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Fetal Wellbeing and Antenatal Monitoring Radha Venkatakrishnan Clinical Lecturer Warwick Medical School.

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Presentation on theme: "Fetal Wellbeing and Antenatal Monitoring Radha Venkatakrishnan Clinical Lecturer Warwick Medical School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fetal Wellbeing and Antenatal Monitoring Radha Venkatakrishnan Clinical Lecturer Warwick Medical School

2 Antenatal Monitoring Why?Who?How?

3 Why? Two thirds of fetal deaths occur before the onset of labor. Two thirds of fetal deaths occur before the onset of labor. Many antepartum deaths occur in women at risk for uteroplacental insufficiency. Many antepartum deaths occur in women at risk for uteroplacental insufficiency. Ideal test: allows intervention before fetal death or damage from asphyxia. Ideal test: allows intervention before fetal death or damage from asphyxia. Preferable: treat disease process and allow fetus to go to term. Preferable: treat disease process and allow fetus to go to term.

4 Antenatal monitoring Uteroplacental insufficiency Uteroplacental insufficiency –Inadequate delivery of nutritive or respiratory substances to appropriate fetal tissues. –Inadequate exchange within the placenta due to decreased blood flow, decreased surface area or increased membrane thickness. –Inadequate maternal delivery of nutrients or oxygen to the placenta or to problems of inadequate fetal uptake.

5 Antenatal monitoring Theoretical scheme of fetal deterioration Theoretical scheme of fetal deterioration –Fetal well being –Fetal growth retardation (Marginal placental respiratory function) –Fetal hypoxia with stress (Decreasing respiratory function) –Some residual effects of intermittent hypoxia (profound respiratory compromise) –Asphyxia –Death

6 Who? Conditions placing the fetus at risk for UPI Conditions placing the fetus at risk for UPI –Preeclampsia, chronic hypertension, –Collagen vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, –Fetal or maternal anemia, blood group sensitization, –Hyperthyroidism, thrombophilia, cyanotic heart disease, –Postdate pregnancy, –Fetal growth restriction

7 How? Methods for antepartum fetal assessment Methods for antepartum fetal assessment –Fetal movement counting –Assessment of uterine growth –Antepartum fetal heart rate testing –Biophysical profile –Doppler velocimetry

8 Fetal movement counting Maternal perception of a decrease in fetal movements / change in the pattern of fetal movements may be a sign of impending fetal compromise. Maternal perception of a decrease in fetal movements / change in the pattern of fetal movements may be a sign of impending fetal compromise. Cardiff “count to ten” : 10 movements in 12 hours. Cardiff “count to ten” : 10 movements in 12 hours. Kick charts Kick charts No robust evidence. No robust evidence.

9 Reduced fetal movements First episode: monitoring by CTG First episode: monitoring by CTG Persistent: USS for growth, LV & UAD, CTG 2 to 3 times per week Absent : – –No FH: confirm by USS – –FH present: growth scan and UAD

10 Tests for RFM Cochrane data for CTG – –Increased hospitalisation, additional tests & elective delivery – –No benefit in outcome Interpretation errors False reassurance UAD has been shown to be predictive of perinatal compromise in high risk pregnancies

11 Symphysiofundal height General rule: fundal height in centimeters will equal the weeks of gestation. General rule: fundal height in centimeters will equal the weeks of gestation. Exceptions: maternal obesity, multiple gestation, polyhydramnios, abnormal fetal lie, oligohydramnios, low fetal station, and fetal growth restriction. Exceptions: maternal obesity, multiple gestation, polyhydramnios, abnormal fetal lie, oligohydramnios, low fetal station, and fetal growth restriction. Customized chart :Abnormalities of fundal height should lead to further investigation. Customized chart :Abnormalities of fundal height should lead to further investigation. Accuracy: poor? Accuracy: poor?

12 Antenatal CTG Initial observational studies showed a strong correlation between the abnormal CTG and poor fetal outcome Widely used as the primary method of antenatal fetal assessment Poor predictive value High inter-observer inconsistencies

13 Antenatal CTG Healthy fetuses display normal oscillations and fluctuations of the baseline FHR (Hammacher, 1966; Kubli, 1969). Healthy fetuses display normal oscillations and fluctuations of the baseline FHR (Hammacher, 1966; Kubli, 1969). Absence of these patterns was associated with increase in neonatal depression and perinatal mortality. Absence of these patterns was associated with increase in neonatal depression and perinatal mortality. Accelerations of the FHR during stress testing correlated with fetal well being (Trierweiler, 1976). Accelerations of the FHR during stress testing correlated with fetal well being (Trierweiler, 1976).

14 Antenatal CTG Accelerations of the FHR occur with fetal movement, uterine contractions, or in response to external stimuli. Accelerations of the FHR occur with fetal movement, uterine contractions, or in response to external stimuli. FHR accelerations appear to be a reflection of CNS alertness and activity. FHR accelerations appear to be a reflection of CNS alertness and activity. Absence of FHR accelerations seems to depict CNS depression caused by hypoxia, drugs, fetal sleep, or congenital anomalies. Absence of FHR accelerations seems to depict CNS depression caused by hypoxia, drugs, fetal sleep, or congenital anomalies.

15 CTG monitor Cochrane: – –Antenatal CTG has no significant effect on perinatal outcome or interventions such as early elective delivery NICE: NICE: –Evidence does not support the routine use of antenatal electronic fetal heart rate monitoring for fetal assessment in women with an uncomplicated pregnancy and therefore it should not be offered

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17 Decelerations Decelerations- Decelerations- transient slowing of FHR below the baseline level of more than 15 bpm and lasting for 15 s or more

18 Antenatal CTG Perinatal mortality: 6.2/1000 Perinatal mortality: 6.2/1000 False positive rate: 50% False positive rate: 50% False negative rate: 3.2 / 1000 False negative rate: 3.2 / 1000

19 Ultrasound

20 Quick, non-invasive procedure, easy interpretation Customised fetal growth charts (serial scans) Liquor volume Placental function – –Doppler study Abnormal results correlate with increased risk of stillbirth and neonatal morbidity in selected pregnancies

21 Biophysical profile Described by Manning (1980) Described by Manning (1980) The number of biophysical activities that could be recorded increased with real time ultrasound: The number of biophysical activities that could be recorded increased with real time ultrasound: –Fetal movement (FM) –Fetal tone (FT) –Fetal breathing movements (FB) –Amniotic fluid volume (AFV)

22 Variables measured CTG: reactive – as described earlier. CTG: reactive – as described earlier. FBM: present - at least 1 episode of at least 30 seconds duration (within a 30 minute period). FBM: present - at least 1 episode of at least 30 seconds duration (within a 30 minute period). FM: present - at least 3 discrete episodes. FM: present - at least 3 discrete episodes. FT: normal - at least 1 episode of extension of extremities or spine with return to flexion. FT: normal - at least 1 episode of extension of extremities or spine with return to flexion. AFV: normal – largest pocket of fluid greater than 1 cm in vertical diameter. AFV: normal – largest pocket of fluid greater than 1 cm in vertical diameter.

23 Scoring Biophysical profile (BPP) Biophysical profile (BPP) –Each variable When normal: 2 When normal: 2 When abnormal: 0 When abnormal: 0 –Highest Score: 10, Lowest Score: 0 –Accuracy improved by increasing the number of variables assessed. –Overall false negative rate: 0.6/1000

24 BPP and Perinatal morbidity Significant inverse linear correlation (Manning, 1990) Significant inverse linear correlation (Manning, 1990) Fetal distress Fetal distress NICU admission NICU admission IUGR IUGR 5 min Apgar <7 5 min Apgar <7 Cord artery pH <7.20 Cord artery pH <7.20

25 Cochrane – –Not enough evidence to evaluate the use of biophysical profile as a test of fetal well-being in high risk pregnancies except diabetes – –No evidence of any benefit in screening Errors associated with the BPP Errors associated with the BPP –Management decisions based on the score only. Intervention based on a false positive low score Intervention based on a false positive low score No intervention based on a false negative normal score No intervention based on a false negative normal score –Management based on BPP without considering overall clinical findings.

26 Doppler velocimetry –40% of combined ventricular output is directed to the placenta by umbilical arteries. –Assessment of umbilical blood flow provides information on blood perfusion of the fetoplacental unit. –Volume of flow increases and vascular impedance decreases with advancing Doppler velocimetry of the umbilical arteries gestational age. –Low vascular impedance allows a continuous forward blood flow throughout the cardiac cycle.

27 Doppler study Doppler velocimetry Doppler velocimetry –An increase in the vascular resistance of the fetoplacental unit leads to a decrease in end diastolic flow velocity or its absence in the flow velocity waveform. –Abnormal waveforms reflect the presence of a structural placental lesion. –Abnormal Doppler results require specific management protocols and intensive fetal surveillance.

28 Doppler velocimetry Uterine arteries – 24/40 Uterine arteries – 24/40

29 Doppler velocimetry Umbilical arteries Umbilical arteries Middle cerebral artery Middle cerebral artery Ductus venosus Ductus venosus

30 Doppler study Doppler velocimetry Doppler velocimetry –A poor indicator of fetal compromise or adaptation to the placental abnormality but does identify patients at risk for increased perinatal mortality. –Strong association between high systolic to diastolic ratios and IUGR.

31 In summary Why?Who?How?

32 THANK YOU


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