Presentation on theme: "FROM CONCEPTION TO BIRTH"— Presentation transcript:
1 FROM CONCEPTION TO BIRTH FETAL DEVELOPMENTFROM CONCEPTION TO BIRTHHealthcare Science Technology 1Mrs. Burgstiner,BSN
2 A. Fertilization: Sperm penetrates Egg Oocyte is released from the ovary and begins down the fallopian tube.Sperm enters the female reproductive tract through the vagina during intercourse.About 300 million sperm cells enter the vagina but only about 1% make it through the uterus to the fallopian tubes after approximately 10 hoursOne sperm then penetrates the oocyte (egg) through the zona pellucida which is the membrane surrounding the oocyte (egg)Sperm then breaks apart inside egg: this helps to determine the sex of the developing fetus by the DNAZygote: joining of the sperm and ovum (egg ) to create new life or a new cell.This completes the fertilization process.
3 B. Cleavage:(1.5-3 days post ovulation) Rapid Division of the Zygote into two cells, then 4 cells and so on and these cells are called blastomeres.This series of divisions occurs about one every 24 hours.Then when the cell division reaches10 – 32 cells it is called a MorulaThe morula leaves the fallopian tubeand enters the uterus.This takes place about 3-4 daysafter fertilization.
4 C. Early Blastocyst: (4 days) 1. The Morula is now inside theuterus.2. Cell division continues untila blastocele forms in the centerof the Morula.3. Once the blastocele forms in the morula it is then called a blastocyst and has a cavity in the middle.4. Two types of cells are at work now:A. Embryoblast: cells inside the blastocele.B. Trophoblast: cells outside of blastocele
5 D. HCG Hormone is Released (5-6 d.) On around the 6th day: blastocyst hatches or is released from zona pellucida (surrounding membrane)The trophoblast cells then secrete an enzyme Human Chorionic Gonadatropin (HCG) that erodes the uterine wallThis creates an implantation site on the inner uterine wall.Implantation to uterine wall: hormones are stimulated and the ovary produces progesterone and the HCG continues releasing as the blastocyst implants into the uterine wall.The blastocyst becomes swollen with new capillaries and circulation begins between mother and fetus…this process is necessary for pregnancy to continue.
6 E. Implantation is complete: 7-12 days) 1. The trophoblast cells continue to engulf/destroy the uterine lining stimulating newcapillary growth from the bloodpools they create.2. This is when placentalcirculation beginning)3. Top layer of cells becomes the embryo4. Lower layer : becomes the yolk sac.
7 ECTOPIC PREGNANCYAn Ectopic Pregnancy an occur during implantation. This is when the implantation takes place outside of the uterus….Can take up to 16 weeks to manifest. Surgery is required in most cases to remove the implanted fetus. Also known as a tubal pregnancy).
8 F. Placental Attachment: Chorionic Villus:“fingers” of the formingplacenta, that anchor the placenta to theimplantation site in the uterus.The Embryo is attached by a connecting stalk to the developing placenta by the Umbilical cord.This is a picture of the placentaafter delivery. The baby and theplacenta are both delivered….youcan see the umbilical cord here aswell.
9 G.Gastrulation begins: the 3 layers of the embryo A narrow line of cells start to form and the future axis of the embryo takes shape and marks the beginning of gastrulation.Gastrulation forms the three layers of the embryo from which cells, tissues, organs and systems develop.The 3 layers are:EctodermMesodermEndodermThe next slide will show you what these 3 layers become.
10 Ectoderm, Mesoderm and Endoderm During gastrulation, three major cell lineages are being established. They are the Ectoderm (shown in the diagram as blue), Mesoderm (red) and Endoderm (yellow). Following gastrulation, various cell lineages are derived from these three primary cell types. For example, the Ectoderm gives rise to the epidermis and its derivatives such as nails, hair and teeth. On the other hand, the Ectoderm also gives rise to the Central Nervous System.
11 G. Fetus at 2-3weeks H. Fetus at 4 weeks 1/10 of an inch long nervous system is developingblood cells are developedH. Fetus at 4 weeksMay float freely for 48 hours before implantingArm buds start to be evidentgets more of a curved appearanceeyes start to developimplantation of to the uterus and placenta istaking place
12 I. The Fetus at 5 weeks The nose starts to form Placental blood vessels formEndocardial (muscle) cells begins to form the two heart tubesJ. The Fetus at 6 weeks1/2 inch long (floating in amniotic fluid)leg buds presentspine is visibleears are formingat 6 weeks heart muscle starts to beathas rapid growth at this stagehead/mouth/liver/intestines start to take shape
13 K. The Fetus at 7 weeks 3/4 inches long Hand/fingers are formed and movingeye lens formskull bones are visible and growingsexual organs are formingbrain waves have startedmuscles develop and get stronger
14 L. Fetus at 8-9 weeks old As you can see the fetus is in its Heart Development EndsThe brain can move musclesSexual organs are formingFeet become more definedDigits are separating on hands/feetToe/Finger joints are visibleAs you can see the fetus is in itsown sac of amniotic fluid attached tothe mother by an umbilical cordto the placenta where it gets all it’snourishment from. (Above are twotwin boy fetuses in separate sacs)
15 M. 10 Week Old Fetus N. 11 Weeks old: (2 1/2 months old) Now considered a fetus1-2 inches longHas a stump for a tail’Is now very activeFacial features developedFingers/ Toes/ Hands/ Feet developedInternal Organs are functioningNervous System is responsive: He/She can feel!N. 11 Weeks old:Now is 2 1/2 inches long
16 12 WEEKS(3 months) 3 inches long umbilical cord intact and is fully functional
17 14 WEEKS (3 1/2 months) 3- 31/2 inches weight is 1 ounce muscles are developingsex organs formeyelids formfingernails and toenailsspontaneous movement is observed
18 15-18 WEEKS ( 4-4 1/2 months) Sensory Organs form at (15) (16) is turning inside of MOM(18) 5 1/2 inchesblinks, grasps, moves mouth, hair on head and body is presentall systems are developedfetal respiration's are occurringMust be at least 24 weeks to survive outside of womb
19 WEEK 22 (5 1/2 months) 1/2 pound 10 inches long sweat glands external skin is turning from transparent to opaque
20 WEEK 26 (6 1/2 Months Inhales and exhales cries eyes are completely formedhas tongue and taste budshas a 50% chance of survival outside of the womb with intensive Medical careWEEK 26 (6 1/2 Months
21 WEEK 30 (7 1/2 months) (7 1/2 mo.) Is premature if born But most do well if born at this timeGirls fair better than boys because their lungs are more developed.
22 FULL TERM (36 -40 weeks) This is the end of normal gestation…. Baby is now able to live outside of the mother’s womb.
23 PREMATURE BABIES (born before 36 weeks) May or may not have developed well enoughThis is where some birth defects can occurDifficult deliveries can cause birth trauma leading to problemsDrugs and Alcohol use can lead to premature births.Stress or illness can cause premature birth
26 Genetic ProblemsChromosomal problems in the formation of the fetus can cause genetic problems.These children often have differences that follow them throughout theirlivesDrug Abuse:Is very detrimental at different stages of fetaldevelopment..they cross the placenta and cancause defects and addiction.