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Presentation on theme: "FROM CONCEPTION TO BIRTH"— Presentation transcript:

FETAL DEVELOPMENT FROM CONCEPTION TO BIRTH Healthcare Science Technology 1 Mrs. Burgstiner,BSN

2 A. Fertilization: Sperm penetrates Egg
Oocyte is released from the ovary and begins down the fallopian tube. Sperm enters the female reproductive tract through the vagina during intercourse. About 300 million sperm cells enter the vagina but only about 1% make it through the uterus to the fallopian tubes after approximately 10 hours One sperm then penetrates the oocyte (egg) through the zona pellucida which is the membrane surrounding the oocyte (egg) Sperm then breaks apart inside egg: this helps to determine the sex of the developing fetus by the DNA Zygote: joining of the sperm and ovum (egg ) to create new life or a new cell. This completes the fertilization process.

3 B. Cleavage:(1.5-3 days post ovulation)
Rapid Division of the Zygote into two cells, then 4 cells and so on and these cells are called blastomeres. This series of divisions occurs about one every 24 hours. Then when the cell division reaches 10 – 32 cells it is called a Morula The morula leaves the fallopian tube and enters the uterus. This takes place about 3-4 days after fertilization.

4 C. Early Blastocyst: (4 days)
1. The Morula is now inside the uterus. 2. Cell division continues until a blastocele forms in the center of the Morula. 3. Once the blastocele forms in the morula it is then called a blastocyst and has a cavity in the middle. 4. Two types of cells are at work now: A. Embryoblast: cells inside the blastocele. B. Trophoblast: cells outside of blastocele

5 D. HCG Hormone is Released (5-6 d.)
On around the 6th day: blastocyst hatches or is released from zona pellucida (surrounding membrane) The trophoblast cells then secrete an enzyme Human Chorionic Gonadatropin (HCG) that erodes the uterine wall This creates an implantation site on the inner uterine wall. Implantation to uterine wall: hormones are stimulated and the ovary produces progesterone and the HCG continues releasing as the blastocyst implants into the uterine wall. The blastocyst becomes swollen with new capillaries and circulation begins between mother and fetus…this process is necessary for pregnancy to continue.

6 E. Implantation is complete: 7-12 days)
1. The trophoblast cells continue to engulf/destroy the uterine lining stimulating new capillary growth from the blood pools they create. 2. This is when placental circulation beginning) 3. Top layer of cells becomes the embryo 4. Lower layer : becomes the yolk sac.

7 ECTOPIC PREGNANCY An Ectopic Pregnancy an occur during implantation. This is when the implantation takes place outside of the uterus…. Can take up to 16 weeks to manifest. Surgery is required in most cases to remove the implanted fetus. Also known as a tubal pregnancy).

8 F. Placental Attachment:
Chorionic Villus:“fingers” of the forming placenta, that anchor the placenta to the implantation site in the uterus. The Embryo is attached by a connecting stalk to the developing placenta by the Umbilical cord. This is a picture of the placenta after delivery. The baby and the placenta are both delivered….you can see the umbilical cord here as well.

9 G.Gastrulation begins: the 3 layers of the embryo
A narrow line of cells start to form and the future axis of the embryo takes shape and marks the beginning of gastrulation. Gastrulation forms the three layers of the embryo from which cells, tissues, organs and systems develop. The 3 layers are: Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm The next slide will show you what these 3 layers become.

10 Ectoderm, Mesoderm and Endoderm
During gastrulation, three major cell lineages are being established. They are the Ectoderm (shown in the diagram as blue), Mesoderm (red) and Endoderm (yellow). Following gastrulation, various cell lineages are derived from these three primary cell types. For example, the Ectoderm gives rise to the epidermis and its derivatives such as nails, hair and teeth. On the other hand, the Ectoderm also gives rise to the Central Nervous System.

11 G. Fetus at 2-3weeks H. Fetus at 4 weeks 1/10 of an inch long
nervous system is developing blood cells are developed H. Fetus at 4 weeks May float freely for 48 hours before implanting Arm buds start to be evident gets more of a curved appearance eyes start to develop implantation of to the uterus and placenta is taking place

12 I. The Fetus at 5 weeks The nose starts to form
Placental blood vessels form Endocardial (muscle) cells begins to form the two heart tubes J. The Fetus at 6 weeks 1/2 inch long (floating in amniotic fluid) leg buds present spine is visible ears are forming at 6 weeks heart muscle starts to beat has rapid growth at this stage head/mouth/liver/intestines start to take shape

13 K. The Fetus at 7 weeks 3/4 inches long
Hand/fingers are formed and moving eye lens form skull bones are visible and growing sexual organs are forming brain waves have started muscles develop and get stronger

14 L. Fetus at 8-9 weeks old As you can see the fetus is in its
Heart Development Ends The brain can move muscles Sexual organs are forming Feet become more defined Digits are separating on hands/feet Toe/Finger joints are visible As you can see the fetus is in its own sac of amniotic fluid attached to the mother by an umbilical cord to the placenta where it gets all it’s nourishment from. (Above are two twin boy fetuses in separate sacs)

15 M. 10 Week Old Fetus N. 11 Weeks old:
(2 1/2 months old) Now considered a fetus 1-2 inches long Has a stump for a tail’ Is now very active Facial features developed Fingers/ Toes/ Hands/ Feet developed Internal Organs are functioning Nervous System is responsive: He/She can feel! N. 11 Weeks old: Now is 2 1/2 inches long

16 12 WEEKS(3 months) 3 inches long umbilical cord intact and
is fully functional

17 14 WEEKS (3 1/2 months) 3- 31/2 inches weight is 1 ounce
muscles are developing sex organs form eyelids form fingernails and toenails spontaneous movement is observed

18 15-18 WEEKS ( 4-4 1/2 months) Sensory Organs form at (15)
(16) is turning inside of MOM (18) 5 1/2 inches blinks, grasps, moves mouth, hair on head and body is present all systems are developed fetal respiration's are occurring Must be at least 24 weeks to survive outside of womb

19 WEEK 22 (5 1/2 months) 1/2 pound 10 inches long sweat glands
external skin is turning from transparent to opaque

20 WEEK 26 (6 1/2 Months Inhales and exhales cries
eyes are completely formed has tongue and taste buds has a 50% chance of survival outside of the womb with intensive Medical care WEEK 26 (6 1/2 Months

21 WEEK 30 (7 1/2 months) (7 1/2 mo.) Is premature if born
But most do well if born at this time Girls fair better than boys because their lungs are more developed.

22 FULL TERM (36 -40 weeks) This is the end of normal gestation….
Baby is now able to live outside of the mother’s womb.

23 PREMATURE BABIES (born before 36 weeks)
May or may not have developed well enough This is where some birth defects can occur Difficult deliveries can cause birth trauma leading to problems Drugs and Alcohol use can lead to premature births. Stress or illness can cause premature birth

24 Premature baby at 28 weeks: 2 lbs.

25 Baby a year Later: Still not out of NICU yet!

26 Genetic Problems Chromosomal problems in the formation of the fetus can cause genetic problems. These children often have differences that follow them throughout their lives Drug Abuse: Is very detrimental at different stages of fetal development..they cross the placenta and can cause defects and addiction.


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