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Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 24: Development and Birth.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 24: Development and Birth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 24: Development and Birth

2 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Overview

3 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Pregnancy Learning Outcomes 1. Describe fertilization and the early development of the fertilized egg. 2. Describe the structure and function of the placenta. 3. Describe how fetal circulation differs from adult circulation. 4. Briefly describe changes that occur in the embryo, fetus, and mother during pregnancy.

4 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Key Terms abortionfetusobstetrics amniotic sacgestationoxytocin chorionhuman chorionic parturition colostrum gonadotropin (hCG) placenta embryoimplantation umbilical cord fertilizationlactation zygote

5 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Pregnancy Gestation begins with fertilization and ends with delivery Approximately 38 weeks All fetal tissues differentiate from single fertilized egg

6 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Fertilization and the Start of Pregnancy Vagina receives semen Sperm dissolve egg cell coating, penetrate plasma membrane Sperm, egg combine in single cell (zygote) Zygote divides into cell cluster, moves to uterus Cluster becomes embryo

7 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Figure 24-1 The female reproductive system. Where is the ovum fertilized?

8 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease The Placenta Organ of nutrition, respiration, excretion for developing offspring Embryonic cluster forms villi (projections) Projections invade uterine wall, maternal blood channels (venous sinuses) Embryonic layer and uterine lining form placenta

9 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease The Umbilical Cord Connects embryo to placenta Carries blood to and from fetus Fetus has special circulatory features

10 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Fetal Circulation Circulatory adaptations to bypass nonfunctional lungs Umbilical vein from mother carries blood to liver Most blood added to deoxygenated blood in inferior vena cava via ductus venosus Foramen ovale in atrial septum bypasses right ventricle and pulmonary circuit Ductus arteriosus connects pulmonary artery to descending aorta Two umbilical arteries return blood to placenta for oxygenation Adaptations close after birth of baby. Failure to close results in congenital defects.

11 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Figure 24-2 Fetal circulation and section of placenta. What is signified by the purple color in this illustration?

12 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease

13 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Pregnancy ✓ Checkpoints 24-1What structure is formed by the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon? 24-2What organ nourishes the developing fetus? 24-3What is the function of the umbilical cord? 24-4Fetal circulation is adapted to bypass what organs?

14 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Hormones and Pregnancy Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) Progesterone Estrogen Human placental lactogen (hPL, Relaxin)

15 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease

16 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Development of the Embryo Embryology is study of growth during first 8 weeks of life Nervous system begins to form Heart and blood vessels originate Limb buds form Human appearance

17 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Development of the Fetus Offspring from month 3 until birth Organs grow and mature Ovaries form Most rapid growth months four to six (second trimester) Can determine sex Amniotic sac Vernix caseosa

18 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Figure 24-3 Development of an embryo and early fetus.

19 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Figure 24-4 Human embryos at different stages and early fetus.

20 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Metabolic Changes in the Mother Heart pumps more blood Lungs increase respiration Kidneys excrete waste from fetus and mother Digestive system supplies additional nutrients Nausea and vomiting common Urinary frequency and constipation common

21 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Figure 24-5 Midsagittal section of a pregnant uterus with intact fetus. What structure connects the fetus to the placenta?

22 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease The Use of Ultrasound in Obstetrics Safe, painless, noninvasive method used to Diagnose pregnancy Judge fetal age Determine location of placenta Show presence of excess amniotic fluid and fetal abnormalities

23 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Figure 24-6 Sonography.

24 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Figure 24-7 Comparison of positive and negative feedback. What possible forces can stop a positive feedback system?

25 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Pregnancy ✓ Checkpoints 24-5At about what time in gestation does the heartbeat first appear? 24-6What is the name of the fluid-filled sac that holds the fetus? 24-7What is the approximate duration of pregnancy in days from the time of fertilization?

26 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Childbirth

27 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Childbirth Factors That Start Labor Uterine muscle stretching stimulates prostaglandin production Pressure on cervix stimulates posterior pituitary to release oxytocin Placenta changes Fetal cortisol inhibits mother’s progesterone Increase of estrogen relative to progesterone

28 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease The Four Stages of Labor 1.Uterine contractions 2.Delivery of baby 3.Expulsion of afterbirth 4.Contraction of the uterus

29 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Figure 24-8 Stages of labor.

30 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Cesarean Section Incision made in abdominal wall and uterine wall for fetal delivery May be required for –Placental abnormality –Abnormal fetal position –Disproportion between head of fetus and mother’s pelvis

31 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Multiple Births Two Types of Twins Fraternal –Two different ova –Two placentas and surrounding sacs Identical –Single ovum –Embryonic cells separate into two units –Usually single placenta –Separate umbilical cords –Always same sex

32 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Pregnancy Outcomes Live birth –Immature (premature) infant Loss of fetus –Abortion –Fetal death –Stillbirth

33 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease

34 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Childbirth ✓ Checkpoints 24-8What is parturition? 24-9What is a cesarean section?

35 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease The Mammary Glands and Lactation Learning Outcomes 5. Name the hormones active in lactation and describe the action of each. 6. Cite the advantages of breastfeeding.

36 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease The Mammary Glands and Lactation Structure of the Mammary Glands Lobes Lactiferous ducts Function of the Mammary Glands Milk secretion Colostrum; first mammary secretion

37 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Figure 24-9 Section of the breast (mammary gland). What muscle underlies the breast?

38 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease The Mammary Glands and Lactation Hormones of Lactation Human placental lactogen (hpl) Prolactin Oxytocin Benefits of Breastfeeding Reduces infections Transfers antibodies Provides optimal nutrition Provides emotional satisfaction

39 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease ✓ The Mammary Glands and Lactation Checkpoint 24-10What is lactation?

40 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Disorders of Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Lactation Learning Outcome 7. Describe several disorders associated with pregnancy, childbirth, and lactation.

41 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Pregnancy-Related Disorders Ectopic pregnancy Placental disorders –Placenta previa –Abruptio placentae –Hydatidiform mole –Choriocarcinoma Gestational diabetes Pregnancy-induced hypertension –Preeclampsia –Eclampsia

42 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Figure Ectopic pregnancy.

43 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Figure Placental abnormalities.

44 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Postpartum Disorders Puerperal infection Postpartum depression

45 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Lactation Disturbances Malnutrition Emotional disturbances Mammary gland abnormalities Mastitis

46 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Disorders of Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Lactation ✓ Checkpoints 24-11What is an ectopic pregnancy? 24-12What is puerperal infection?

47 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Case Study Learning Outcome 8. Referring to the case study, describe some of the events that occur during each phase of labor.

48 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Case Study Events That Occur During the Phases of Labor Stage 1: Cervix dilates, contractions begin Stage 2: Cervix is fully dilated, contractions severe, baby is delivered Stage 3: Delivery of placenta Stage 4: Uterine contractions to return uterus to pre- pregnancy size and shape

49 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Word Anatomy Learning Outcome 9. Show how word parts are used to build words related to development and birth

50 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease Word Anatomy

51 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cohen: Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease


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