2Learning ObjectivesHow does development unfold during the prenatal period from conception until the time of birth?How does prenatal behavior of the fetus relate to postnatal behavior of the infant?
3Prenatal Development Time of fastest development in life span Environment extremely importantConceptionOva travels from ovary to uterusPenetration by 1 of spermOutcome: Single-celled ZYGOTE
4Prenatal Stages Germinal period: Days 1-14 Implantation: One-half are successfulMiscarriage: 15% to 50%Embryonic period: 3rd to 8th weekOrganogenesis, Sexual differentiationFetal period: 9th week – birthProliferation, MigrationDifferentiation of stem cellsEnds in tremendous brain development
5Learning ObjectivesHow and when do various teratogens affect the developing fetus?How can you summarize the effects of teratogens during the prenatal period?How do maternal age, emotional state, and nutrition affect prenatal and neonatal development?What about the father’s state - can this influence development?
6Prenatal Environment Reciprocal influence Person and environmentGood and bad influences importantTeratogen: Environmental agentHarms the developing fetusCritical Period: OrganogenesisDosage and durationGenetic make-up: Susceptibility
7The critical periods of prenatal development The critical periods of prenatal development. Teratogens are more likely to produce major structural abnormalities during the third through the eighth prenatal week. Note, however, that many organs and body parts remain sensitive to teratogenic agents throughout the nine-month prenatal period
8Teratogens: Drugs Thalidomide (for morning sickness) All or parts of limbs missingTobacco: Miscarriage, low birth weight, SIDS, slows fetal growthAlcohol: FASSmall, facial deformities, retardationCocaine: Processing difficulties
15Teratogens: Environmental Hazards Radiation: MR, leukemia, cancer, mutations, spontaneous abortions, etc.Avoid X-rays when pregnantPollutantsIn air and waterLead: MR (also postnatally)
16The Mother’s State Age: Typically age 16-35 15 or younger don’t seek prenatal careBirth complications, low birth weightOver 35:Miscarriage, Down Syndrome (father’s age also)Emotion: Stress can stunt fetal growthPositive outlook most helpfulNutrition: lb weight gainMalnutrition: Smaller neurons, brain, child
17The Father’s State Research limited except for genetic contribution Father’s age can also be influentialOver 35: Increased number miscarriages, heart defects, Down SyndromeOver 50: Higher risk for schizophreniaExposure to environmental toxinsRadiation, anesthetic gases, pesticidesDamage to genetic material in sperm
18Postnatal Depression Baby Blues: mild, common Clinical depression: 1/10Previous depression commonChildren of Depressed MothersInsecurely attached, less responsiveNegative to other children
19The Father’s Experience Accepted, expected in delivery roomsAttend prenatal classes with wifeExperience described as a significant eventAnxiety, stress common during deliveryRelief, pride, joy when baby is bornSometimes depression following birthFathers also need supportDisappointed if sex does not resume soon
20The Neonatal Environment Culture, early socialization, health statusE.g., low birth-weight babies (8% in US)Less than 5½ lbsStrongly linked to low SESEnvironment: Neonatal intensive careRisk: Blindness, deafness, CP, autism, cognitive, and later academic problemsParenting must be attentive, responsive
21Modern technology permits survival of younger and smaller babies, but many experts believe we have reached the lowest limits of viability at weeks gestation.
22Learning Objectives What are the advantages of breast feeding? Are there disadvantages of breast feeding?How can at-risk newborns be identified?What treatments are available to optimize development of at-risk babies?To what extent are the effects of the prenatal and perinatal environments long lasting?What factors influence whether effects are lasting?
23Breast or Bottle? Breast feeding most natural nutrition Practices vary across culturesHealth benefits great for breast-fed infantsAt least first 6 months recommendedMore likely to bottle feed: FactorsYounger, low SES, less education, employed, African AmericanUS values toward breast feeding ambivalentAPA Goal 1: Major concepts, empirical findingsAPA Goal 8: Recognize sociocultural and international diversity
25Low Birth-Weight Babies < 5½ pounds: “Small for date” or “preterm”Leading cause of infant mortality8% of all births, 65% of all infant deathsFactors: Low SES, smoking, stress, multiplesWorse for minority, poverty, single-parent childrenFor most, significant catch-up growthLow Birth-Weight InfantsGreater risk for blindness, deafness, CP, autism, health problems - especially respiratory problems
26Factors Helpful for LBW Infants Breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact, massageResponsive parenting, intellectual stimulationEarly intervention programs work with parentsChildcare education and supportGrowth-enhancing home environmentConsistently attentive, responsive parenting
28Risk and Resilience Not all high-risk infants have problems Werner: Kauai Longitudinal study (40 yrs)Findings:Effects decrease over timeOutcomes depend on postnatal environmentProtective factorsPersonal resourcesSupportive postnatal environment