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Mature ovum (ovulated secondary oocyte)

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Presentation on theme: "Mature ovum (ovulated secondary oocyte)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mature ovum (ovulated secondary oocyte)
corona radiata – follicle cell layer surrounding secondary oocyte zona pellucida – glycoprotein layer surrounding ovum (only one sperm gets through)

2 Process of Fertilization
Sperm swim from vagina, up cervix, up endometrial lining and into fallopian tube If female is near the middle of her menstrual cycle, then a secondary oocyte may be present Typical location for fertilization is in the fallopian tube; many sperm work to get through corona radiata 1. Sperm that make it to zona pellucida compete to get into ovum (only one gets in) by secreting enzymes held in their acrosomes 2. First sperm to get through has its plasma membrane fused with ovum’s plasma membrane (this initiates cortical reaction)

3 Cortical Reaction In cytoplasm of ovum (all around plasma membrane) are small vesicles called cortical granules When the 2 gametes fuse their plasma membranes, the cortical granules fuse with the ovum’s membrane and secrete enzymes to the outside The enzymes cause a chemical change in zona pellucida making it impermeable to sperm Note: this happens immediately after first sperm enters to ensure that only one sperm fertilizes egg


5 Pregnancy I. Early Embryonic Development first mitotic division ~24 hrs after fertilization by the time the fertilized egg (zygote) reaches the uterus and is ready for implantation in the endometrium it is ~100 cells (~7 days later)

6 embryo at this stage is a blastocyst
- outer cells become the placenta - inner cells will become the embryo

7 II. Early Pregnancy If implantation occurs then embryo will secrete its own hormone, HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin) The HCG gets into mom’s bloodstream and targets the corpus luteum; it stimulates the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone so the endometrium stays in tact Positive pregnancy test indicated by presence of HCG (this is only made by embryo)

8 III. Role of the Placenta
After implantation, the blastocyst (outer layer) and mom’s endometrium form the placenta Growing embryo requires nutrients and therefore a connection between mom and fetus requires placenta and umbilical cord Later in pregnancy placenta secretes hormones Umbilical cord contains 3 blood vessels 2 vessels carry blood from fetus to placenta (these are deoxygenated and contain waste products) 1 vessel carries blood from placenta to fetus (oxygenated with nutrients)


10 Materials from fetus to mom via placenta
Materials from mom to fetus via placenta Carbon dioxide Oxygen Urea Nutrients (e.g., glucose, amino acids) Water Hormones (e.g., HCG) Hormones Vitamins, minerals Alcohol (why we don’t drink when pregnant) Some viruses (measles, HIV)

11 Note: At no time does the blood of the fetus and the blood of the mother actually mix…all molecular exchanges occur via active/passive transport in placenta Note: Placenta also takes over job of secreting estrogen and progesterone to keep endometrium/blood supply available to fetus (corpus luteum is now gone)

12 Note: this is the fluid sampled during amniocentesis
Some tissue of developing embryo is used to make amniotic sac Within the sac is amniotic fluid; the fetus floats in this fluid Functions of amniotic fluid: Providing cushioning in case of blunt force trauma to abdomen Allows fetus free movement for muscle and skeletal development Thermal stability Note: this is the fluid sampled during amniocentesis

13 The Process of Birth 1. Progesterone levels drop 2. Oxytocin secreted from pituitary gland; levels increases after each contraction which causes contractions to get more frequent and more intense (this is known as positive feedback and it only stops once the uterus has nothing to contract on) (Pitocin – used to induce labor) Cervix dilates to 10cm Babies typically born head first, face down (otherwise called breech) After baby, mom’s push out afterbirth (placenta) Lactation (breast milk production) begins soon after birth

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