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1) To identify structure of the atom. 2) To identify atomic number of a neutral. 3) To identify mass number of an atom. 4) To derive a definition of.

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Presentation on theme: "1) To identify structure of the atom. 2) To identify atomic number of a neutral. 3) To identify mass number of an atom. 4) To derive a definition of."— Presentation transcript:

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3 1) To identify structure of the atom. 2) To identify atomic number of a neutral. 3) To identify mass number of an atom. 4) To derive a definition of an ion. 5) To identify molecules. Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A”

4 Grade 8 “A” Grade 8 “A” Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Structure of matter AtomIonsMolecules

5 Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms -The atom has a spherical shape Watch Video

6 Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons -The atom is made up of two parts: 1)The nucleus { at the center}: contain two types of particles contain two types of particles *Protons ] positively charge “+”[ *Protons ] positively charge “+”[ *neutrons]non – charge[ *neutrons]non – charge[ 2)The electron cloud { surround the nucleus}: 2)The electron cloud { surround the nucleus}: contain one type of particles: contain one type of particles: * electrons ]negatively charge “-”[ * electrons ]negatively charge “-”[ Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” Watch Video

7 Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Sub atomic particles Symbol Electric charge LocationProtonsP+ Inside nucleus NeutronsnNo chargeInside nucleus Electronse - Move around nucleus Watch Video

8 Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons The atom is electrically neutral. Example: Carbon atom has: 6 electrons ( 6 negative charges) 6 protons ( 6 positive charges) 6 neutrons ( non-charged) The net total charge of Carbon atom is Zero. Watch Video

9 Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Atoms define the nature and behavior of chemical elements. Each element is identified by the number of protons. Protons=4 Beryllium element Protons=6 Carbon element Protons=8 Oxygen element Watch Video

10 Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons The ion is an atom or group of atoms, that carry a positive or a negative charge. Ex : H +, HO -, Al 3+ Ex : H +, HO -, Al 3+ How is ion formed? - When an atom loses or gains electrons, it attains an electric charge and becomes an ion. Sodium atom Sodium ion 11 electrons 10 electrons Chlorine atom Chloride ion 17 electrons 18 electrons Watch Video

11 Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” *When an atom loses electrons it attain positive charge X + *When an atom loses electrons it attain positive charge X + and is called cation. Na-1e Na + and is called cation. Na-1e Na + Sodium atom loses 1 electron and becomes a sodium ion with positive charge Watch Video

12 Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” *When an atom gains electrons it attain negative charge X - *When an atom gains electrons it attain negative charge X - and is called anion. Cl + 1e Cl - and is called anion. Cl + 1e Cl - Chlorine atom gains 1 electron and becomes a chloride ion with negative charge Watch Video

13 Ions can be classified according to their charges as cations or anions. Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” CationAnion H+H+ F-F- Al 3+ O 2- Watch Video

14 Ion can be classified according to the number of the atoms contained mono-atomic poly-atomic as mono-atomic ion or poly-atomic ion. Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” Mono-atomic ion Poly-atomic ion Poly-atomic ion H+H+ HO - -o2--o2- Al 3+

15 A molecule is a neutral group of atoms that act as a unit. Ex: * Carbon dioxide molecule * Water molecule * Methane molecule Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” Water molecule Watch Video

16 *Molecule can be classified according to the number of atoms contained as: *Molecule can be classified according to the number of atoms contained as: Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” Di-atomic moleculePoly- atomic molecule Hydrogen moleculeWater molecule Nitrogen moleculeCarbon dioxide molecule Made up of two atomsMade up of many atoms

17 Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A”

18 *Atoms,molecules, and ions are the building blocks of elements and compounds. The table below shows models of different particles. The table below shows models of different particles. a. Complete the table below : a. Complete the table below : Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” Name of particle WaterHydroniumDihydrogen Ammonia Oxide Model + 2- Elements Number of atoms Electric charge Nature of particle Legand Nitrogen Oxygen Hydrogen

19 The schematic drawing, given, represents a sodium (Na) atom : * The schematic drawing, given, represents a sodium (Na) atom : a)Indicate the number of electrons. b)Deduce the number of protons. Justify. c)Determine the atomic number (Z) of the given atom. d)Calculate its mass number (A), knowing that it contains 12 neutrons. e)Write its atomic symbol. Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A”

20 The adjacent bar graph The adjacent bar graph represent the composition of an aluminum atom. 1) Indicate the number of protons and neutrons. protons and neutrons. 2) Deduce the number of electrons. Justify. of electrons. Justify. Continue on next slide Continue on next slide Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” Protons electrons neutrons

21 3) Represent the number of electrons on the bar graph. 4) Compare the number of positive and negative charges. What do you conclude? What do you conclude? 5) Determine the atomic number as well as mass number of aluminum atom. aluminum atom. 6) Write its atomic symbol. Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A”

22 Structure of matter Atoms, Ions and molecules are the building blocks of element and component. Atoms, Ions and molecules are the building blocks of element and component. The particles of matter can be made up of single atoms, two atoms of the same element or of different elements (molecules), or can made up of ions. 1) Pick out from the text, the building blocks of elements and compounds. 1) Pick out from the text, the building blocks of elements and compounds. 2) The building block of carbon dioxide can be represented by the following chemical model: following chemical model: Indicate and justify whether the building block of carbon dioxide Indicate and justify whether the building block of carbon dioxide is an atom, an ion or a molecule. is an atom, an ion or a molecule. Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Shajara Praparatory School E-Lessons Grade8 “A” Grade8 “A” Legend carbon oxygen


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