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Presentation on theme: "FETAL DEVELOPMENT Peggy Pannell RN, MSN."— Presentation transcript:


2 Learning Goals Normal Fetal Development Teratogen
From ovulation to birth Teratogen Definition and potential effects on development

3 Vocabulary Blastocyst Conception Ductus arteriosus Embryo
Fertilization Fetus Foramen Ovale HCG Implantation L/S ration Gestational age Vernix Zygote Placenta Quickening Surfactant Teratogens Umbilical Cord

4 FERTILIZATION Begins with 46 pair of chromosomes, splits off to 23 then combine for a unique new 46 pair.

5 Stages and Time Frames Ovum Zygote Morula Blastocyst Embryo Fetus
(Oh, Zee my baby eats fast)

6 IMPLANTATION First weeks of human development:
Blastocyst embedded in endometrium.

7 PRIMARY GERM LAYERS Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm

8 GESTATIONAL AGE Fertilization LMP Days 266 280 Weeks 38 40
Gestational age=Time since last menstrual period (LMP) EDC, EDD, EDB 266 Days after fertilization 280 Days after onset of LMP Fertilization LMP Days Weeks Calendar Months 8 3/4 9 Lunar Months 9 1/2 10

Add 7 days to the first day of the last normal menstrual period, subtract 3 months and add 1 year. Example: 1st day of LNMP=December add 7 days = Dec subtract 3 months = Sept add 1 year =Sept , estimated due date (EDD)

10 TRIMESTERS Trimester 1st = week’s 1-13 2nd = week’s 14 - 26
3rd = week’s 27 and on (38-40 WEEKS)


12 FETAL MEMBRANES Amnion Chorion Membranes: Decidua basalis
Decidua capsularis Decidua basalis Developing placenta Yolk sac Amniotic cavity Intrauterine cavity Decidua vera Mucus plug (operculum) Chorion (blends with placenta) Amnion (blends with umbilical cord) Membranes: Umbilical cord (funis) Villi of fetal portion of placenta filled with fetal blood Lacunae in decidua basalis filled with maternal blood Amnion Chorion

13 1 Month First Trimester At the end of four weeks:
Baby is 1/4 inch in length Heart, digestive system, backbone and spinal cord begin to form Placenta (sometimes called "afterbirth") begins to develop The single fertilized egg is now 10,000 times larger than size at conception

14 Month 2 First Trimester At the end of 8 weeks:
Baby is 1-1/8 inches long Heart is functioning Eyes, nose, lips, tongue, ears and teeth are forming Penis begins to appear in boys Baby is moving, although the mother can not yet feel movement

15 Month 3 First Trimester At the end of 12 weeks:
Baby is 2 1/2 to 3 inches long Weight is about 1/2 to 1 ounce Baby develops recognizable form. Nails start to develop and earlobes are formed Arms, hands, fingers, legs, feet and toes are fully formed Eyes are almost fully developed Baby has developed most of his/her organs and tissues Baby's heart rate can be heard at 10 weeks with a special instrument called a Doppler

16 Month 4 Second Trimester At the end of 4 months:
Baby is 6 1/2 to 7 inches long Weight is about 6 to 7 ounces Baby is developing reflexes, such as sucking and swallowing and may begin sucking his/her thumb Tooth buds are developing Sweat glands are forming on palms and soles Fingers and toes are well defined Sex is identifiable Skin is bright pink, transparent and covered with soft, downy hair Although recognizably human in appearance, the baby would not be able to survive outside the mother's body

17 Month 5 Second Trimester At the end of 5 months:
Baby is 8 to 10 inches long Weight is about 1 pound Hair begins to grow on baby's head Soft woolly hair called lanugo will cover its body. Some may remain until a week after birth, when it is shed. Mother begins to feel fetal movement Internal organs are maturing Eyebrows, eyelids and eyelashes appear

18 Month 6 Second Trimester At the end of 6 months:
Baby is 11 to 14 inches long Weight is about 1 3/4 to 2 pounds Eyelids begin to part and eyes open sometimes for short periods of time Skin is covered with protective coating called vernix Baby is able to hiccup

19 Month 7 Third Trimester At the end of 7 months:
Baby is 14 to 16 inches long Weight is about 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 pounds Taste buds have developed Fat layers are forming Organs are maturing Skin is still wrinkled and red If born at this time, baby will be considered a premature baby and require special care

20 Month 8 Third Trimester At the end of 8 months:
Baby is 16 1/2 to 18 inches long Weight is about 4 to 6 pounds Overall growth is rapid this month Tremendous brain growth occurs at this time Most body organs are now developed with the exception of the lungs Movements or "kicks" are strong enough to be visible from the outside Kidneys are mature Skin is less wrinkled Fingernails now extend beyond fingertips

21 Month 9 Third Trimester At the end of 9 months:
Baby is 19 to 20 inches long Weight is about 7 to 7 1/2 pounds The lungs are mature Baby is now fully developed and can survive outside the mother's body Skin is pink and smooth Baby settles down lower in the abdomen in preparation for birth and may seem less active

22 AMNIOTIC FLUID Clear, yellowish fluid surrounding the developing fetus. Average amount 1000 ml. Having < 300ml – Oligohydramnios, associated with fetal renal abnormalities. Having > 2 L – Hydramnios, associated with GI and other malformations.

23 AMNIOTIC FLUID Protects Fetus Controls Temperature
Supports Symmetrical Growth Prevents Adherence to amnion Allows Movement Source of oral fluid Acts as a excretion-collection repository

24 UMBILICAL CORD Connecting link between fetus and placenta.
Transports oxygen and nutrients to fetus from the placenta and returns waste products from the fetus to the placenta. Contains: 2 arteries and 1 vein supported by mucoid material (wharton’s jelly) to prevent kinking and knotting. Contains NO pain receptors.


26 PLACENTA MOM Baby Baby mom
Schematic drawing of placenta: how it supplies oxygen and nutrition to embryo and removes waste products. Deoxygenated blood leaves fetus through the umbilical arteries and enters placenta, where it is oxygenated. Oxygenated blood leaves placenta through the umbilical vein, which enters the fetus via the umbilical cord mom MOM Baby Baby

27 PLACENTA Produce protein hormones:
Human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) days past conception, is basis for pregnancy test Progesterone Estrogen Human Placental Lactogen

28 PLACENTA Sieve/filter – allows smaller particles through and holds back larger molecules. Passage of materials in either direction is effected by: Diffusion: gases, water, electrolytes Facilitated transfer: glucose, amino acids, minerals. Pinocytosis: movement of minute particle

29 PLACENTA Mother transmits immunoglobulin G (IgG) to fetus providing limited passive immunity. Leakage: caused by membrane defect: may allow maternal and fetal blood mixing.

30 VIABILITY Capability of fetus to survive outside uterus at the earliest gestational age weeks Survival depends on: Maturity of fetal central nervous system Maturity of lungs

31 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 30-32 Weeks 1.2 : 1 35 Weeks 2:1 (MATURITY)
Terminal SAC period Weeks to birth Growth of primitive alveoli Pulmonary surfactants produced which act as wetting agents that prevent alveolar walls from sticking Insufficient surfactant - RDS Lecithin/Sphingomyelin-Phospho Lipids L/S Ratio 30-32 Weeks 1.2 : 1 35 Weeks 2:1 (MATURITY)

1st System to function FHR /Min Can hear FHR with doppler at Weeks

33 FETAL CIRCULATION Arteries in umbilical cord and fetal body carry deoxygenated blood. Vein in cord and those in fetal body carry oxygenated blood Ductus venosus connects umbilical vein and inferior vena cava; bypassing portal circulation.

34 FETAL CIRCULATION Foramen Ovale allows blood to flow from right to left atrium, bypassing lungs. Ductus Arteriosus allows blood flow from pulmonary artery to aorta, bypassing fetal lungs;

35 HEPATIC SYSTEM Liver functions 4-6 weeks Full liver function after delivery MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM Bones and muscles develop by 4th week Fontanels – areas where >2 bones meet 7-8 Weeks arms & leg movements

Forms during 4th week Middle portion of the intestine projects out into cord during 5th week. Returns during 10th week. If this does not occur- Omphalocele present at birth Meconium – Dark green to black tarry waste accumulated in the fetal intestine near term

37 RENAL SYSTEM Kidneys form in 5th week and begin to function 4 weeks later. Voiding into amniotic fluid Low volume can show renal dysfunction Renal malformation can be diagnosed in utero. GFR is low at birth

38 NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM Formed from the ectoderm during the 3rd week
Respiratory effort 18 1/2 WKS Swallowing /2 WKS Sucking WKS Fetal movement felt WKS (Quickening)

Insulin produced at 20 weeks INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM 7th week – Two layers of cells Vernix caseosa –Protects skin Lanugo – Fine hair 10th week – Fingernails, toenails

40 IMMUNE SYSTEM Passive immunity - FROM MOM Active immunity - FROM FETUS


42 Teratogens Environmental exposures that can adversely effect the developing fetus Maternal Conditions Alcoholism, Diabetes, Endocrinopathies, Phenylketonuria (PKU), Smoking, Nutritional problems Infections Agents Rubella, Toxoplasmosis, Syphillis, Herpes Simplex, Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease, Varicella, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Mechanical Problems (deformations) Amniotic band constrictions, Umbilical Cord constraint, Disparity in uterine size and uterine contents Chemicals, drugs, radiation, hyperthermia


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