Presentation on theme: "Development, Parturition, Genetics and Inheritance Nestor T. Hilvano, M.D., M.P.H. (Illustrations Copyright by Frederic H. Martini, Pearson Publication."— Presentation transcript:
Development, Parturition, Genetics and Inheritance Nestor T. Hilvano, M.D., M.P.H. (Illustrations Copyright by Frederic H. Martini, Pearson Publication Inc., and The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.)
Learning Objectives 1.Describe the process of fertilization. 2.Describe the events that transform a fertilized egg into an embryo. 3.Describe fetal development. 4.Describe the formation and function of placenta. 5.Identify the major tissues derived from the primary germ layers. 6.Discuss the stages of labor. 7.Describe the fetal circulation and the changes at birth. 8.Discuss inheritance and mutation. Cite common causes of genetic abnormalities.
Introduction Development – modification of structural and functional characteristics from fertilization to maturity. Fertilization – conception Embryo – first 2 months after fertilization Fetus – start of 9 th week until birth Prenatal – embryological and fetal development Postnatal – from birth to aging process.
Gestation First Trimester –Period of embryo and early fetal development –Rudiments of all major organ systems appear Second Trimester –Development of organs and organ systems –By end, fetus looks distinctively human Third Trimester –Rapid fetal growth and deposition of adipose tissue –Most major organ systems are fully functional 4 th month
Fertilization Events of Spermatozoa prior to fertilization a) Capacitation of sperm – sperm membrane becomes fragile and permeable to Ca 2+ upon contact w/ seminal gland’s secretion and exposure in vagina b) Acrosomal reaction – release of enzymes from sperm penetrates granulosa cells then zona pellucida hyaluronidase and acrosin
Fertilization Secondary oocyte completes meiosis if fertilized = called a zygote Zygote undergoes cleavage and blastocyst formation Implantation occurs 7 days after fertilization at ______
Ectopic Pregnancy Blastocyst implants outside uterus –1 out of 300 pregnancies –most cases occur in _____________ –Tube ruptures by 12 weeks
Twins Dizygotic twins –2 eggs are ovulated and fertilized (2 zygotes) Monozygotic twins –1 egg is fertilized (1 zygote) but splits into 2 Conjoined twins
Gastrulation & Organogenesis What is gastrulation? Formation of organs from primary germ layers –at 8 weeks, all organs are present Derivatives of ectoderm –epidermis, nervous system, lens and cornea, internal ear Derivatives of mesoderm –skeleton, muscle, cartilage, blood, lymphoid tissue, gonads and ducts, kidneys and ureters Derivatives of endoderm –gut and respiratory epithelium and glands, bladder and urethra
Placenta Surface facing fetus is smooth and connected to fetus by umbilical cord Uterine surface consists of chorion frondosum (fetal part) and decidua basalis (maternal part)
Fetal Development and Circulation Fetus = from 9 weeks until birth –organs mature to support external life Fetal circulation –umbilical-placental circuit via umbilical cord –circulatory shunts ductus venosus connects to inferior vena cava foramen ovale connecting right and left atria ductus arteriosus connects pulmonary trunk to aorta
Blood Circulation Before and After Birth
Pregnancy and Childbirth Gestation: pregnancy –lasts an average of 266 days (38 weeks) from conception to childbirth –gestational calendar measured from first day of the woman’s last menstrual period (LMP) Birth predicted 280 days (40 weeks) from LMP Premature delivery – birth at 28 – 36 weeks.
3 Stages of Labor Cervical dilatation – usually last over 8 hrs., water breaks Delivery of infant – less than 2 hrs. Passage of placenta -
Stages of Labor
Puerperium First 6 weeks after delivery Anatomy and physiology return to normal –involution of uterus to pre-gravid weight in 4 weeks accomplished by autolysis by lysosomal enzymes –vaginal discharge called lochia –breastfeeding promotes involution suppresses estrogen secretion stimulates oxytocin which causes myometrial contraction
Mutagens and Genetic Anomalies I________ – transfer of genetically determined characteristics G_______ – study of mechanisms responsible for inheritance. Mutagen = is any agent that alters DNA or chromosome structure Most common genetic disorders - nondisjunction of chromosomes during meiosis. - can be detected prior to birth with amniocentesis (examining fetal cells from amniotic fluid) or chorionic villus sampling (examine placental cells)
Down Syndrome Trisomy 21 Occurs in proportion to age of mother Effects include: - ____________
Male Klinefelter Syndrome 47 XXY Effects include ___________
Homework 1.Define terms: ectopic pregancy, cleavage, capacitation, acrosomal reaction, blastocyst, puerperium, chorion frondosum, decidua basalis, gastrulation, genetic, inheritance, trisomy 21, and klinefilter syndrome. 2.Describe the 3 stages of labor. 3.Review blood circulation during fetal life and identify fate of fetal structures after birth. 4.Identify the primary germ layers and name an example/s of each.