Presentation on theme: "PREGNANCY Lasts about 9 Months ( 40 weeks)/ Divided into 3 trimesters."— Presentation transcript:
1PREGNANCYLasts about 9 Months ( 40 weeks)/ Divided into 3 trimesters
2FERTILIZATIONIn order for any pregnancy to occur FERTILIZATION must first take place.Fertilization is the joining of the sperm and the egg (ovum). This process usually occurs after sperm is ejaculated into the vagina during sexual intercourse.
3At this point the embryo is the size of a raisin! FetalDevelopmentThis is what an embryo might look like during weeks 6-8 of pregnancy. That’s 1 ½ to 2 months into the first trimesterAt this point the embryo is the size of a raisin!The baby is called an embryo for the first 10 weeks of development, then it is called a fetus
4How often should a woman visit her doctor when she is pregnant? Prenatal Care-Visit an obstetrician- this is a physician that specializes in caring for pregnant women through childbirth. Women with complicated or difficult pregnancies make up a majority of their work. Many obstetricians also train as gynecologists so they are able to give medical advice and treatment concerning a woman's reproductive system.How often should a woman visit herdoctor when she is pregnant?
5Common Tests that are done during pregnancy 3D UltrasoundUltrasound – Commonly done around the 16th week (month 4 of pregnancy) Every pregnant woman gets at least one ultrasound during pregnancy! What are the reasons for doing an ultrasound at this time?
6Tests for Birth Defects Chorionic Villus SamplingThe chorion is the portion of fetal membrane that eventually forms the fetal side of the placenta. The chorion contains chorionic villi, which are small finger-like projections. These villi are snipped or suctioned off for study in the procedure. Since the chorionic villi are of fetal origin, examining samples of them can provide the genetic makeup of the fetus. This test is performed to identify congenital defects. Experts use the sample to study the DNA, chromosomes, and enzymes of the fetus. The test can be done before amniocentesis, about 10 to 12 weeks after a missed periodAmniocentesis (also referred to as amniotic fluid test or AFT), is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is extracted from the amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities.
7Other tests done during pregnancy Gestational Diabetes:Screening Blood Glucose Test- is performed between 24–28 weeks. It involves drinking a solution containing 50 grams of glucose, and measuring blood levels 1 hour later. If blood sugar measures higher than 140, women are often retested, then diagnosed with gestational diabetes.HIV-All pregnant women should be screen as early as possible in the pregnancy, as pregnant women can pass the virus on to their baby during pregnancy, labor or delivery. If the woman tests positive, she will be given a course of antiviral drugs throughout her pregnancy and after the birth of the baby to prevent transmission.
8The placenta Umbilical Cord The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply.The placenta is delivered after the baby , it is then called the afterbirth.Umbilical CordIt connects to the fetus by an umbilical cord of approximately 22–24 inches in length that contains two arteries and one vein. The umbilical cord transports oxygen and nutrients to the fetus and waste to the mother.
9Amniotic Sac Amniotic Fluid Amniotic Sac- Think of the sac as a water balloon that is filled with water. This sac is what ruptures when a woman’s “water breaks” during pregnancyAmniotic Fluid- Think of the fluid as the water inside of the balloon and the fetus is floating in the waterThe fluid provides support and protection for the fetus. The fetus also breaths this fluid in and out as part of fetal respirationFLUIDSAC
10Miscarriage- -Stillbirth is the spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or fetus is incapable of surviving independently, generally defined in humans at prior to 20 weeks of gestation. Miscarriage is the most common complication of early pregnancy. The most common symptom of a miscarriage is bleedingMiscarriage-Miscarriages can occur for many reasons, not all of which can be identified. Some of these causes include genetic, uterine or hormonal abnormalities, reproductive tract infections, and tissue rejection. Most miscarriages occur in the first trimester of pregnancy.When the fetus has died inside the uterus. Once the baby has died the mother still has contractions and the baby is delivered.-Stillbirth
11Labor and BirthDuring labor, the woman will experience strong contractions, when the uterus squeezes together in order for the baby to be pushed out. The cervix must also open for the baby to enter the vagina and be born.
12Cesarian Section aka: C-Section Reasons for C-Section include: a surgical procedure in which one or more incisions are made through a mother's abdomen and uterus.This is usually performed when a vaginal delivery would put the baby's or mother's life or health at riskReasons for C-Section include:Increase in the mother’s blood pressureOverly large babyBreech position of baby (feet or butt first)Maternal STD’sMultiple birthsLabor is not progressingFetal distress (heart rate, respiration, blood pressure drop)Prolapsed cordPlacental problems
13Birth Defects- 60% have an unknown cause. When a baby is born with something not fully developed or deformities.There are more than 4,000 different known birth defects, ranging from minor to serious, and although many can be treated or cured, they're the leading cause of death in the first year of life.Birth defects can be caused by genetic, environmental, or unknown factors. For most birth defects, the cause is believed to be an interaction of a number of genetic and environmental factors.60% have an unknown cause.GeneticsMetabolic Defects (inborn problem in body chemistry)Congenital infectionsAlcoholSome illegal drugsSome medications
14Problems Associated with Drug Use During Pregnancy- Smoking-Alcohol Use-Marijuana- Like smoking, it can constrict the cord. Can cause placental problems (placenta previa) Can also lead to premature birth/low-birth weight. Later in life it can cause learning and behavioral problems!Crack/Cocaine- All the same problems as smoking only far more severe- constricted cord, placental issues, miscarriage, stillbirth, premature birth, low-birth weight. Babies may be born addicted and suffer withdrawal symptoms. Learning disabilities / behavioral problems later in life.OTC/Prescription Drugs- Always check with your doctor first! Effects can depend on stage of pregnancy. All medicines and drugs can be passed in breast milk! Examples of prescription drugs that cause problems include antidepressants, acne medicines, blood thinners, some antibiotics, steroids, cancer med’s and many more!