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Fetal Tissue Transplants Michelle Gomez. Words You May Need To Know  Definitions-  Fetal tissue transplants  Parkinson’s Disease (PD)  Huntington’s.

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Presentation on theme: "Fetal Tissue Transplants Michelle Gomez. Words You May Need To Know  Definitions-  Fetal tissue transplants  Parkinson’s Disease (PD)  Huntington’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fetal Tissue Transplants Michelle Gomez

2 Words You May Need To Know  Definitions-  Fetal tissue transplants  Parkinson’s Disease (PD)  Huntington’s Disease (HD)  Dopamine (DA)

3 Development of the Fetus

4 First Month (conception to 6 weeks) Second Month (7-10 weeks) Third Month (11-14 weeks) Fourth Month (beginning of second trimester) Fifth month (19- 22 weeks)

5 Seventh Month (beginning of third trimester 27-30 weeks) Sixth Months (23-26 weeks) Eighth month (31-34 weeks) Ninth month (35 weeks to delivery)

6 History

7 Fun Facts I. The History of Fetal Tissue Transplants A. The First Fetal Tissue Transplant 1. 1988 in Sweden 2. 1991 in Halifax 3. 1995- The New England Journal B. Future Implementation 1. Huntington’s Disease (HD) 2. Epilepsy 3. Brain and Spinal chord injuries

8 Parkinson’s Disease II. Parkinson’s Disease A. What is it? 1. 1817- James Parkinson B. Implementation- 1. “Studies with transplantation of human fetal mesencephalic tissue, rich in dopaminergic neurons, to the striatum in PD patients were started in 1987.” (Björklund, 382) C. Main Objectives- 1. Grafted dopaminergic neurons… 2. Patient’s brain… 3. Measurable clinical improvement…

9 Huntington’s Disease II. Huntington’s Disease: A. What is it? 1. 1872- George Huntington B. Implementation- 1. “…the first pilot clinical trials of neural transplantation in patients commenced in 1990.” (Dunnett, 397) C. Main Objectives- 1. Collecting data… 2. Using comparable assessments…

10 What does it treat?  Parkinson’s Disease  Huntington’s Disease  Retina Repair  Future: Epilepsy

11 Biological Concepts

12 The Process: Cell Therapy Development in PD I. Parkinson’s Disease- A. Graft Efficiency has to be increased and variability reduced i. Patient selection ii. Graft Placement iii. Composition and Preparation of the Graft Tissue iv. Developing immunological mechanisms

13 2 Years After Transplantation

14 The Process: Cell Therapy Development in PD

15 Evidence and Experiments Society for Neuroscience-  October 24, 1999- a study was presented at the Society for Neuroscience’s annual meeting, showing that the fetal cells can produce a critical neurotransmitter, reducing patient's tremors and paralysis. (Helmuth, 886) Retina Repair- The procedure that Elisabeth Bryant, from the previous slide, underwent was retinal repair. Robert Aramant at the University of Louisville in Kentucky developed the transplant technique with Magdalene Seiler. (image on next slide)

16 Retina Repair Fetal tissue inserted here

17 Frontier Issues

18 Cost and Finances  Surgery Alone- $43,500  Pre-Operative Costs- $4,000  Total- Approx.- $ 50,000

19 Controversy Pro-life vs. Fetal Tissue Transplant Supporters

20 Ethical Issues 1. It takes six fetuses to provide enough material to treat one Parkinson’s patient. 2. Who is donating? 3. Cell supply is limited. 4. Better areas for transplantation?

21 Politics  December 1988-  July 1991 and April 1992-  January 22, 1993-

22 Politics Who’s involved? President Bush President Reagan President Clinton President Bush (present)

23 Bibliography/ References  Barinaga, M. “Fetal neuron grafts pave the was for stem cell therapies.” Science. 5 Feb 2000 287:5457 p.1421-2. General Science Index. COSLibrary, Visalia, CA. 19 Sept 2005  Björklund, Anders and Olle Lindvall. “Cell Therapy in Parkinson’s Disease.” NeuroRx. Oct 2004. the American Society for Experimental Therapeutics, Inc. Lund, Sweden. 13 Oct 2005. http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez &artid=534947 http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez &artid=534947  Cimons, Marlene. “Bush is a threat to US stem-cell research”. Nature Medicine. 2001. COS Library, Visalia, CA. 24 Oct. 2005. http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v7/n3/full/nm0301_263a.html http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v7/n3/full/nm0301_263a.html  “Dopamine.” Columbia Encyclopedia, 6 th Edition. 2005. 19 Sept 2005 http://www.encyclopedia.com http://www.encyclopedia.com  Dunnett, Stephen B. and Anne E Rosser. “Cell Therapy in HD.” NeuroRx. Oct 2004. American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc. Wales, UK. 13 Oct 2005. http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&arti d=534947 http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&arti d=534947

24 Bibliography/ References  Fackelmann, K.A. “Study sizes up fetal cells for transplant.” Science News. 7 Jan 1995. 149:1 p.6. Academic Abstracts. COS Library, Visalia, CA. 15 Sept 2005  "Fetal Tissue Implant." Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Edition. 2005. 19 Sept. 2005 http://www.encyclopedia.comhttp://www.encyclopedia.com  Hawaleshka, Dan. “The debate over fetal tissue. (cover-story).” Maclean’s. 1996 109:4 p.48. Academic Abstracts. COS Library, Visalia, CA. 15 Sept 2005  Helmuth, L. “Fetal cells Help Parkinson’s patients.” Science. 29 Oct 1999. 286:5441 p.886-7. General Science Index. COS Library, Visalia, CA. 19 Sept 2005

25 Bibliography/ References  Hopkins, John. About Huntington's Disease and Related Disorders. 2002. John Hopkins Medicine. 24 Oct 2005. http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/bhdc/about/ http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/bhdc/about/  “Huntington’s Disease.” Columbia Encyclopedia, 6 th Edition. 2005. 19 Sept. 2005 http://www.encyclopedia.comhttp://www.encyclopedia.com  “Introduction.” Parkinson’s Disease: Hope Through Research. Sept 2003. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. 22 Sept 2005. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/parkinsons_disease/detail_ parkinsons_disease.htm http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/parkinsons_disease/detail_ parkinsons_disease.htm  Rae, Scott B. “The Ethics of Fetal Tissue Transplantation.” CHRISTIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE. 2005. Talbot School of Theology. 24 Oct 2005. http://www.equip.org/free/DE192.htmhttp://www.equip.org/free/DE192.htm

26 Bibliography/ References Images-  “Development of the Fetus.” Illustration. 1998. Development of the Baby. Parents Magazine. 24 Oct 2005 http://www.csulb.edu/divisions/students2/departments/Health _Resource_Center/pregnancy.htm http://www.csulb.edu/divisions/students2/departments/Health _Resource_Center/pregnancy.htm  Levivier, Marc. “PET scan in patient with PD after transplantation of human fetal neurons (before and after)”. Illustration. 7 July 2003. Neural Transplants in Parkinson’s Disease: do they work?. Lancet Neurology. 6 Oct 2005 http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laneur/article/PIIS1474442 203004423/fulltext. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laneur/article/PIIS1474442 203004423/fulltext.  Rowe, Duncan. “Retina Repair.” Illustration. 31 Jan 2003. Fetal Tissue Transplants Improve Adult Sight. New Scientist Magazine. 6 Oct 2005. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn3319 http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn3319


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