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Cayuga Community College

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Presentation on theme: "Cayuga Community College"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cayuga Community College
Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span Sara J. Buhl Psychology 101 Cayuga Community College

2 Developmental Psychology
study of physical, cognitive, and social changes from infancy through old age

3 Developmental Issues Nature (genetic inheritance) versus Nurture (our experiences) Continuity versus Stages Is development gradual and continuous? Or is there a sequence of separate stages? Stability versus Change Do our personality traits remain the same or do they change?

4 Prenatal Development Zygote (conception to 2 weeks) Embryo Fetus
fertilized egg enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division develops into an embryo Embryo developing human organism from 2 weeks through second month (8 weeks) Fetus developing human organism from 9 weeks to birth

5 Prenatal Development Teratogens
agents that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm chemical, e.g., alcohol, some medicines, cocaine, heroin, nicotine viral, e.g., HIV, Rubella

6 Prenatal Development Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Smoking
caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking physical and brain abnormalities in children no known safe amount of alcohol during pregnancy Smoking Fetus may receive fewer nutrients May be born underweight FAS – may result in small, misproportioned head and noticeable facial misproportions

7 Infancy and Childhood Maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior At birth 3 months 15 months Cortical Neurons Maturation sets the basic course of development; experience adjusts it.

8 Maturation & Infant Memory
What is your earliest memory? Infantile Amnesia - most people cannot recall much from before age 4 or 5

9 Cognitive Development
Cognition mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Jean Piaget ( ) developed and administered intelligence tests interested in how children had different ways of reasoning than adults mind develops in a series of stages Schema = a framework that organizes and interprets information (e.g., dog)

10 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor = infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory and motor interactions (looking, hearing, touching); object permanence Preoperational = child is able to represent things with words and images; pretend play Concrete Operational = able to think logically about concrete events Formal Operational = abstract reasoning

11 Object Permanence Infants younger than 6 months tend not to understand that things continue to exist when they are out of sight

12 Conservation properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

13 Current Researchers & Piaget
Piaget underestimated young children babies do seem to possess a more intuitive sense of logic and numbers symbolic and formal operational thinking both appear earlier than Piaget thought today development is seen as more continuous than Piaget proposed Studies do support the sequence of Piaget’s stages (even if the ages aren’t exact)

14 Social Development Stranger Anxiety Attachment
fear of strangers that infants commonly display beginning by about 8 months of age Attachment an emotional tie with another person shown in young children by seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

15 Attachment Styles Securely Attached Insecurely Attached - Ambivalent
Explore surroundings, play (when mother is present) Distressed when mother leaves; comforted when she returns Insecurely Attached - Ambivalent Less likely to explore and may cling to mother Seem indifferent when mother leaves and returns Insecurely Attached – Avoidant Also less likely to explore and may cling to mother May cry loudly and remain upset when mother leaves and returns

16 Social Development Harlow’s Surrogate Mother Experiments
Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother

17 Social Development Monkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror-stricken when placed in strange situations without their surrogate mothers (due to animal welfare issues this would not be done today )

18 Social Development 20 40 60 80 100 3.5 5.5 7.5 9.5 11.5 13.5 29 Percentage of infants who cried when their mothers left Age in months Day care Home Groups of infants who had and had not experienced day care were left by their mothers in a unfamiliar room Whether the infant had experienced day care made little difference.

19 Parenting Styles Authoritarian Permissive Authoritative
Parents impose rules Obedience is expected Permissive Parents submit to their children’s desires Few demands are made Little punishment Authoritative Set expectations, but are also responsive Set and enforce rules Explain reasons for rules

20 Social Development The correlation between authoritative parenting and social competence in children Parenting style (e.g.,authoritative) Child’s traits (e.g., self-reliant socially competent) Harmonious marriage, common genes, or other third factor

21 Chapter 4 – Part II Adolescence & Adulthood
Development is now seen as lifelong Adolescence Transition from childhood to adulthood Starts with puberty Ends when independent adult status is attained

22 Adolescence Physical Changes
Puberty – sexual maturation; become capable of reproducing Surge of hormones Rapid physical development Primary sex characteristics Body structures that make reproduction possible Ovaries, testes, and external genitalia Secondary sex characteristics Sexual characteristics that are nonreproductive breasts; facial hair

23 Adolescent Brain Brain is still developing
Frontal lobe matures until about age 25 Myelin growth occurring (fatty tissue surrounding axons that speeds communication between neurons) Judgment improves Better impulse control Greater long term planning ability

24 Adolescence Cognitive Development
Piaget Formal Operational Stage Adolescents are capable of abstract reasoning and logic Abstract ideas like good versus evil Hypothetical reasoning and consequences

25 Adolescence Moral Reasoning
Kohlberg’s Moral Dilemmas Moral dilemmas were posed to children, adolescents, and adults “Is it acceptable for a person to steal medicine to save a loved one’s life?” Answer often depended on stage of development Preconventional morality (before age 9) Self-interest is focus: avoid punishment or obtain rewards Conventional morality (by early adolescence) Cares for others and upholds laws and social rules Postconventional morality Considers rights of people and basic ethical principals 1st two stages have been confirmed by research in various cultures. 3rd stage is more controversial and seems to prize individualism and may be biased against more collectivist cultures

26 Moral Development Empathy – capability to relate to another person’s feelings and emotions Sympathy – ability to support another by being compassionate Delay Gratification

27 Adolescence Social Development
Erik Erikson (1960s) Stages of Psychosocial Development Search for identity Identity – sense of self Intimacy – ability to form close relationships (later adolescence and early adulthood)

28 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
TRUST vs. MISTRUST Infancy (0-1 yr.) When needs are met, a basic sense of trust is developed

29 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Toddlerhood (Age 1-2) Gaining independence: Walking Learn to do things for themselves OR doubt their abilities First Power Struggles

30 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
INITIATIVE vs. GUILT Preschooler (ages 3-5) Language = questions Creative independent play Learn to initiate tasks Guilt – Feeling bad about behavior

31 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
COMPETENCE vs. INFERIORITY Elementary School (6 years to puberty) Skills: Read, Write, Math, Social, Sports Tendency to feel inferior if unable to master tasks

32 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
IDENTITY vs. ROLE CONFUSION Adolescence (teen years – 20s) Meaning of question: Who am I ? Role Experimentation Refine sense of self (identity) Identity Crisis – confusion about sense of self

33 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
INTIMACY vs. ISOLATION Young Adulthood (20s to early 40s) Emotional commitment Form close relationships Lack of close relationships – social isolation

34 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
GENERATIVITY vs. STAGNATION Middle Adulthood (40s - 60s) Contribution to Next Generation Through family and work What makes life meaningful? May feel a lack of purpose

35 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
INTEGRITY vs. DESPAIR Late Adulthood (late 60s+ ) Pride, Self-Respect Reflect on life May feel satisfaction or failure

36 Adolescence Social Development
Parent influence diminishes in many areas Parent influence remains in: Religion Thinking about college Career choices Political views

37 Adolescence Social Development
Peer Influence Grows Talk Dress Actions Peer exclusion Painful May lead to withdrawal Loneliness Low self-esteem

38 Adulthood Physical Development
Physical abilities – peak in mid-20s Health & exercise habits play a large role Women – ability to reproduce declines Menopause occurs around age 50 Later life changes in vision, hearing, smell become increasingly noticeable Immune system weakens

39 Adulthood Cognitive Development
Memory abilities change as we age When asked to learn a list of 24 words No clues: younger people recall more words Multiple choice test of recognition: no change with age Crystallized intelligence Accumulated knowledge and verbal skills Increases with age Fluid intelligence Ability for quick and abstract reasoning Decreases in late adulthood

40 Adulthood Social Development
Evidence does not support a midlife “crisis” Most divorces are in 20s Most suicides in 70s and 80s Life crisis triggered by major events (illness, divorce) not age Social Clock Preferred timing of social events (marriage, parenthood, retirement) Culture dependent

41 Adulthood Marriage Adults are marrying later
Divorce rates have increased Less economic dependence for women Striving for an “equal” relationship (work, chores)

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