Presentation on theme: "Lecture 15 & 16- Health & Environment Presented by Abul Kalam Azad Senior Lecturer, GED Northern University Bangladesh"— Presentation transcript:
Lecture 15 & 16- Health & Environment Presented by Abul Kalam Azad Senior Lecturer, GED Northern University Bangladesh E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction No doubt, sanitation and hygiene are the prerequisites for sound health. That is, there is a significant relationship between sound health and hygiene. Due to the absence of sanitation and hygiene, there may occur many diseases such as water borne disease, air borne disease and food borne diseases. Sometimes disease may be caused by malnutrition. Besides, there are some other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) related to virus like HIV/ AIDS. Let’s discuss on the basis of the following figure:
Fig: Diseases & Environmental Pollution 1. Lack of Hygiene Water borne diseases Air borne diseases Food borne diseases 2. Sexual Transmission STDs or HIV/ AIDS 3. Malnutrition Other Diseases Environmental Pollution 4. Flu Virus Rubella
Sanitation & Hygiene Sanitation & Hygiene are the synonymous words that refer to the purity of air and water; bodily cleanliness; cleanliness in the home and workplace; regular washing of clothes, hair; daily brushing of teeth; and washing of hands after using the toilet; preserving food safely in a refrigerator or freeze, cooking food thoroughly before eating, and disposing of waste from the home; dirt disposal, inspection of hygiene standards in shops selling food, provision of programs of vaccination, and provision of clean drinking water. Health WHO defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (illness).”
Kinds of Diseases There are many types of diseases. Some of them are related to the lack of hygiene, some are of malnutrition and others are sexually transmitted (HIV/ AIDS). After all, diseases may be classified into three categories 1.Water-borne Diseases such as Jaundice, Diarrhea etc. 2.Air-borne diseases include common cold and cough, throat infections, Chickenpox, influenza, tuberculosis, smallpox etc. 3.Food-borne diseases 4.Sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/ AIDS 5.Diseases related flu such as Rubella IgG & IgM.
Behavioral Risk Factors For Hiv/Aids In Bangladesh 1. 1. an unregulated blood supply system 2. 2. unsterile injections in non-formal and formal health-care settings; 3. 3. Huge commercial sexual workers & their clients 4. 4. low levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS, 5. 5. low perception of personal risk among vulnerable populations
5. 5. Professional blood donors. 6. 6. Use same blade or special type of knife (Khur) repeatedly without sterilization. Prospects: Bangladesh Govt. has already taken the following steps: 1. 1. Conducting family planning program, providing reproductive health services, preventing and raising social awareness for the STDs. 2. 2. Formation of NAC (National AIDS Committee) and NASP (National AIDS STD Program) under the ministry of Health and Family Welfare in 1998. 3. 3. Lesson on HIV/ AIDS has been included in the Imam training program by the Ministry of Religion. 4. 4. GOB encourages NGOs and other voluntary organizations to assist preventing HIV/ AIDS.
Knowledge Attitude towards HIV/ AIDS Practice regarding HIV/ AIDS Remedies of HIV/ AIDS or STDs KAP Model
HBM (Health Belief Model) The HBM is probably the most influential of all the health behavior theories. Rosenstock (1974) traces its historical developments to the early 1950s when behavior scientists, influenced by the theories of Kurt Lewin, attempted to explain why people failed to accept disease prevention programs in screening such diseases as TB, cervical cancer and so on.
To him, there is a lack of belief in health related such programs. So, in order to make them believable, individuals must be knowledgeable through Socio-demographic factors as evident from the following figure:
Socio-demographic Factors (e.g., education, age, sex, race, ethnicity) Expectations Perceived benefits of action Perceived barriers to action Perceived self-efficacy to perform action Threat Perceived susceptibility (or, acceptance of the Diagnosis) Perceived severity of ill- health condition Behavior to reduce Threats Based on expectations Cues to Action - Media - Personal Influence -Reminders
Rubella Virus Rubella virus is about as infectious as flu, called a German measles referred as an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash (slight fever). Rubella is spread through droplets of moisture from the nose or throat of someone who is infected. These droplets are released into the air when someone:
coughs, sneezes, or talks. If you breathe in an infected droplet of moisture, you can become infected. This can easily happen through face-to-face contact with someone who is infected, or through just being together in the same room.
Congenital Rubella Syndrome If a pregnant woman catches the rubella virus, it can infect her unborn baby, causing congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The rubella virus is spread through the pregnant woman’s blood to the placenta. Fetus A fetus is an unborn baby, from the eighth week of pregnancy until birth. Placenta The organ that links a pregnant woman's blood supply to her unborn baby's.
The risk of the fetus having CRS depends on when the pregnant woman caught the infection. If the pregnant woman catches rubella: during 1 st trimester (up to week 13 of the pregnancy) - there is an 80% chance that the fetus will also be infected, during 2 nd trimester (weeks 14-26 of the pregnancy) - there is a 25% chance that the fetus will be infected, during 3 rd trimester (week 27 of the pregnancy until the birth) - there is a 35% chance that the fetus will be infected during weeks 27-30 of the pregnancy, which rises to nearly 100% by week 36 of the pregnancy.
The likelihood that CRS will cause birth defects in the fetus also depends on when the pregnant woman became infected. If the pregnant woman catches rubella: during weeks 8-10 of the pregnancy - there is a 90% chance that the fetus will have birth defects, during weeks 11-16 of the pregnancy - there is a 10-20% chance that the fetus will have birth defects, during weeks 16-20 of the pregnancy - birth defects are rare, with only deafness being reported, and beyond week 20 of the pregnancy - there is little, if any, risk of birth defects developing.
Conclusion Despite the above criticisms, it may be said that today or tomorrow, KAP model or RDM paradigm may be effective to reduce different diseases. Notably, these models are quite effective in developed world. Even, in 3 rd world countries they have been effective for implementing family planning program. However, to my view, implementation Islamic ideology can eliminate STDs (HIV/ AIDS).