2ObjectivesUnderstand the reproductive anatomy of the male and female body.Know how conception happens.Describe the growth and development of the fetus through the trimesters of pregnancy.List the health complications and genetic diseases associated with pregnancy.Understand the three stages of labor and various methods of childbirth.Know the effects of the postpartum period on the mother.
3Internal Male Reproductive Anatomy TestesEpididymisVas deferensAmpullaSeminal vesicleEjaculatory ductProstate glandCowper’s glandUrethra(continued)
7Menstrual Cycle Stage 1: Menstrual period occurs. Stage 2: Ovum matures while endometrium builds up.Stage 3: Ovulation occurs.Stage 4: Endometrium continues to thicken.
8Conception Conception is also known as fertilization. Conception takes place when a sperm cell penetrates the ovum, uniting the two.The conception process takes 24 hours or longer.
9ImplantationThe fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus.It then implants into the endometrium.The process from fertilization to implantation takes between 10 and 12 days.
10Infertility About 10% to 15% of American couples are infertile. Couples are classified as infertile when they are unable to conceive within 12 months.
11Female InfertilityFemale infertility accounts for approximately 40% of infertility in couples.Cervical factor infertility is where the cervical mucus of a female contains antibodies that attack the sperm.In endometriosis, endometrial cells break free and grow elsewhere.Anovulation is the failure to ovulate.Infections or abnormalities may also block the sperm from reaching the ovum.
12Male InfertilityMale infertility also accounts for approximately 40% of infertility in couples.Abnormal or malformed sperm means heads or tails are misshaped, affecting life span or ability to swim.Low motility refers to the ability for self-propulsion.Sperm may be abnormal or sparse for several reasons.Excessive heat in the scrotum can cause temporary low sperm count.
13Alternative Ways of Conceiving Artificial inseminationIn vitro fertilization (IVF)Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)Donor IVFEmbryonic transferIntracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)SurrogacyAdoption
14Pregnancy Tests Blood or urine tests detect HCG hormone. At-home pregnancy tests have a 97% sensitivity to HCG.
15PregnancyThe average pregnancy (gestation period) lasts 266 days from time of fertilization. This is about 9 months.The time is evenly broken into three-month increments called trimesters.Unless advised otherwise, most women do not need to change their sexual activity during pregnancy.
16First Trimester Fetal development Mother development The first 2 months of pregnancy are called the embryonic stage. During this stage, the placenta, amniotic sac, and umbilical cord develop.By the end of the third month, the fetus can recognize external stimuli.Mother developmentMother may experience nausea, more commonly known as morning sickness.Mother experiences breast tenderness and growth.Mother’s appetite changes.
17Second Trimester Fetal development Mother development The lungs develop.The fetus’ movements may be felt by the mother.The heartbeat becomes stronger and louder.Mother developmentMother’s waistline expands and she might get stretch marks.Mother’s nipples and areolas may darken, and the nipples may leak fluid called colostrum.Mother may choose to have an amniocentesis.
18Third Trimester Fetal development Mother development The brain and nervous system are now fully formed.The fetus builds up fat under its skin.The fetus increases in size.The fetus prepares for childbirth.Mother developmentMother can feel the added weight of the baby.Mother may experience frequent urges to urinate, leg cramps, and shortness of breath.
19Pregnancy Complications Complications from mother’s health conditions, such as rubella, diabetes, toxemia, and sexually transmitted infectionsComplications from use of drugs (including nicotine, vitamins, and over-the-counter drugs) and alcoholEctopic pregnancyMiscarriage (spontaneous abortion)Diseases with genetic causes, such as cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, or Down syndrome
20Labor: Stage 1 Stage 1 labor lasts anywhere from 12 to 24 hours. Contractions last from 20 to 40 seconds and come at intervals of 10 to 20 minutes. Later in the stage, contractions become stronger, longer, more frequent, and regular.The cervix effaces and dilates to 10 centimeters.The baby begins to move into the birth canal (vagina).(continued)
22Labor: Stage 2Stage 2 labor lasts anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours.The baby crowns and is pushed out of the vaginal canal.Mucus and blood are wiped away from the mouth and nose.The umbilical cord is cut.(continued)
26Cesarean SectionA short horizontal incision is made at the base of the abdomen.A second incision is made in the uterus.The amniotic fluid is suctioned and the baby is lifted out.In 2005, 30.3% of U.S. births were delivered by C-sections.
27Methods of Childbirth Birthing suites At-home births Midwives and doulasWater births
28Complications During Childbirth Breech babiesFour out of 100 babies are born in a breech position.Instead of the head being delivered first, the buttocks are.Prolonged laborStrong contractions fail to bring about the expected delivery.Cervix may not dilate fully.(continued)
29Complications During Childbirth (continued) Premature laborLabor begins before the 37th week.Babies may also be considered premature if they weigh less than 5 lb (2.2 kg).Anoxia (oxygen deprivation)Umbilical cord is squeezed.This constricts the baby’s oxygen supply.
30PostpartumPostpartum depression is a severe case of the postpartum blues, characterized by extreme sadness, despair, low self-esteem, and apathy.Menstrual cycle and ovulation may be delayed up to 3 months after delivery.Sex after delivery should wait for a few weeks after childbirth.Breast-feeding is the mother’s choice.Breast-feed for at least 1 year.Begin within 1 hour of delivery.