Presentation on theme: "From Conception to Birth By: Tiffany Davison & Terry Mercer."— Presentation transcript:
From Conception to Birth By: Tiffany Davison & Terry Mercer
Trimesters of Pregnancy Pregnancy is divided into trimesters. –The 3 stages of pregnancy. First Trimester is from Day 1 to the 14 th week. Second Trimester is from the 15 th week to the 28 th week. Third Trimester is from the 29 th week to delivery.
Conception In the middle of the month between two menstrual cycles, a ripened egg bursts out of the ovary. During intercourse, several hundred million sperm land in the vagina. When 1 sperm breaks through the egg’s membrane, the egg immediately hardens. This is when the babies characteristics and sex are determined.
During the First Trimester The picture on the right is a fertilized egg only thirty hours after conception. Magnified here, it is no larger than the head of a pin. Still rapidly dividing, the developing embryo, called a zygote at this stage, floats down from the fallopian tube and towards the uterus.
First Month Week 3 At this point, the blastocyst, or developing embryo, is looking for a spot to implant in the uterus. Early formation of the central nervous system, backbone, and spinal column has begun. The gastrointestinal system has also begun to develop with the kidneys, liver, and intestines forming. The heart has begun to form.
First Month Week 4 Hormones produced by the embryo stop the mother's menstrual cycle. By the end of week four the child is ten thousand times larger than the fertilized egg.
Second Month The most important month to the embryo’s growth By the end of the month most of the embryo’s internal organs are formed. The Visible Embryo is a visual guide through fetal development from fertilization
2 nd Month Week 5: Eyes, legs, and hands begin to develop. The embryo's tiny heart begins to beat by day twenty-one. The brain has developed into 5 areas and some cranial nerves are visible. The spinal cord grows faster than the rest of the body giving a tail like appearance which disappears as the embryo continues to grow. The placenta begins to provide nourishment for the embryo. Embryo is the size of a grain of sand
2 nd Month Week 6: Brain waves are detectable; mouth and lips are present; fingernails are forming. The notochord appears which is a rod of cells, which will eventually becomes the fetus’s spine. forming.Week 7: Eyelids, and toes form, nose distinct. The baby is kicking and swimming.Week 8: Every organ is in place, bones begin to replace cartilage, and fingerprints begin to form. By the 8th week the baby can begin to hear. forming.Week 7: Eyelids, and toes form, nose distinct. The baby is kicking and swimming.Week 8: Every organ is in place, bones begin to replace cartilage, and fingerprints begin to form. By the 8th week the baby can begin to hear.
2 nd Month Major organs have all begun to form. The embryo has developed its own blood type, unique from the mother's. Hair follicles and nipples form and knees and elbows are visible. Facial features are also observable. The eyes have a retina and lens. The major muscle system is developed and the embryo is able to move.
Week 7 Eyelids, and toes form, nose are distinct. The baby is kicking and swimming
Week 8 The embryo is reactive to its environment inside the amniotic sac where it swims and moves. Hands and feet can be seen. At the end of week 8, the embryonic period is over and the fetal stage begins. Every organ is in place, bones begin to replace cartilage, and fingerprints begin to form. By the 8th week the baby can begin to hear. Toes and fingers are visible
How does the fetus receive nourishment? The umbilical cord– a cordlike structure approx. 22 inches long in the pregnant female, extending from the abdominal wall of the fetus to the placenta. Anything the mother consumes travels to the fetus thru the umbilical cord Fetus also receives oxygen thru the umbilical cord which takes oxygen from your blood and passes it back as carbon dioxide After birth cord is clamped off leaving scar known as navel. There are no nerves in the umbilical cord so cutting is not painful
Baby having umbilical cord clamped
Third Month Weeks 9 and 10: Teeth begin to form, fingernails develop. The baby can turn his head, and frown. The baby can hiccup. Weeks 10 and 11: The baby can "breathe" amniotic fluid and urinate. Week 11 the baby can grasp objects placed in its hand; all organ systems are functioning. The baby has a skeletal structure, nerves, and circulation.
Fetus 9 th -12 th week
End of First Trimester Week 12: The baby has all of the parts necessary to experience pain, including nerves, spinal cord, and thalamus. Vocal cords are complete. Week 14: At this age, the heart pumps several quarts of blood through the body every day.
2 nd Trimester The brain is fully developed and the fetus can suck, swallow, and make irregular breathing sounds. Fetus can feel pain. Fetal skin is almost transparent. Muscles tissue is lengthening and bones are becoming harder. Liver and organs produce appropriate fluids. Eyebrows and eyelashes appear and the fetus makes active movements including kicks and even somersaults.
Week 15 & 16 At 16 weeks, your baby is growing rapidly, and can fit inside a Teacup.
4 th Month The external organs become male or female Bone marrow is beginning to form Heart is pumping 25 quarts of blood a day At the end of the month the fetus will become 8-10 inches in length and one half of its birth weight. Fingerprints are forming Teeth are forming. The uterus expands throughout pregnancy, but the increase is not usually visible until the 4 th month
2 nd Trimester Week 17: The baby can have dream (REM) sleep. Week 19: Babies can routinely be saved at 21 to 22 weeks after fertilization, and sometimes they can be saved even younger.
“Quickening” (when the mother can feel the fetus moving) usually occurs around this time. Finger and toenails appear. Lanugo, a fine hair now covers the entire body. The fetus can hear and recognize the mother’s voice. Sex organs are visible on ultrasound devices. Fetus may be sucking its thumb at 20 weeks
Week 24 A protective waxy substance called Vernix covers the skin. By birth, most of the Vernix will be gone but any that is left is quickly absorbed. Fetus has a hand and startle reflex. Footprints and fingerprints are forming. Fetus practices breathing by inhaling amniotic fluid into its developing lungs. Fetus may start responding to loud noises and music
Beginning of 3 rd Trimester Weeks 25 - 28 Rapid brain development occurs during this period and the nervous system is able to control some bodily functions. The fetus’ eyelids now open and close. At 25 weeks there is a 60% chance of survival if born. The fetus is considered legally viable at 28 weeks and there is a 90% chance of survival if born at this point.
Week 25 thru 28
Weeks 29 - 32 There is a rapid increase in the amount of body fat the fetus has. Rhythmic breathing occurs, but the lungs are not yet mature. The fetus sleeps 90-95% of the day. At this point there the survival rate is above 95% if the baby is born.
Week 38-40 The fetus is considered full-term. Lanugo is gone except on upper arms and shoulders. Hair on the baby’s head is now coarser and thicker. The lungs are mature. The average weight of the baby at this point is seven and a half pounds. Breathing will trigger changes in the heart and bypass arteries forcing all blood to now travel through the lungs. At 36 to 40 weeks the head will probably descend into the pelvis
Birth Most traumatic experience one goes through
Pregnancy Quiz 1)Five weeks into your pregnancy, your baby is the size of a: a)Grain of sand b)Raisin c)Grape 2)The notochord, which appears in the Sixth week, is: a)A collection of nerves, which will eventually become the baby's limbs b)A rod of cells, which will eventually become the baby's spine c)The neuro center, which will eventually become the baby's brain 3)Your baby's fingers and toes are visible at: a)10 weeks b)6 weeks c)8 weeks
Pregnancy Quiz 4)At 16 weeks, your baby is growing rapidly, and can fit inside a: a)Teacup b)Thimble c)Breadbox 5)The uterus expands throughout pregnancy, but the increase is not usually visible until the: a)Fourth month b)Second month c)Sixth month 6)Your baby may be sucking her thumb at: a)18 weeks b)20 weeks c)22 weeks
Pregnancy Quiz 7)Vernix, which covers the baby at six months, is: a)The fine down which eventually becomes the baby's hair and lashes b)A creamy substance which protects the baby's skin from becoming waterlogged c)The nutrients in the amniotic fluid that provide nourishment to the baby 8)At 24 weeks, you may notice that your baby responds to: a)Sunlight b)Strong odors c)Loud noises and music 9)Your baby's head will probably descend into the pelvis between: a)30-35 weeks b)26-30 weeks c)36-40 weeks
Pregnancy Quiz 10)The baby breathes inside you by: a)Taking oxygen from your blood and passing back carbon dioxide b)Taking carbon dioxide from your blood and passing back oxygen c)Making breathing movements
Pregnancy Quiz Answers 1.Grain of sand 2.A rod of cell’s which will eventually become the baby’s spine 3.8 weeks 4.Teacup 5.Fourth month 6.20 weeks 7.A creamy substance which protects the babies skin from becoming waterlogged 8.Loud noises and music 9.36-40 weeks 10.Taking oxygen from your blood and passing back carbon dioxide