Development and Behavior People experience many physical and emotional changes over a lifetime. Life continuum
Conception to Birth Conception- when a sperm fertilizes an ovum. This combination creates a Zygote The zygote rapidly multiplies into an Embryo At 12 weeks (3 months) the embryo is called a Fetus Babies are born at 38-40 weeks.
Month 1 In the week following fertilization, the zygote undergoes rapid cell division and becomes a mass of cells known as a blastocyst.
Month 2 This month, the embryo’s development shifts into high gear. Its tongue, teeth and eyelids start to form. Its limbs grow longer and stronger, and its palate is nearly complete. Also in this time period, the embryo’s gastrointestinal tract separates from its urogenital organs and its heart begins beating—twice as fast as yours, in fact.
Month 3 This is also a time of rapid growth inside the womb. By month’s end, the fetus will weight roughly 1 ounce, and it will double in length, uncurling from a tight C-position until it’s about 3 inches long. The tail will disappear and its eyelids, earlobes, limbs and digits will continue to form. Other developmental milestones for this period include thumb-sucking, head-nodding and balling tiny fingers into fists. And though the fetus’s reproductive organs now are under construction, it’s still a bit early for the doctor’s gender declaration.
Month 4 this month, the fetus can hear its mother’s heartbeat, her voice and other outside noises. The fetus is also developing at warp speed; by now, all its major organs are complete. bones are growing stronger and its muscles longer. Its reflexes also are sharpening up—it can now swallow, kick and execute an occasional somersault with relative ease.
Month 5 Month 5 the fetus measures 8 to 10 inches long and tips the scales at 1 pound. The fetus now has tiny white eyelashes and two arching eyebrows. Lanugo- Fine woolly hairs, blanket its body and its bare head also sports a few sprouts. Vernix Caseosa- the waxy or "cheesy" white substance found coating the skin of newborn humans
Month 6 The facial features are becoming more recognizable. It also can hiccup and react to loud “outside” noises by blinking, shifting or kicking. By month’s end, the fetus will measure about 12 or 13 inches long and weigh roughly 2 pounds End of the second trimester. At this point, the fetus’s essential organs—its kidneys, heart and lungs— are fully formed.
Month 7 The 7-month-old fetus can blink, and its eyes may even remain open for short period of time. Hands and feet are becoming even more active Taste buds form and protective fat tissue makes its debut the baby-to-be will measure 14 to 16 inches long and weigh anywhere from 2 ½ to 3 ½ pounds.
Month 8 the fetus’s brain develops rapidly, and all of its organs except the lungs are mature. 16 to 18 inches long and weighs between 4 and 6 pounds. space in the womb becomes scarce
Month 9 the fetus’s fat layers thicken to help keep it warm outside the womb, and the protective layers of vernix caseosa and lanugo largely disappear. To prepare itself for delivery, the fetus changes position and drops down in its mother’s pelvis, usually with its head pointed toward her birth canal.
Birth to Toddler Aging begins the day we are born Note that these lists indicate average development - the age range at which the 'average' child can he expected to achieve a particular skill or develop a specific interest. The ages in the text are only approximate. Children develop skills at uneven rates - any one child may be 'above average' in one skill and 'below average' in another skill.
The 6 most important areas of gross or big infant motor development include: Head control Rolling Sitting Crawling Standing Walking –Normal development also happens in this specific sequence.
Head Control 50 % 70 % 90 % She easily turns her head from side to side when lying on her back 22.53 Good head control. She lifts her head to look ahead when lying on the floor 22.53.5 When using her arms for support, she lifts her head and chest when lying on the floor 33.54.5
Rolling rolling is an extremely important achievement and milestone in any baby's development. Rolling typically takes place from about 4.5 to 5 months. And babies usually start rolling from back to tummy. Development of all other balance skills relies heavily on stimulation obtained from rolling
Sitting Sitting allows your baby to free both hands for play and discovering the surroundings in the upright position it's also the very first time she'll see the surroundings from an upright position. 50 % 70 % 90 % She sits when supported with cushions or in the corner of a room or any other side and back support 33.54.5 She can sit alone for short periods… 1 / 2 minute 679
Crawling Crawling is a very important milestone for babies to learn and experience the spatial concepts like "under", "over", "in" and "out". The crawling action helps to correctly arrange the non-cognitive parts of the central nervous system. And these parts of the brain form the basis of learning and higher level development if development was inadequate, further learning may become troubled and disorganized… often resulting in difficulty distinguishing between "left" and "right". –Some professional claim that a baby should crawl about 50,000 times before moving on to the next development phase!
Standing Is defined as: baby's ability to get up one her own from the floor into a standing position without holding onto or supporting herself against anything. Standing is important for development of balance and taking the first steps in any direction.
Walking Walking is functional moving. That's how all of us get from one point to another. Walking also forms the basis for further motor development like running, climbing stairs, taking part in sports, games, rope jumping, etc 90% of babies walk well on there own by 14 months
Infant Motor Development: Final Pointers She uses pincer grip (between finger tips and thumb) to pick up small things Starts scribbling with pen, pencil or crayon
The Toddler Years 18 months to 3 years –18 months Walks alone Feeds itself Mine Stacks objects –20 to 24 months Bowel and bladder control (potty training) Explores –3 Years Talks in simple sentences Begins to think of other children as equals
Preschool and Elementary School Years 4 Years –Dresses and undresses –Span of emotional growth 5 Years –Improves eye and body coordination –Begins to feel guilt and shame 6 to 8 Years –Continues to improve in physical skills –Begin to look for reason that explain why –Around age 7 …emotional shyness
Preadolescent Years 8 to 13 –Physical growth rate increases –Adult sexual characteristics begin to develop –girls begin menstruation –Boys develop hair on their faces and bodies, their voices deepen –Emotional insecurity
Adolescent Years 13-18 years –Strive for independence –Experience puberty, a dramatic sexual development –Need others to listen and reflect their words –Respect privacy
Young Adulthood 18 to 20 years –People become more independent –As they mature they begin to seek ways of contributing to society
Learning Styles Learning styles describe the various ways people gather as well as process information. What feels right and makes sense to one learner can seem slipshod -- or nitpicky -- to another. Each of us has a propensity for looking, listening, or touching: Some read the instructions for Monopoly, others ask to hear the rules explained, still others get the dice rolling and learn as they play. Furthermore, we each have our own best times of day, favorite chairs to sit in, and other environmental factors that help us concentrate or feel energized. http://www.ldpride.net/learning-style-test.html http://www.learnmoreindiana.org/k12academics/D ocuments/learning_styles_assessment.pdfhttp://www.learnmoreindiana.org/k12academics/D ocuments/learning_styles_assessment.pdf
Seven Perceptual Styles Print - refers to seeing printed or written words. Aural - refers to listening. Interactive - refers to verbalization. Visual - refers to seeing visual depictions such as pictures and graphs. Haptic - refers to the sense of touch or grasp. Kinesthetic - refers to whole body movement. Olfactory - refers to sense of smell and taste.Print Aural Interactive Visual Haptic Kinesthetic Olfactory
Print Modality - A Print Oriented Learner Often takes notes May like to write on the blackboard Remembers quickly and easily what is read Learns better after seeing or writing something Is often perceived as a “bookworm” Grasps important concepts on first reading of material Loves to read books, journals, magazines
Aural Learner - An Aural Learner Tends to remember and repeat ideas that are verbally presented Learns well through lectures Is an excellent listener Can reproduce symbols, letters or words by hearing them Likes to talk Enjoys plays dialogues, dramas Can learn concepts by listening to tapes Enjoys music Can repeat or fulfill verbal instructions
Interactive Modality - The Interactive Learner Learns best through verbalization Often hums or talks to self or others Usually is not quiet for great lengths of time Often talks at length…just to hear him/herself talk! Likes to use other people as a sounding board Enjoys question/answer sessions Finds small group discussions stimulating and informative Prefers to discuss things with others
Visual Modality - A Visual Learner Learns by seeing and by watching demonstrations Likes visual stimuli such as pictures, slides, graphs, demonstrations, etc. Conjures up the image of a form by seeing it in the “mind’s eye” Often has a vivid imagination Often stares Needs something to watch Is often quiet and does not talk at length Becomes impatient or drifts away when extensive listening is required Prefers the visual arts and media
Haptic Modality - The Haptic Learner Likes a “hands-on" approach to learning Involves the sense of touch in learning Likes to do artwork Likes to piece things together May be fond of doodling Likes to trace words and pictures Is often seen “fiddling” with something Is successful with tasks requiring manipulation
Kinesthetic Modality - The Kinesthetic Learner Learns by doing, direct involvement Often fidgets or finds reasons to move Is not very attentive to visual or auditory presentations Wants to be “doing” something Tries things out and likes to manipulate objects Gestures when speaking Is often a poor listener Responds to music by physical movement Often finds success in physical response activities Learns better when able to move during learning Likes to move hands (doodling, tapping,) while learning Uses movement to help concentrate
Olfactory Modality - The Olfactory Learner Learns best though the sense of smell and taste Smells have a special significance Associates a particular smell with specific past memories Is frequently able to identify smells Finds that smells add to learning