2IntroductionChildbirth is one of the most amazing processes that a female can experience.The miracle of life cannot be regarded lightly, or without a natural curiosity as to how it all happens.Fertilization, development and birth are where much of the mystery of life takes place.During our disscussion today, we’ll consider the major aspects of fetal development.
3Fertilization, the initial step where and sperm unite, leads to the formation of a zygote.Cells of the corona radiata nourished the egg following its releasefrom the follicle. Now they serves as protection.The zona pellucida is analogous to a cell membrane.
4FerilizationOnly one sperm usually enters the egg during fertilization.Upon entry of the first sperm, changes in the egg’s plasma membrane and zona pellucida prevent additional eggs from entering.If multiple sperm do get in, then a condition of polyspermy occurs.Retracting of the zona pellucida away from the egg surface further prevents fertilization by “rogue sperm.”
5Human Development at a Glance Cell development immediately following fertilization consists of multiple cell divisions without an increase in mass, known as cleavage. (Rem: 2, 4, 8, 16, etc.)jCellular growth occurs during embryonic development.Following cell growth, a period of morphogenesis takes place when the embryo is shaped.Finally, cells begin to take on specific functions during the differentiation stage.
6Extraembryonic membranes, outside the embryo also serve various function in embryonic development.Chorion:placentaYolk sac:blood cellformationAllantois:unbilicalchordAmnion: aminioticfluid
7Pre-embyronic Development: Cells within the morula and blastocystare undifferentiated.Identical twin development is possible during this time.
8Embryonic Development Week 2:Implantation occursTrophoblast secretions digest endometrium to prepare implantation sight.Human chorionic gonadotropin is secreted at this time as well, which ensures that the uterine lining isn’t shed, resulting in a miscarriage.Also, the amiotic cavity (fluid) is formed to protect the developing embyro and later the fetus.
10Embryonic Development Week 2:Gastrulation (a type of morphogenesis) occurs and three cellular layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) are formed.All organs can be traced back to the development of on of these tissues.
11Embryonic Development Week 3:Formation of the nervous system is now taking place.Spinal chord formation from the nerual tube is evident.The heart also begins to form.
12Embryonic Development Week 4-5:Right now the embryo isn’t any larger than a small ant.Development of the umbilical chord, limb buds, ears, eyes and a nose begins.
13Embryonic Development Week 6-8:Human form is easily recognized during this stage of development.Reflex actions from a maturing nervous system are also evident.Placental development continues.
16-The placenta is the medium through which nutrients, wastes, and oxygen are transferred to the fetus from the mother.-Maternal blood rarely mixes with fetal blood, since passage of nutrition,etc. takes place by difusion.-Because of this process, the main organs of the fetus do not function.-REM: Anything mom gets, baby gets (more later)!
17Fetal Development From the 3rd through the 9th month its all fetus! 3rd & 4th Month (6 oz.):Appearance of fingernails, nipples, eyelashes, eybrows, and hair are all epidermal developments during this stage.Cartilage to bone transformation occursFontanels (become skull) allow flexibility of head during birth.We can hear the fetal heartbeat too!
18Fetal Development5th & 7th Month (3lbs.)Football season begins!!(or so my wife thought)Fetal movement is obvious!Formation of the lanugo (downy covering on skin) and vernix caseosa (cheese-like covering) complete.Babies born prematurely at this stage of development have an excellent chance of surviving.
19Fetal Development 8th-9th Month (>7lbs.) Fetus rotates in preparation for birth (if not, then breech and caesarean section is necessary.)At the end of 9 months contractions may begin to occur.Braxton Hicks contractions may occur and result in false labor.True labor is marked by contractions lasting 40 seconds in duration, occuring every minutes.
21Among the manychanges which femalesexperience during pregnancy,development of breastmilk isone of the most important fornew born fetuses.Also,Weight gainConstipationHormonal fluxCravingsMorning sicknessIt’s all good, right?
24Michael ClancyVanderbilt University Medical Center: Samuel Armas' tiny hand reaches out of the womb to grip Dr. Joseph P. Bruner's finger during a radical spinal bifita procedure at 21 weeks!The photographer (Michael Clancy) became an active pro-life advocate following this event!