Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

NURS 2410 UNIT 2 Nancy Pares, RN, MSN Metro Community College.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "NURS 2410 UNIT 2 Nancy Pares, RN, MSN Metro Community College."— Presentation transcript:

1 NURS 2410 UNIT 2 Nancy Pares, RN, MSN Metro Community College

2 External Electronic Uterine Monitoring: Advantages Noninvasive Easy to place May be used before and following rupture of membranes Can be used intermittently Provides a permanent, continuous recording

3 External Electronic Uterine Monitoring: Disadvantages The nurse must compare subjective findings with monitor The belt may become uncomfortable The belt may require frequent readjustment The mother may feel inhibited to move

4 Internal Electronic Uterine Monitoring: Advantages Provides pressure measurements for contraction intensity and uterine resting tone Allows for very accurate timing of UCs Provides a permanent record of the uterine activity

5 Internal Electronic Uterine Monitoring: Disadvantages Membranes must be ruptured and adequate cervical dilation must be achieved Invasive Increases the risk of uterine infection or perforation Contraindicated in cases with active infections Use with a low-lying placenta can result in placenta puncture

6 Figure 23–3 INTRAN Plus intrauterine pressure catheter. There is a micropressure transducer (electronic sensor) located at the tip of the catheter and a port for amnioinfusion at the distal end of the catheter. SOURCE: Photographer: Elena Dorfman.

7 Auscultation: Advantages Uses minimum instrumentation Is portable Allows for maximum maternal movement Convenient and economical

8 Auscultation: Disadvantages Can only provide the baseline fetal heart rate, rhythms, and obvious increases and decreases Does not provide a permanent record

9 External Electronic Fetal Heart Monitoring: Advantages Produces a continuous graphic recording Can show the baseline, baseline variability, and changes in the FHR Noninvasive Does not require rupture of membranes

10 External Electronic Fetal Heart Monitoring: Disadvantages Is susceptible to interference from maternal and fetal movement May produce a weak signal Tracing may become sketchy and difficult to interpret

11 Internal Electronic Fetal Heart Monitoring: Advantages Clearer tracings Provides information about short term variability

12 Internal Electronic Fetal Heart Monitoring: Disadvantages Infection Injury Requires ruptured membranes and sufficient cervical dilatation

13 Leopold’s Maneuvers Is the fetal lie longitudinal or transverse? What is in the fundus? Am I feeling buttocks or head? Where is the fetal back? Where are the small parts or extremities? What is in the inlet? Does it confirm what I found in the fundus? Is the presenting part engaged, floating, or dipping into the inlet?

14 Figure 23–7 Leopold’s maneuvers for determining fetal head position, presentation, and lie. NOTE: Many nurses do the fourth maneuver first to identify the part of the fetus in the pelvic inlet.

15 Figure 23–7 (continued) Leopold’s maneuvers for determining fetal head position, presentation, and lie. NOTE: Many nurses do the fourth maneuver first to identify the part of the fetus in the pelvic inlet.

16

17

18 Fetal Heart Rate (FHR) Baseline FHR – Mean FHR during 10 minute period – Must be observed for 2 minutes Changes in FHR – Episodic – not associated with uterine contractions – Periodic – associated with uterine contractions

19 Figure 23–10 Top, An FHR tracing obtained by internal monitoring. Normal FHR range is 110 to 160 bpm. This tracing indicates an FHR range of 140 to 155 bpm. Bottom, A uterine contraction tracing obtained by external monitoring. Each dark vertical line marks 1 minute, and each small rectangle represents 10 seconds. The contraction frequency is about every 3 minutes, and the duration of the contractions is 50 to 60 seconds.

20 Changes in FHR Baseline Fetal tachycardia – Baseline greater than 160 bpm for at least a 10- minute period Fetal bradycardia – Baseline less than 110 bpm for at least a 10- minute period

21 NICHD Classification: Baseline FHR Tachycardia Bradycardia Accelerations Sinusoidal

22 Figure 23–14 Types of accelerations. A, Episodic accelerations. B, Periodic accelerations.

23 Figure 23–14 (continued) Types of accelerations. A, Episodic accelerations. B, Periodic accelerations.

24 NICHD Classification: Baseline Variability (BV) Absent – amplitude undetected Minimal – amplitude range detectable but ≤ 5 bpm Moderate – amplitude range of 6-25 bpm Marked – amplitude greater than 25 bpm

25 Figure 23–12 A and B, Moderate variability. C, Minimal variability. D, Absent variability.

26 Figure 23–12 (continued) A and B, Moderate variability. C, Minimal variability. D, Absent variability.

27

28

29 NICHD Classifications: Decelerations Rate of descent Episodic Periodic – Early – Late – Variable

30 Figure 23–17 Early decelerations. Baseline FHR is 150 to 155 bpm. Nadir (lowest point) of decelerations is 130 to 145 bpm.

31 Figure 23–19 Late decelerations. Baseline FHR is 130 to 148 bpm. Nadir (lowest point) of decelerations is 110 to 120 bpm. Absent variability.

32 Figure 23–20 Variable decelerations with overshoot. The timing of the decelerations is variable, and most have a sharp decline. A rebound acceleration (overshoot) occurs after most of the decelerations. Baseline FHR is 115 to 130 bpm. Nadir of decelerations is 55 to 80 bpm. Variability is minimal.

33 Intrapartal high-risk factors

34

35 Frequency of maternal-fetal assessment

36 Contraction and labor progress

37 Frequency of auscultation

38 Electronic fetal monitoring

39 Fetal Dysrhythmias

40 Management of Deceleration

41 Evaluation of Fetal Monitoring: Uterine Contractions Determine the uterine resting tone Assess the contractions – What is the frequency? – What is the duration? – What is the intensity (if internal monitoring)?

42 Evaluation of Fetal Monitoring: FHR Determine the baseline Determine FHR variability Determine whether a sinusoidal pattern is present Determine whether there are periodic changes

43 Nonreassuring Patterns Variable decelerations Late decelerations of any magnitude Absence of variability Prolonged deceleration Severe (marked) bradycardia

44 Nursing Interventions for Nonreassuring Patterns Notify MD/Midwife and document Change position Increase IV fluids Provide oxygen Tocolytics Prepare for cesarean or vacuum birth

45 Scalp Stimulation Direct stimulation to fetal scalp to elicit an acceleration Uncompromised fetuses will elicit acceleration of at least 15 bpm for 15 seconds

46 Causes and Sources of Hemorrhage

47 Classification of Abruption

48 Placenta Previa

49 Variations

50 Clues to Contractures

51 Dysfunctional Labor Patterns Dystocia Hypertonic contractions Hypotonic contractions

52 Figure 26–1 Comparison of labor patterns. A, Normal uterine contraction pattern. Note that the contraction frequency is every 3 minutes; duration is 60 seconds. The baseline resting tone is below 10 mm Hg. B, Hypotonic uterine contraction pattern. Note in this example that the contraction frequency is every 7 minutes with some uterine activity between contractions, duration is 50 seconds, and intensity increases approximately 25 mm Hg during contractions.

53 Precipitous Birth: Maternal Risks Abruptio placentae Cervical, vaginal, or perineal lacerations Postpartum hemorrhage

54 Impact of Post-term Pregnancy: Maternal Perineal damage Hemorrhage Increased risk of cesarean birth Anxiety Emotional fatigue Persistence of normal discomforts

55 Impact of Post-term Pregnancy: Fetal Decreased perfusion Oligohydramnios Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) Macrosomia Increased risk for meconium staining

56 Malposition/Malpresentation Persistent occiput-posterior (OP) position Brow presentation Face presentation

57 Figure 26–7 Face presentation. Mechanism of birth in mentoanterior position. A, The submentobregmatic diameter at the outlet. B, The fetal head is born by movement of flexion.

58 Figure 26–7 (continued) Face presentation. Mechanism of birth in mentoanterior position. A, The submentobregmatic diameter at the outlet. B, The fetal head is born by movement of flexion.

59 Breech Presentation: Types Frank Single or double footling (incomplete) Complete

60 Figure 26–10 Breech presentation. A, Frank breech. B, Incomplete (footling) breech. C, Complete breech in left sacral anterior (LSA) position. D, On vaginal examination, the nurse may feel the anal sphincter. The tissue of the fetal buttocks feels soft.

61 Figure 26–10 (continued) Breech presentation. A, Frank breech. B, Incomplete (footling) breech. C, Complete breech in left sacral anterior (LSA) position. D, On vaginal examination, the nurse may feel the anal sphincter. The tissue of the fetal buttocks feels soft.

62

63

64 Breech Presentation: Risks Head trauma Increased risk for infant mortality Neonatal complications Cord prolapse

65 Malpresentation Shoulder presentation (Transverse Lie) Compound presentation

66 Figure 26–11 Transverse lie. A, Shoulder presentation. B, On vaginal examination, the nurse may feel the acromion process as the fetal presenting part.

67 Macrosomia Risks Dysfunctional labor Uterine rupture Perineal lacerations Postpartum hemorrhage Puerperal infection Shoulder dystocia

68 Multiple Gestation: Pregnancy Risks Spontaneous abortions Gestational diabetes Hypertension Acute fatty liver disease Pulmonary embolism Maternal anemia

69 Multiple Gestation: Pregnancy Risks (continued) Hydramnios PROM Incompetent cervix IUGR

70 Multiple Gestation: Labor Risks Preterm labor Uterine dysfunction Abnormal fetal presentations Instrumental or cesarean birth Postpartum hemorrhage

71 Multiple Gestation: Physical Discomfort Shortness of breath and/or dyspnea on exertion Backaches Round ligament pain Heartburn Pelvic or suprapubic pressure Pedal edema

72 Abruptio Placentae: Causes Maternal hypertension Domestic violence Abdominal trauma Presence of fibroids Uterine overdistension Fetal growth restriction

73 Abruptio Placentae: Causes (continued) Advanced maternal age Alcohol consumption Cocaine use Short umbilical cord High parity

74 Abruptio Placentae: Types Marginal Central Complete

75 Figure 26–16 Abruptio placentae. A, Marginal abruption with external hemorrhage. B, Central abruption with concealed hemorrhage. C, Complete separation.

76 Placenta Previa: Causes Multiparity Increasing age Placenta accreta Defective development of blood vessels in the decidua Prior cesarean birth Smoking

77 Placenta Previa: Causes (continued) Recent spontaneous or induced abortion Large placenta

78 Placenta Previa: Types Total Partial Marginal Low-lying

79 Figure 26–17 Placenta previa. A, Low placental implantation. B, Partial placenta previa. C, Total placenta previa.

80 Umbilical Cord Complications Succenturiate placenta Circumvallate placenta Battledore placenta Prolapsed umbilical cord Velamentous insertion

81 Figure 26–19 Prolapse of the umbilical cord.

82 Umbilical Cord Complications (continued) Vasa previa Cord length problems

83 Amniotic Fluid Complications Amniotic fluid embolism Hydramnios (polyhydramnios) Oligohydramnios

84 Pelvic Complications Cephalopelvic disproportion – Uterine rupture – Maternal soft tissue damage – Cord prolapse – Extreme molding – Trauma to fetal skull and CNS

85 Third and Fourth Stage Complications Retained placenta Lacerations Placental adherence – Accreta – Increta – Percreta

86 Impact of Procedures on Childbearing Woman Disappointment Guilt Conflict between expectation and need for intervention

87 Contraindications to Induction

88 Relative Contraindications

89 Prelabor Status Evaluation

90 VBAC Complications

91 Version External Cephalic Version (ECV) Podalic Version (Internal)

92 Figure 27–1 External (or cephalic) version of the fetus. A new technique involves applying pressure to the fetal head and buttocks so that the fetus completes a “backward flip” or “forward roll.”

93 Figure 27–2 Use of podalic version and extraction of the fetus to assist in the vaginal birth of the second twin. A, The physician reaches into the uterus and grasps a foot. Although a vertex birth is always preferred in a singleton birth, in this instance of assisting in the birth of a second twin it is not possible to grasp any other fetal part. The fetal head would be too large to grasp and pull downward, and grasping the fetal arm would result in a transverse lie and make vaginal birth impossible. B, While applying pressure on the outside of the abdomen to push the baby’s head up toward the top of the uterus with one hand, the physician pulls the baby’s foot down toward the cervix. C, Both feet have been pulled through the cervix and vagina. D, The physician now grasps the baby’s trunk and continues to pull downward on the baby to assist the birth.

94 Figure 27–2 (continued) Use of podalic version and extraction of the fetus to assist in the vaginal birth of the second twin. A, The physician reaches into the uterus and grasps a foot. Although a vertex birth is always preferred in a singleton birth, in this instance of assisting in the birth of a second twin it is not possible to grasp any other fetal part. The fetal head would be too large to grasp and pull downward, and grasping the fetal arm would result in a transverse lie and make vaginal birth impossible. B, While applying pressure on the outside of the abdomen to push the baby’s head up toward the top of the uterus with one hand, the physician pulls the baby’s foot down toward the cervix. C, Both feet have been pulled through the cervix and vagina. D, The physician now grasps the baby’s trunk and continues to pull downward on the baby to assist the birth.

95 Nursing Management Maternal/fetal assessments NST Lab studies Psychological support Education Monitor VS

96 Nursing Management (continued) EFM Mediation administration – Beta-mimetics, RhoGAM

97 Uses of Amniotomy Labor induction Labor augmentation Allow access to fetus and uterus to – Apply an internal fetal heart monitoring scalp electrode – Insert an intrauterine pressure catheter – Obtain a fetal scalp blood sample

98 Cervical Ripening: Prostaglandin E2 Advantages – Cervical ripening – Shorter labor – Lower requirements for oxytocin during labor induction – Vaginal birth is achieved within 24 hours for most women – Incidence of cesarean birth is reduced

99 Cervical Ripening: Prostaglandin E2 (continued) Risks – Uterine hyperstimulation – Nonreassuring fetal status – Higher incidence of postpartum hemorrhage – Uterine rupture

100 Labor Induction: Stripping Membranes Advantages – Labor usually occurs in hours Disadvantages – Can be painful – Uterine contractions – Bloody discharge

101 Labor Induction: Oxytocin Risks – Hyperstimulation of the uterus – Uterine rupture – Water intoxication – Nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns

102 Labor Induction: Natural Methods Sexual intercourse/lovemaking Self or partner stimulation of the woman’s nipples and breasts Use of herbs – Blue/black cohosh – Evening primrose oil – Red raspberry leaves

103 Labor Induction: Natural Methods (continued) Use of homeopathic solutions – Caulophyllum or pulsatilla – Castor oil, enemas – Acupressure/acupuncture Mechanical dilatation with balloon catheter

104 Amnioinfusion Prevent the possibility of variable decelerations Treat nonperiodic decelerations Meconium dilution

105 Episiotomy Types – Midline – Mediolateral

106 Figure 27–3 The two most common types of episiotomies are midline and mediolateral. A, Right mediolateral. B, Midline.

107 Nursing Management Support Assist with communication of woman’s needs Pain relief measures Assessment Education

108 Forceps-Assisted Birth: Maternal Indications Heart disease Acute pulmonary edema or pulmonary compromise Certain neurological conditions Intrapartal infection Prolonged second stage Exhaustion

109 Figure 27–5 Application of forceps in occiput-anterior (OA) position. A, The left blade is inserted along the left side wall of the pelvis over the parietal bone. B, The right blade is inserted along the right side wall of the pelvis over the parietal bone. C, With correct placement of the blades, the handles lock easily. During uterine contractions, traction is applied to the forceps in a downward and outward direction to follow the birth canal.

110 Figure 27–5 (continued) Application of forceps in occiput-anterior (OA) position. A, The left blade is inserted along the left side wall of the pelvis over the parietal bone. B, The right blade is inserted along the right side wall of the pelvis over the parietal bone. C, With correct placement of the blades, the handles lock easily. During uterine contractions, traction is applied to the forceps in a downward and outward direction to follow the birth canal.

111

112 Forceps-Assisted Birth: Fetal Indications Premature placental separation Prolapsed umbilical cord Nonreassuring fetal status

113 Types of Forceps Outlet forceps Midforceps Breech forceps

114 Figure 27–4 Forceps are composed of a blade, shank, and handle and may have a cephalic and pelvic curve. (Note labels on Piper and Tucker- McLean forceps.) The blades may be fenestrated (open) or solid. The front and lateral views of these forceps illustrate differences in blades, open and closed shanks, and cephalic and pelvic curves. Elliot, Simpson, and Tucker-McLean forceps are used as outlet forceps. Kielland and Barton forceps are used for midforceps rotations. Piper forceps are used to provide traction and flexion of the aftercoming head (the head comes after the body) of a fetus in breech presentation.

115 Fetal Risks Ecchymosis, edema, or both along the sides of the face Caput succedaneum or cephalhematoma Transient facial paralysis Low Apgar scores Retinal hemorrhage Corneal abrasions

116 Fetal Risks (continued) Ocular trauma Other trauma (Erb’s palsy, fractured clavicle) Elevated neonatal bilirubin levels Prolonged infant hospital stay

117 Maternal Risks Lacerations of the birth canal Periurethral lacerations Extension of a median episiotomy into the anus More likely to have a third- or fourth-degree laceration Report more perineal pain and sexual problems in the postpartum period Postpartum infections

118 Maternal Risks (continued) Cervical lacerations Prolonged hospital stay Urinary and rectal incontinence Anal sphincter injury Postpartum metritis

119 Nursing Management Explains procedure to woman Monitors contractions Informs physician/CNM of contraction Encourages woman to avoid pushing during contraction Assessment of mother and her newborn Reassurance

120 Indications for Vacuum Extraction Prolonged second stage of labor Nonreassuring heart rate pattern Used to relieve the woman of pushing effort When analgesia or fatigue interfere with ability to push effectively Borderline CPD

121 Vacuum Extraction Procedure Procedure – Suction cup placed on fetal occiput – Pump is used to create suction – Traction is applied – Fetal head should descend with each contraction

122 Figure 27–6 Vacuum extractor traction. A, The cup is placed on the fetal occiput, creating suction. Traction is applied in a downward and outward direction. B, Traction continues in a downward direction as the fetal head begins to emerge from the vagina. C, Traction is maintained to lift the fetal head out of the vagina.

123 Figure 27–6 (continued) Vacuum extractor traction. A, The cup is placed on the fetal occiput, creating suction. Traction is applied in a downward and outward direction. B, Traction continues in a downward direction as the fetal head begins to emerge from the vagina. C, Traction is maintained to lift the fetal head out of the vagina.

124

125 Nursing Management Inform woman about procedure Pumps the vacuum Supports the woman Assesses the mother and neonate for complications

126 Neonatal Risks with Vacuum Extraction Scalp lacerations and bruising Shoulder dystocia Subgaleal hematomas Cephalhematomas Intracranial hemorrhages Subconjunctival hemorrhages

127 Neonatal Risks with Vacuum Extraction (continued) Neonatal jaundice Fractured clavicle Erb’s palsy Damage to the sixth and seventh cranial nerves Retinal hemorrhage Fetal death

128 Maternal Risks with Vacuum Extraction Perineal trauma Edema Third- and fourth-degree lacerations Postpartum pain Infection More sexual difficulties in the postpartum period

129 Indications for Cesarean Birth Complete placenta previa CPD Placental abruption Active genital herpes Umbilical cord prolapse Failure to progress in labor

130 Indications for Cesarean Birth (continued) Proven nonreassuring fetal status Benign and malignant tumors that obstruct the birth canal Breech presentation Previous cesarean birth Major congenital anomalies Cervical cerclage

131 Indications for Cesarean Birth (continued) Severe Rh isoimmunization Maternal preference for cesarean birth

132 Impact on the Family Stress and anxiety Sense of loss of vaginal birth experience Fear Relief

133 Preparation for Cesarean Birth Preoperative teaching – Coughing and deep breathing – Splinting – What to expect

134 Nursing Management Before Cesarean Birth Assisting with the epidural Monitoring maternal vital signs and fetal heart rate Inserting an indwelling urinary catheter Preparing the abdomen and perineum Making sure that all necessary personnel and equipment are present Positioning the woman on the operating table

135 Nursing Management Before Cesarean Birth (continued) Supporting the couple Instrument count

136 Nursing Management After Cesarean Birth Normal newborn post-delivery care Monitoring vital signs Checking the surgical dressing Palpating the fundus and checking lochia Monitoring intake and output Administration of oxytocin and pain management

137 Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC): Criteria One previous cesarean birth and a low transverse uterine incision An adequate pelvis No other uterine scars or previous uterine rupture An available physician who is able to do a cesarean In-house anesthesia personnel

138 Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC): Risks Uterine rupture Stillbirths Hypoxia

139 Characterized by uterine irritability, poor resting tone, frequent contractions Risks – Maternal exhaustion, pain – Infection – Maternal/fetal injury Management – Rest, hydration, sedation – Labor augmentation (oxytocin, AROM) Contributing factors – Primip, fetal position, flexion of fetal head, size of baby Dysfunctional Labor Patterns: Hypertonic Labor

140 Assessment – Uterine activity, cx change, membranes, fetus, and mom – Fetal tolerance of labor EFM pg 579 – FHR – Variability – Periodic changes – See additional handout for EFM Nursing Process

141 Risk for infection Acute pain Deficient knowledge Fatigue Anxiety Outcome statements –pg 580 Nursing Dx- hypertonic

142 Hypertonic can evolve into normal pattern If ineffective continues: c/delivery RN responsible for reporting and documenting data in time current Outcome evaluation

143 Characterized by contractions that are inadequate in frequency, duration, intensity Risks – Maternal exhaustion from long labor – Infection – Maternal/fetal injury Management – Rest, hydration, sedation – Labor augmentation (oxytocin, AROM) Contributing factors – Large fetus,malpresentation,early or repeated maternal sedation Dysfunctional Labor Patterns: Hypotonic Labor

144 The same in all aspects of process to hypertonic Nursing Process

145 Labor that progresses rapidly (< 3hrs after onset of uterine activity) Contributing factors – Grand multip, small fetus, relaxed pelvic muscles, hx of same Risks – Uncontrolled delivery – ACOG allows for induction with contributing factors Precipitate delivery

146 Assessment – Thorough hx, EFM, fetal position changes, (U/S), client responses, fetal tolerance – Be alert for amniotic fluid emboli, uterine atony Nursing dx – Risk for soft tissue injury – Risk for infection – Anxiety Nursing process- precip del

147 Malpositions Cephalopelvic disproportion Macrosomia Multiple gestation Fetal distress Uterine rupture Placenta previa Abruptio placentae Umbilical cord prolapse Polyhydramnios/ oligohydramnios Factors Resulting in High-Risk Deliveries

148 Options for delivery are external version or cesarean section Shoulder Presentation

149 May be able to deliver vaginally Face and Brow Presentation.

150 Shoulder Dystocia Anterior shoulder impinged behind the symphysis McRoberts maneuver

151 CPD – Contributing factors Irregular shaped pelvis Fetal macrosomia Hx of crushed or fx pelvix Macrosomia – Passenger too big – Can lead to shoulder dystocia – Maternal diabetes – Excessive mat wt gain – Adv. Mat age – Erb’s palsy

152 Interventions for shoulder dystocia Mc Roberts maneuver Suprapubic pressure Woods corkscrew – Push ant chest wall of fetus and turn 180 degrees Rubin maneuver push against scapula of ant. Shoulder to rotate forward 180

153 Prolapsed Cord Occult (hidden, cannot be seen or felt) Complete (cannot be seen, but may be felt) Visible (can be seen protruding from vagina)

154 Cord abnormalities Velamentous insertion – Developmental abnormality which may cause decreased fetal perfusion Vasa previa – Cord vessels over os Cord compression – During descent – Cord wrapping Cord prolapse – Cord precedes fetus – Check EFM

155 Evaluate for shared amnion and chorion Higher incidence of PTL Cojoining abnormalities 1:1 ratio of nurse to baby in delivery Perinatal abnormalities 5 x greater Maternal complications increase Financial concerns Multiples

156 Fetuses can assume a variety of positions in utero Twin Gestation


Download ppt "NURS 2410 UNIT 2 Nancy Pares, RN, MSN Metro Community College."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google