is transferred into uterus, usually from the lab. 41

42 New Reproductive Technologies Test-tube babies - in vitro fertilization - egg is fertilized by sperm in a laboratory dish GIFT - gamete intra-fallopian transfer ZIFT - zygote intra-fallopian transfer Cloning Gender selection 42

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