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Stages of Pregnancy.

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Presentation on theme: "Stages of Pregnancy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stages of Pregnancy

2 Objectives To evaluate the importance of good prenatal care
To summarize the signs, symptoms and trimesters of pregnancy To identify the stages of fetal growth and development To examine the birth process, stages of labor and delivery and possible complications

3 Signs and Symptoms Of Pregnancy Sign After Conception
Darkening of areola 1-14 weeks (first sign) Tender or swollen breasts 1-2 weeks Feelings of exhaustion 1-6 weeks Nausea and vomiting 2-8 weeks Missed period 2-4 weeks

4 Signs and Symptoms Of Pregnancy Sign After Conception
Frequent urination 6-8 weeks Fetal heart beat 10 weeks Fetal movement 16-22 weeks Backaches During entire pregnancy Frequent headaches Sometimes entire pregnancy Food cravings

5 Good Prenatal Care Exercise, good food and responsible prenatal care are the keys Get early prenatal care from doctor, even before you are pregnant Eat a well-balanced diet, including a vitamin supplement that contains folic acid avoid alcohol, cigarettes, illegal drugs limit caffeine Exercise regularly with your doctor’s permission Avoid x-rays, hot tubs, saunas and infections

6 Before You Become Pregnant
Make sure you are immune to rubella (German measles) Know your blood type Stop smoking Make sure your diet is healthy Get any illnesses you might have under control

7 See your healthcare professional once pregnancy is confirmed
Health Professional See your healthcare professional once pregnancy is confirmed Obstetrician Family practitioner Nurse-practitioner Nurse midwife

8 Medical Exams The doctor will Measure growth of the uterus
Listen to baby’s heartbeat Take mother’s blood pressure and weight Check her urine for evidence of protein or sugar Ask the mother questions and concerns blurred vision leg cramps abdominal cramps unusual headaches Sometimes perform ultrasound and genetic tests

9 Nutrition During Pregnancy
Pregnancy takes about 300 extra calories a day to maintain Recommended weight gain is pounds Balanced diet of protein, fruits, vegetables, whole grains and a minimum of sweets/fats 6-11 servings of breads, other whole grains 3-5 servings of vegetables 2-4 servings of fruit 4-6 servings of milk and dairy 3-4 servings of meat and protein 6-8 glasses of water, not more than one soft drink or cup of coffee per day

10 Nutrition During Pregnancy
Some nutrients have been found to provide specific benefit to mother and child Folic acid —reduces the risk of birth defects of the brain and spinal cord, referred to as the “neural tube” Calcium —helps prevent a new mother from losing her own bone density as the fetus uses the mineral for bone growth Iron —helps both the mother and baby’s blood carry oxygen Vitamin supplement —needed by most women to maintain adequate levels of these minerals

11 Nutrition During Pregnancy
2500 babies are born with neural tube defects each year Most common of these is spina bifida (spine is not closed) The exposed nerves are damaged, leaving the child with varying degrees of paralysis, incontinence and sometimes mental retardation Neural tube defects develop in the first 28 days after conception When is the time to start eating right for pregnancy?

12 Nutrition During Pregnancy
US Public Health Service recommends that all women of childbearing age get 400 micrograms of folic acid each day FDA now requires that all flour products, such as breads, buns and bagels be fortified with extra folic acid Sources of folic acid: citrus fruits green leafy vegetables nuts beans fortified cereals and vitamin supplements

13 Nutrition During Pregnancy
Avoid Smoking Higher risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and stillbirth Babies are more likely to have poor lung development, asthma, respiratory infections and die of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Second-hand smoke is also dangerous Alcohol Can damage a developing fetus Travels rapidly through bloodstream, baby drinks also Causes mental retardation and facial abnormalities, called fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

14 Nutrition During Pregnancy
Alcohol (cont.) Estimated 12,000 children are born with FAS in the US each year X-rays Exposes the fetus to radiation and can potentially cause birth defects Hot tubs and saunas Raises core temperature of a pregnant woman’s body and potentially harm the fetus Medications No medications should be taken (even over the counter) unless approved by doctor

15 Nutrition During Pregnancy
Exercise According to medical evidence, even a rigorous workout is healthy during pregnancy Check with doctor before beginning a new exercise routine Drink plenty of water Staying in shape helps to maintain stamina during labor

16 Testing for Birth Defects
If doctor feels it is necessary Ultrasound—uses high-frequency sound waves to form pictures of the fetus on a computer screen can verify due date determine causes of bleeding check for overall health, development, sex and position of the baby measure the amniotic fluid check condition of the placenta

17 Testing for Birth Defects
Alpha-fetoprotein Screening (AFP)—measures the levels of alpha-fetoprotein in the mother’s blood abnormal levels can indicate a brain or spinal cord defect, presence of twins, a miscalculated due date or an increased risk of Down syndrome Chorionic Villi Sampling (CVS)—inserts a catheter or needle into the womb and extracts some of the chorionic villi (cells from the tissue that will become the placenta) can detect same abnormalities as amniocentesis

18 Testing for Birth Defects
Amniocentesis—examines the cells shed by the fetus into the surrounding amniotic fluid performed about 16 weeks into pregnancy involves inserting a long, thin needle through the mother’s abdomen to extract fluid from the womb indicates chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, Tay-Sach disease and others can also assess the maturity of the baby’s lungs in the last trimester

19 When Will Baby Be Born? Pregnancy lasts about 280 days, 9 months or 40 weeks To figure due date: 1. Find the day the mother’s last period started 2. Count backwards 3 months 3. Add 7 days The baby will be born on or around that due date, give or take two weeks before or after

20 Weight Gain Plan to gain 25-35 pounds TOTAL 25 pounds Baby 7 ½ lbs.
Placenta 1 ½ lbs. Uterus 2 lbs. Amniotic fluid Breasts 1 lb. Extra blood 3 lbs. Tissue and fluid Mother’s reserves 5 lbs. TOTAL 25 pounds

21 Quiz 1 Name three symptoms of pregnancy.
What might a health care professional do in a pregnancy checkup? What are 2 components of good prenatal care? List 4 things that should be avoided during pregnancy. The recommended amount of weight gain is ___ to ___ pounds. Answers: Answers will vary, slides 3 & 4 Measure growth of the uterus Listen to baby’s heartbeat Take mother’s blood pressure and weight Check her urine for evidence of protein or sugar Ask the mother questions and concerns 3. Answers will vary, slide 5, ex. Exercise regularly with your doctor’s permission, Maintain a well-balanced, nutritious diet containing folic acid 4. x-rays, hot tubs, saunas & infections pounds

22 Conception Ovulation—woman’s ovary usually releases
just one fertile egg The egg is drawn into the Fallopian tube which leads to the uterus If sperm are present in the tube, the egg will be fertilized (conception) and continue its journey to the uterus Once fertilization occurs it takes about 3-4 days to reach the uterus Once inside the egg cell, the sperm will release the genetic material it has been carrying The newly fertilized egg cell will divide many times before reaching the uterus

23 Conception Sperm’s genetic material (23 chromosomes) will
combine with the eggs genetic material (23 chromosomes) Newly formed cell now has 46 chromosomes and is called a zygote The process of cell division Is called mitosis After many divisions, there will be a mass of cells, each cell containing the identical genetic material present in the first fertilized egg cell Implantation of the fertilized egg cell in the wall of the uterus--complete by about the 10th day after conception

24 Fertilization Facts Did you know?
Only about 50 sperm will ever reach the egg and compete to be the one single sperm to break through the egg’s protective layer Sperm can live about 48 hours inside the uterus Did you know? Almost half of the sperm will die shortly after release and more will die while searching for the fertile egg The male deposits approximately 2-3 million sperm, which have been developing for about 30 days

25 First Trimester 1 through 12 weeks Zygote— first two weeks
Embryo— two weeks to eight weeks Fetus— eight weeks to birth 3rd week— after implantation, a row of cells begins to form inside the cell mass this begins the embryo Placenta keeps baby’s blood separate from the mother’s, but allows smaller particles to pass 4th week— the embryo is about 1/8 inch long Internal organs form without an abdominal cavity surrounding Heart starts beating on the 18th day

26 First Trimester 4th week (cont.)—arm and leg buds soon appear
Head and brain area still compose about 1/3 of the embryo’s mass The still small embryo is attached to the placenta by the umbilical cord Placenta firmly attached to the mother’s uterine wall Placenta—allows small particles in mother’s blood to pass through to embryo’s blood, waste is also passed through placenta to the mother’s blood 5 weeks—embryo is about 1/3 inch long Other facial features begin to develop 6 weeks—spinal column is clearly visible

27 First Trimester 6 ½ weeks—umbilical cord contains 2 arteries (from embryo to placenta) and 1 vein (back from placenta to embryo)—mother and embryo blood does not mingle 7 ½ weeks—embryo (1 inch) attached to placenta via umbilical cord 8 weeks—embryo is now called a fetus 10 weeks—fetus is about 2 inches and growing quickly Fetus has eyes, eye lids, nose, lips, fingers, among other human features 12 weeks—3 inches long, systems of body are well developed, organs more or less complete Heart pumps about fifty pints of blood through the circulatory system each day

28 Second Trimester 13 through 27 weeks
16 weeks—4th month, baby grows more rapidly, and reaches a length of 8 inches Blood vessels are visible through thin, loose skin 18 weeks—fetal “quickening” felt as baby moves and kicks 20 weeks—white, cheese-like substance, vernix, forms to protect baby’s skin from chapping in amniotic fluid 6th month—fetus develops layer of fat beneath skin and lanugo, fine hair, covers head and body 24 weeks—baby stands slight chance of survival if born now—said to be “viable”

29 Third Trimester Signs that labor is about to begin 28th week to birth
During last two months, fetus increases in weight by almost 1 ounce a day Baby settles into a curled position, usually head down Last month—”lightening” occurs, baby drops into lower pelvis Signs that labor is about to begin Loss of mucous plug Nesting instinct Loss of weight Increase in appetite

30 Quiz 2 When and where does conception take place?
The fertilized egg is called a ________ in the first two weeks. The baby from the 2nd week to the 8th week is called a(n) ________. From the 8th week to birth, baby is called a _____. By the _____ week, all major organs are present. Answers: Conception takes place in the Fallopian Tube when a sperm penetrates the egg. Zygote Embryo Fetus 12th week

31 Labor Labor Series of continuous, progressive contractions of the uterus which help the cervix to open (dilate) and to thin (efface), allowing the fetus to move through the birth canal Usually starts two weeks before or after the due date, What triggers the onset of labor is still a mystery

32 Signs of Labor Bloody show—small amounts of mucous, slightly mixed with blood; expelled from vagina Uterine contractions—uterine muscle spasms occurring at intervals of less than 10 minutes, usually indicate that labor has begun; contractions become more frequent and severe Rupture of amniotic membranes—(water breaks) labor sometimes begins with amniotic fluid gushing or leaking from vagina; most women go into labor within 24 hours of rupture

33 Stages of Labor First Stage (dilation of cervix)
Contractions are more frequent (usually 5 to 20 minutes apart) Dilation of the cervix is necessary for the fetus to move through the birth canal Contractions become more frequent and intense, occur every 2 to 4 minutes and last between 45 and 60 seconds Cervix is completely dilated to 10 centimeters at the end of this stage Epidural block may be given during first stage; local anesthetic delivered to block pain from waist to feet

34 Stages of Labor Second Stage (expulsion of fetus)
Begins with cervix completely opened and ends with delivery of baby Also called “pushing” stage “Crowning” occurs when baby’s head is visible at opening of vagina Doctor may perform an episiotomy—a small incision in the skin below the vagina, prevents tearing of the vaginal tissues as the baby emerges Usually most painful stage May last 10 minutes to 2 hours

35 Third Stage (expulsion of the placenta)
Stages of Labor Third Stage (expulsion of the placenta) Lasts from a few minutes to 30 minutes Mild contractions Placenta (organ that has nourished the baby inside of the uterus) is expelled Average labor and delivery time is 12 to 14 hours, but any length of time up to 24 hours is considered normal

36 Types of Birth Vaginal—baby delivered through the birth canal
Caesarean—fetus is delivered through an incision in the mother’s abdomen

37 Conditions under which Caesarean delivery may be recommended
Breech presentation (fetus is feet or buttocks first) Unfavorable shape of pelvis Large fetus (over 8 lbs.) Premature rupture of amniotic sac Active genital herpes Fetal distress (significant increase or decrease in fetal heart rate Prolonged pregnancy (more than 42 weeks)

38 Diagnosing the Infant Apgar scale—a simple and effective method of diagnosing potential problems in full-term and preterm newborns Baby is examined for five vital signs Heart rate Respiration Skin color Muscle tone Reflex response

39 Diagnosing the Infant Apgar scale scores 3 or lower indicates that
emergency medical attention is needed Performed at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth 7-10 indicates child is in good condition 4-6 indicates that assistance is needed

40 Becoming Parents Becoming parents affects your relationship
Reality of caring for the baby can be overwhelming Lack of sleep is a factor in the early months of baby’s life Less energy and lack of sleep turn errands and housework into difficult chores, not able to concentrate, irritable Feelings of jealousy Pregnancy temporarily robs mom of former body Less interested in intimacy Overwhelming company and advice from friends and family May have different approaches to parenting

41 Becoming Parents New parents checklist Communication is the best
tool to diminish anger and prevent arguments Find time to be together as a couple Be aware of one another’s emotions and needs Enjoy the time with your new baby

42 Quiz 3 Define labor. List the three signs of labor.
List and explain the three stages of labor. What is caesarean birth? What is the name of the test performed on infants after birth? Answers: Labor- Series of continuous, progressive contractions of the uterus which help the cervix to open (dilate) and to thin (efface), allowing the fetus to move through the birth canal Bloody show—small amounts of mucous, slightly mixed with blood; expelled from vagina Uterine contractions—uterine muscle spasms occurring at intervals of less than 10 minutes, usually indicate that labor has begun; contractions become more frequent and severe Rupture of amniotic membranes—(water breaks) labor sometimes begins with amniotic fluid gushing or leaking from vagina; most women go into labor within 24 hours of rupture 3. First Stage (dilation of cervix) Contractions are more frequent (usually 5 to 20 minutes apart) Dilation of the cervix is necessary for the fetus to move through the birth canal Contractions become more frequent and intense, occur every 2 to 4 minutes and last between 45 and 60 seconds Cervix is completely dilated to 10 centimeters at the end of this stage Epidural block may be given during first stage; local anesthetic delivered to block pain from waist to feet Second Stage (expulsion of fetus) Begins with cervix completely opened and ends with delivery of baby Also called “pushing” stage “crowning” occurs when baby’s head is visible at opening of vagina Doctor may perform an episiotomy—a small incision in the skin below the vagina, prevents tearing of the vaginal tissues as the baby emerges Usually most painful stage May last 10 minutes to 2 hours Third Stage (expulsion of the placenta) Lasts from a few minutes to 30 minutes Mild contractions Placenta (organ that has nourished the baby inside of the uterus) is expelled 4. Caesarean—fetus is delivered through an incision in the mother’s abdomen 5. APGAR test

43 Quiz 3 How does becoming a parent affect your relationship?
(cont.) How does becoming a parent affect your relationship? What is one of the first signs of pregnancy? What should women avoid during their pregnancy? Define amniocentesis. Pregnancy is divided into __________. Answers: 6. Answers will vary, slide 40 7. Darkening of areola 8. X-rays, saunas, hot tubs, infections 9. Amniocentesis—examines the cells shed by the fetus into the surrounding amniotic fluid 10. Trimesters

44 Acknowledgements KidsHealth. 2002. www.kidshealth.org
Babyonline.com Williams, Rebecca D. Food and Drug Administration. “Healthy Pregnancy, Healthy Baby.” vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fdbaby2.html Childbirth.org Production Coordinators Treena Aston Allison Mangold Production Manager Geoff Scott Executive Producer G.W. Davis © MMIII, MMIV CEV Multimedia, Ltd.


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