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Prenatal Development OBJECTIVES You will be able to…. Investigate the 3 periods of prenatal development Identify and describe the major components of the.

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Presentation on theme: "Prenatal Development OBJECTIVES You will be able to…. Investigate the 3 periods of prenatal development Identify and describe the major components of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prenatal Development OBJECTIVES You will be able to…. Investigate the 3 periods of prenatal development Identify and describe the major components of the 3 periods of prenatal development

2 TRIMESTERS Human gestation or pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, counting from the first day of your last normal period. The weeks are grouped into three trimesters (TREYE-mess-turs). 1 st TRIMESTER= Weeks 1-12 (germinal &embryonic) 2 nd TRIMESTER= Weeks 13-28 (fetal) 3 rd TRIMESTER = Weeks 29-40 (fetal)

3 The Germinal Period: The First 14 Days The zygote travels down the fallopian tube The zygote duplicates and multiplies When it grows to about 100 cells it is called a blastocyst At about a week the 100 cells in the blastocyst separate into two distinct masses – The outer cells become the placenta – The inner cells form a nucleus that will be the embryo

4 ZYGOTE

5 BLASTOCYST

6 The Germinal Period: The First 14 Days Pregnancy begins at conception (joining of sperm and egg) When the blastocyst embeds itself into the endometrium of the uterus, implantation has occurred. The organism will not become an embryo until implantation is successful. About ½ of all conceptions fail to grow or implant properly and thus do not survive the germinal period

7 IMPLANTATIO N http://www.babycenter.com/fetal-development- images-3-weeks Objectives: SWBAT…. Investigate the 3 periods of prenatal development Identify and describe the major components of the 3 periods of prenatal development

8 The Germinal Period: The First 14 Days

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11 Summary: Germinal Period LEFT HAND SIDE In your own words, summarize what the GERMINAL period means to you. Objectives: SWBAT…. Investigate the 3 periods of prenatal development Identify and describe the major components of the 3 periods of prenatal development

12 The Embryonic Period: From the 3 rd through 8 th week The formless mass of cells becomes a distinct being Embryo- the developing human from day 14 – day 56 A thin line ( called the primitive streak) appears down the middle of the embryo This will become the neural tube at day 22 and will eventually develop into the central nervous system, brain and spinal column

13 Neural Tube http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/ima ges/5/5f/Neuraltube_001.mp4 http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/ima ges/5/5f/Neuraltube_001.mp4 http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/ima ges/6/68/Human_embryo_tomography_Carn egie_stage_17.mp4 http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/ima ges/6/68/Human_embryo_tomography_Carn egie_stage_17.mp4

14 Think, Write, Pair, Share LEFT HAND SIDE Why do you think the central nervous system, brain, and spinal column are the first things to form? Write answer IN YOUR OWN WORDS pair up and share with partner Objectives: SWBAT…. Investigate the 3 periods of prenatal development Identify and describe the major components of the 3 periods of prenatal development

15 Pregnancy Month by Month http://www.babies.sutterhealth.org/babygro wth/fetaldev/ http://www.babies.sutterhealth.org/babygro wth/fetaldev/

16 The Embryonic Period: From the 3 rd through 8 th week The head appears the fourth week as eyes, ears, nose and mouth start to form A tiny blood vessel that will become the heart beings to pulsate around the fourth week Arm and leg buds emerge around the fifth week Upper arms, then forearms, palms and webbed fingers grow Legs, knees, feet and webbed toes can be seen a few days later Each have the beginning of a skeletal structure Day 52-54 the fingers and toes separate

17 The Embryonic Period: From the 3 rd through 8 th week The head develops first in a cephalocaudal pattern- Head to Tail The extremities (arms and legs) grow in a proximodistal pattern- Near to Far At the end of 8 weeks, embryo weighs about 1 gram and is 1 inch long. It has all basic organs and body parts (except sex organs) It’s movements are frequent about 150 times per hour but such movement is random and imperceptible.

18 http://embryo.soad.umich.edu/carnStages/sta ge20/stage20.html http://embryo.soad.umich.edu/carnStages/sta ge20/stage20.html

19 INTERESTING STUFF! On left hand side Write down something interesting or surprising that you learned about the EMBRYONIC PERIOD Objectives: SWBAT…. Investigate the 3 periods of prenatal development Identify and describe the major components of the 3 periods of prenatal development

20 The Embryonic Period: From the 3 rd through 8 th week

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24 Summary: EMBRYONIC PERIOD on left hand side Write down IN YOUR OWN WORDS a summary of what the Embryonic Period means to you. Objectives: SWBAT…. Investigate the 3 periods of prenatal development Identify and describe the major components of the 3 periods of prenatal development

25 The Fetal Period: From the 9 th Week Until Birth The organism is called a Fetus from the ninth week after conception until birth If the fetus is a male (XY) the SRY gene triggers the development of male sexual organs, otherwise female organs develop The male fetus experiences a rush of the hormone testosterone By the end of the third month, the sex organs are visible via ultrasound (sonogram) which uses sound waves to instead of radiation

26 Formation of the Genitals http://www.aisia.org/document/web/girl_and _boy/www.sickkids.ca/childphysiology/cpwp/ genital/genitaldevelopment.htm http://www.aisia.org/document/web/girl_and _boy/www.sickkids.ca/childphysiology/cpwp/ genital/genitaldevelopment.htm

27 Male gender With the male fetus, the genital tubercle usually creates an angle of greater than 30° with the lower part of the spine.

28 Female gender In the female fetuses, the genital tubercle protrudes in the same direction as the lower portion of the spine with an angle of less than 30° relative to the backbone.

29 The Fetal Period: From the 9 th Week Until Birth The head of the fetus comprises about half of the total body weight Facial features appear human in placement and shape by the third month In the fourth, fifth, and sixth months the heartbeat becomes stronger Digestive and excretory systems develop Fingernails, toenails and teeth buds form and hair starts to grow (even eyelashes!)

30 14 week fetus Ultrasound http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLXpXYo 7arM&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLXpXYo 7arM&feature=related

31 The Fetal Period: From the 9 th Week Until Birth Age of Viability- When a pre-term newborn can survive outside the womb 22 weeks is the current age of viability- with intensive medical treatment Even with the most advanced technology, life cannot be maintained without some brain response. As the brain matures and axons connect, the organs of the body begin to work in harmony

32 Question THINK- WRITE-PAIR-SHARE 22 week is the current age of viability, with intensive medical treatment… What do you think a fetus that under developed would need to survive outside the womb? Objectives: SWBAT…. Investigate the 3 periods of prenatal development Identify and describe the major components of the 3 periods of prenatal development

33 The Fetal Period: From the 9 th Week Until Birth The brain increases about six times in size Half a million brain cells are created per minute Might be the most important and crucial period for brain development The entire central nervous system becomes responsive during mid-pregnancy (4-6 months) Basic body functions like breathing, sucking, are regulated

34 The Fetal Period: From the 9 th Week Until Birth Age of Viability – Only means life outside the womb is possible… Intensive newborn care is necessary to keep the neonate alive, healthy, and free of disabilities.

35 The Fetal Period: From the 9 th Week Until Birth The last three months of prenatal life, the lungs begin to expand and contract The fetus begins to exercise breathing muscles by swallowing amniotic fluid as a substitute for air Heart valves mature Arteries and veins throughout the body also mature

36 World’s Tiniest Babies http://www.cbsnews.com/2300- 204_162-10010544.html

37 The Fetal Period: From the 9 th Week Until Birth The relationship between the mother and child intensifies during the final three months The mother’s sounds, tastes for food, and behavior patterns become part of the fetal consciousness Auditory communication from mother to child begins at the 28 th week and improves each week as fetal hearing becomes more acute

38 The Fetal Period: From the 9 th Week Until Birth The fetus startles and kicks at loud noises Listens to mother’s voice and heartbeat Is comforted by rhythmic music and movement If the mother is fearful or anxious, the fetal heart beats faster and body movements increase.

39 Carousel Activity


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