2 For This Unit ………….. You will understand ………… Impact of Progressivism on Foreign PolicyPan-Americanism Annexation of HawaiiSplendid Little War 1898Yellow JournalismOpen Door Policy Roosevelt CorollaryBig Stick Policy Gunboat Diplomacy Dollar DiplomacyWilson Moral Diplomacy World War 1Fourteen Points
3 New Foreign PolicyA policy of “isolationism” Examples? A policy of intervention Why will the US change?
4 US ImperialismMercantilism “sphere of influence” How are these two connected? What is the impact on foreign policy?
13 International Perspective Label World Map - Territories / spheres of influenceBriefly research imperialism and anti-imperialism (use provided internet link)Obtain and read a copy of “White Man’s Burden” by Rudyard Kipling
14 The White Man’s Burden: Motives for Imperialism The White Man’s Burden QuestionsWho is Kipling referring to in the first stanza with “Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child”?Who is Kipling writing this poem for?Kipling’s poem lists the White Man’s responsibilities, and then the consequences of those responsibilities. List four of those responsibilities and four of the consequences Hint: most stanzas begin with a responsibility and ends with a consequence!Do you think Kipling supports or opposes imperialism?How does Kipling’s poem reflect Social Darwinism?
18 The Purchase of AlaskaWilliam Seward (New York) served as Secretary of State ( )Accomplished more than any recent SoSA strong expansionistTried to convince Congress the need to purchase Danish West Indies and annex HawaiiAchieved the annexation of Midway Island in Pacific, gained rights to build a canal in Nicaragua
19 The Purchase of AlaskaTerritory had been in dispute between Russia and GBRussia assumed control and established a small colony for seal huntingBecame an economic burden under the threat of GBSeward will lobby to purchase from Russia1867, Congress agreed to purchase for 7.2 millionReferred to as “Seward’s Folly” and “Seward’s Icebox”
21 U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s
22 U. S. View of HawaiiansHawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in by virtue of economic treaties.
23 U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty1890 – McKinley Tariff1893 – American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani.Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
24 To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898
28 Gentleman’s Agreement: 1908 A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports to laborers entering the U.S.Japan recognized the U.S. right to exclude Japanese immigrants holding passports issued by other countries.The U.S. government got the school board of San Francisco to rescind their order to segregate Asians in separate schools.1908 Root-Takahira Agreement.
29 Lodge Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1912 Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. (R-MA)Non-European powers, like Japan, would be excluded from owning territory in the Western Hemisphere.
30 The New ImperialismIndustrialization intensified US involvement because it needed;Worldwide markets for industrial / agricultural surplusesNeeded sources of raw materialsConservatives will hope overseas territory and adventure would be an outlet and safety valve for unhappiness at homeThey were concerned with growing labor violence, unrest of farmersAdvocates of expansionist policy hoped to achieve their ends by economic and diplomatic means, not by military
31 International Darwinism Imperialism – many nations in Europe were pursuing territory; focus was Africa and Pacific Ocean; US would need to compete, or grow weak and fail; advocates will include missionaries, politicians, naval strategists and journalists Missionaries – Rev Josiah Strong wrote that people of Anglo-Saxon ancestry were the :fittest to survive” and Protestant Americans had the duty to colonize other lands to spread Christianity and W. Civilization (Our Country: Its Possible Future and Present Crisis, 1885); benefits of “superior” civilization to the less fortunate of the world (medicine, science, and technology) ; many travel to Asia, Africa, Pacific Islands ; believed in racial superiority and supremacy of “whites” ; Politicians – republican party was allied w/ business leaders; endorsed use of foreign affairs to search for new markets; Henry Cabot Lodge (Mass.) and T. Roosevelt (gov. of NY)were eager to build US power through global expansion Naval Power – navy Capt. Alfred Thayer Mahan argued a strong navy was crucial to a country’s ambitions of securing foreign markets and becoming a world power (The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1890); US naval strategists persuaded Congress to finance construction of steel navy ships and acquire overseas islands as stations; 1900, 3rd largest navy Newspapers – increase circulation by printing adventure stories ; increased public interest and stimulated demands for a larger US role
32 Latin AmericaBlaine and the Pan-American Conference (1889) –result of efforts to establish closer ties; met in Washington DC; decided to create organization for cooperation on trade, etc. ; larger goal of hemispheric cooperation on economic and political issues; continues today as part of Organization of American States (1948) Cleveland, Olney, and Monroe Doctrine – boundary dispute between British colony of Guiana and Venezuela; Pres. Cleveland and SoS Olney push the British to arbitrate; they argue that the MD applies and US was ready to use military force; British will agree to demands; arbitrators will agree British, but LA countries appreciated US efforts to protect them
36 “Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism William Randolph Hearst Joseph PulitzerHearst to Frederick Remington: You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!William Randolph Hearst
37 The Splendid Little War! Expansionists had long coveted Cuba as early as the 1850’s; large sugar investments in 1890’sCauses – public opinion was being swayed by “jingoism”; demand for US to take its place; Cleveland and McKinley felt military action was morally wrongCuban revolt – nationalists fought to overthrow Spanish rule; 1895 began to lay waste to plantationsDe Lome letter – (1898) highly critical of pres. McKinleySinking of the Maine – February 15, 1898, battleship USS Maine exploded in Havana Harbor, killing 260Yellow Press – sensationalistic newspapers calling for war; printed false and exaggerated stories
38 De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. Criticized President McKinley as weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.
39 Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
40 McKinley’s War Message Reasons for intervention –Put an end to bloodshed and starvation in CubaProtect the lives and property of US citizensEnd the injury to trade and commerceEnd the “constant menace to our peace”Teller Amendment – Congress passed resolution April 20, 1898 authorizing war; added the resolution that the US had no intention of taking political control of Cuba
41 Theodore RooseveltAssistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration.Imperialist and American nationalist.Criticized President McKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair!Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.
44 Fighting the WarThe first shots were in Manila Bay, the last shots were fired only a few months later in August; Sec of State John hay called it a “splendid little war” - The Philippines: Commodore George Dewey will defeat Spanish fleet; Manila was taken on August 13 - Invasion of Cuba: most celebrated event of the war was the cavalry charge up “San Juan Hill; Spanish fleet in Santiago Bay was defeated July 3; more than 5,000 Americans will die mostly due to tropical disease (typhoid, malaria, dysentery), less than 500 die in battle
45 Impact of WarThe Philippine Question – Treaty of Paris was ratified on February 6, 1899; annexation of the PhilippinesInsular Case – constitutional rights of Philippine people – Did the Constitution follow the flag?; issue was resolved in a series of SC cases ( ) ; ruling said that const. rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions, power belonged to CongressCuba and Platt Amendment – troops remained in Cuba until 1901, Cuba had to accept terms: never sign a treaty that impairs w/ independence, never build up excessive debt, permit US to intervene, allow US to maintain naval bases (Guantanamo Bay)Election of Republicans re-nominated McKinley and made war hero T Roosevelt VP; Dems nominated William Bryan; growing prosperity gave McKinley a larger victoryRecognition of US Power
46 The Treaty of Paris: 1898 Cuba was freed from Spanish rule. Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam.The U. S. paid Spain $20 mil. for the Philippines.The U. S. becomes an imperial power!
47 The American Anti-Imperialist League Founded in 1899.Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William Jennings Bryan among the leaders.Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism.
48 Cuban Independence? Teller Amendment (1898) Platt Amendment (1903) Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence.The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt.Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station.Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.Senator Orville Platt
51 Open Door Policy China was falling under control of other powers To prevent losing economic access, Sec of State John Hay proposes Open Door Policy; no one openly opposed this and was considered a diplomatic successBoxer Rebellion (1900) nationalism and xenophobia was growing in China; a secret society of Chinese Nationalists (Boxers) attacked foreign settlements and missionaries; US will participate in a multinational force going into Beijing (Peking)1900, Hay sends a second not to ensure: 1)preserve China's territorial integrity , 2) safeguard equal trade1930’s, this policy will influence US relations with Japan
52 Big Stick Policy1901, Roosevelt will assume presidency – a young expansionist and war hero; his motto “speak softly and carry a big stick”Panama CanalRevolution in Panama (Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty)Hay-Pauncefote Treaty: (1901) treaty with GB; canceled earlier treaty that said any canal in C America was to be under joint US-British controlFinished in 1914
53 Roosevelt CorollaryEarly century, many LA countries faced mounting debts – 1902, British sent ships to Venezuela to force payment of debt, 1904, it appeared European powers were poised to do the same in Santo Domingo (DR)East AsiaRusso-Japanese War: ( ) imperialist rivalry; Japan was winning, Roosevelt intervened to force a diplomatic conference ; Japan will later resent the USGentleman’s Agreement – major conflict between US and Japan was California law; required Japanese students to attend segregated schools; Roosevelt got Japan to restrict emigrants and Roosevelt would persuade a change in lawsGreat White Fleet – demonstration of US naval power ( ); great white ships were impressive and Japan will warmly welcome them in Tokyo BayRoot-Takahira Agreement (1908) agreement between US and Japan; pledeged mutual respect for each Pacific possessions, and support for Open Door policy in China
54 Roosevelt’s Efforts Maintain peace between rival nations Consistently promoted peaceful solutionsAwarded Nobel Peace Prize (1906) for efforts in Russo-Japanese WarHelp to settle conflict between Germany and France over claims to Morocco (Algeciras Conference)Also participated in Second International peace Conference at the Hague in 1907 discussing rules for limiting warfare
55 Taft and DollarsTaft will adopt a policy that was expansionist but depended more on investors than battleshipsRR in China – first test of new policy; wanted to include w/ European bankers investing in rail roads in China; gain US involvement in 1911; excluded from ManchuriaIntervention in Nicaragua – to protect US interests, intervened in financial affairs(1911); sent in Marines when war broke out in 1912 and stay until 1933The Lodge Corollary – (1912) addition to MD; non-European powers would be excluded from owning territory in the W Hemisphere ;Taft opposed
56 Wilson and a Higher Ground In 1912 campaign called for a “New Freedom” in government and promised a moral approach to foreign affairs: he opposed imperialism and “big stick”Righting Wrongs:Philippines – won passage of Jones Act of 1916; granted full territorial status; bill of rights, promised independencePuerto Rico – 1917, Congress granted citizenship and self governmentPanama Canal – 1914, repealed an exemption ships to pay a tollConciliation Treaties – ideas of peace shared by Sec of State William Jennings Bryan; negotiate treaties in which nations pledged to submit disputes to an international commission, observe a one year cooling off period before military action (reached a total of 30 agreements
57 Military Intervention Latin America – went beyond predecessors intervention on financial and political matters; kept Marines in Nicaragua and sent them into Haiti in 1915, and DR in 1916Mexico – refused to recognize military dictator of General Victoriano Huerta, seized power in 1913; Wilson asked for an arms embargo to Mexico and blocked port of Vera Cruz; 1914 several seaman went ashore in Tampico and were arrested; Wilson orders navy to seize control of Vera Cruz; SA ABC powers mediatedPancho Villa – Huerta fell from power in 1914 and replaced by Venustiano Carranza ; got was challenged by revolutionaries led by Pancho Villa ; led raids across US border and murdered people in Texas and new Mexico; 1916 Wilson orderd General pershing across the border and pursue Villa
58 Historical Perspective In interpreting this era of foreign policy …William Appleman Williams, and Walter La Feber focused on US desires for oversea markets, raw materials, and investmentsThe economic explanation has been questioned on two levels: 1)historians note that business interests at first opposed to intervention in Cuba; most supported the war only after it had started; 2) stress the importance of noneconomic motives, they point out there both humanitarian and nationalistic reasons for sending troops to Cuba in 1895, influenced by yellow journalism, Americans had no economic reasons for demanding the US go to warOthers studying Lodge or Roosevelt say their main interest was establishing US power on the world stage, Roosevelt was often motivated by strategic means, not economicOther historians believe a new generation of foreign policy makers rose to power after 1900 and were critical of mediocre leadership post civil war and were eager to take bold new directions; Roosevelt seen as a realist and Wilson an idealistHistorian Richard Hofstadter interpreted Spanish American War from social psychology , he argues that the popular movement for war resulted from a psychic crisis , he said people were expressing aggression built up by economic depressions, closing of the frontier rise of big business and rise of labor radicalism
62 Johnnie get your gun, get your gun, get your gun, Take it on the run, on the run, on the run, Hear them calling you and me, Every son of liberty. Hurry right away, no delay, go today, Make your daddy glad to have had such a lad, Tell your sweetheart not to pine, To be proud her boy's in line.
63 Over there, over there Send the word, send the word over there That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming, The drums rum-tumming everywhere So prepare, say a prayer Send the word, send the word to beware We'll be over, we're coming over, And we won't come back till it's over, over there!
64 Johnnie get your gun, get your gun, get your gun, Johnnie show the Hun you're a son of a gun, Hoist the flag and let her fly, Yankee Doodle do or die. Pack your little kit, show your grit, do your bit, Yankees to the ranks from the towns and the tanks, Make your momma proud of you And the old Red White and Blue.
66 A Move Towards WarThe sequence of events leading from peace in Europe to the outbreak of a general war occurred with stunning rapidity:Sarajevo, June 28, 1914: Serbian terrorist assassinates Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wifeVienna, July 23: Austrian govt. Issues an ultimatum threatening war against Serbia and invades 4 days laterBerlin, August 1: Austria’s ally, German govt. under Kaiser Wilhelm I declares war against RussiaBerlin, August 3: Germany declares war against France, and begins invasion of neutral BelgiumLondon, August 4: Great Britain declares war against Germany
69 Alliances Triple Entente Great Britain France Russia Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire
70 NeutralityPresident Wilson’s first response was to issue a declaration of neutralityCalled upon American people to not take sidesIt was near impossible while protecting US trading rightsUS found themselves in several roles: 1) a contented neutral country, 2) a country waging war for peace, 3) a victorious world power, and then 4) an alienated isolationist nation
71 Neutrality?WWI, the trouble for the US came from the efforts of belligerent powers to stop supplies from reaching their enemies (War of 1812)GB was the first to declare a blockade against Germany; including American ships trying to run the blockadeWilson will protest as the right of a neutral nation’s right to freedom of the seas
73 Submarine WarfareGermany's hope in winning against British naval power lay w/ a new weapon: the submarineFeb. 1915, Germany answered the British blockade by announcing a blockade of its own and warned that any ships attempting to enter “the war zone” risked being sunk on sightLusitania Crisis – challenged US neutrality; the sinking of a British passenger ship May 7, 1915, most passengers died, including 128 Americans; Wilson responded w/ a message warning Germany would be held to strict accountability if continuing; SoS William Jennings Bryan resignedAugust 1915, the Arabic was attacked, killing 2 Americans;Wilson was able to get Germany to pledge to give a warningGermany will keep its word until March 1916, when they fired upon the Sussex; Wilson threatened to break diplomatic and Germany backed downSussex Pledge: Germany promised not to sink merchant or passenger ships w/o due warning; Germany will remain faithful for the remainder of 1916
75 Economic Links to Europe The US economy had become closely tied to that of the Allied powersWar helped the US economy rebound from a recessionOrders for war supplies from France and Great BritainThe blockade prevented them from shipping to GermanyWilson tolerated the British blockade while resisting the German blockadeBetween 1914 – 1917; US trade w/ France and Britain quadrupled while trade w/ Germany all but vanishedUS banks, like JP Morgan, began to make loans; extended as much as 3 billion in loansThe loans maintained US prosperity and sustain the Allied effort
76 Public Opinion The attitudes of America mirrored Wilson’s policies Americans will perceive Germans as “bullies”; strong dislike of Kaiser WilhelmEthnic influences: 1914, 30% of US population was 1st or 2nd generation immigrants; their sympathy often remained w/ their homelandAmericans tended to favor Britain and FranceBritish war propaganda
77 The War DebatePreparedness: Eastern Republicans (T. Roosevelt) called for preparedness; leading the way was the “National Security League” organized by a group of business leaders ; Wilson resists at first, but changed his policy in 1915 and provoked a political storm, esp. among Dems; after a nationwide speaking tour, Wilson convinced Congress to pass the National Defense Act inJune 1916 to increase the size of the army, and amonth later 50 warships were authorized Opposition to War: many Americans in the Midwest and West were opposed; the anti war activists included Progressives, Populists, and Socialists; leaders were William Jennings Bryan, Jane Addams, and Jeanette Rankin; women suffragists were openly opposed
78 The Election of 1916Wilson knew he had won 1912 because of a split in the Republican partyCharles Hughes became the Rep. nominee“He kept us out of war” ; adopted as a campaign slogan; peace sentiment in the country , and Wilson’s record of progressivism gave Wilson a narrow victoryDemocratic strength in the west and south overcame Republican dominance of the east
80 Decision For WarApril 1917 Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of warUnrestricted submarine warfare began in January 1917Zimmerman Telegram – March 1, 1917; newspaper carried the shocking headline of a secret offer made to Mexico by Germany; aroused nationalism in USRussian Revolution – Wilson wanted war to be fought with a moral purpose, the triumph of democracy; Wilson was bothered that one of the allies was ruled by a Czar; March 15, 1917, he was removed from power
82 Declaration for WarApril 2, 1917; Wilson stood before a special session of CongressHe asked them to recognize that a state of war existed with GermanyHe condemned Germany for their submarine policy as “warfare against mankind”He declared “the world must be made safe for democracy”April 6 congress voted for war
85 MobilizationMobilization for war was a race against time; Germany was preparing for a knockout blow to end the war: on land Germany planned a major offensive against the Allied lines on the western front; at sea, they unleashed the full power of German submarinesIndustry and Labor – first contribution was the shipping of supplies; Wilson will create a number of war agencies: War Industries Board, led by Bernard Baruch, set production priorities and established control over raw materials; Herbert Hoover took charge of the Food Administration; Henry Garfield, will lead the Fuel Administration, and directed efforts at conserving coal, and Daylight Savings was put into practice; former Pres. Taft will arbitrate between labor and business, labor will win several concessionsFinance – Wilson will mange to raise 33 billion in 2 years with a combination of loans and taxes; four massive drives were conducted to encourage Americans to buy Liberty Bonds; Congress also will increase income taxes
90 Results of This New Organization of the Economy? Unemployment virtually disappeared.Expansion of “big government.”Excessive govt. regulations in eco.Some gross mismanagement overlapping jurisdictions.Close cooperation between public and private sectors.Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.
91 Public Opinion and Civil Liberites The US govt. will use techniques of patriotic persuasion and legal intimidation to ensure public supportProgressive journalist, George Creel will lead the Committee on Public Information – enlisted voluntary services of artists, writers, vaudeville performers and movie stars to depict the heroism of the “boys” and the villainy of Kaiser Wilhelm; propaganda consisted of films, posters, pamphlets and speakers; all Americans were encouraged to “do your bit” for the war; war hysteria and patriotism often served as an excuse for nativism ; American Protective League attacked all things GermanEspionage and Sedition Acts – went after Socialists and pacifists who openly opposed the war; Espionage act provided a sentence of 20 yrs for anyone inciting rebellion in the armed forces or obstruct operation of the draft; the Sedition Act prohibited anyone from making disloyal statements or abusive remarks about the government; about 2,00 people overall were prosecuted, half were convicted and jailed, among them was Eugene DebsCase of Schenck vs. US – SC upheld constitutionality of Espionage act in a case involving a man passing out anti-draft pamphlets; 1919, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes concluded that the right to free speech could be limited when it represented a “clear and present danger” to public safety
92 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans Espionage Act – forbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison.
93 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans Sedition Act – it was a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about this form of US Govt., the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war.
94 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans Schenck v. US – in ordinary times the mailing of the leaflets would have been protected by the st Amendment BUT, every act of speech must be judged acc. to the circumstances in which it was spoken. -The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. [Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes] - If an act of speech posed a clear and present danger, then Congress had the power to restrain such speech.
95 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans Abrams v. US – majority ruling --> cited Holmes’ “Clear and present danger” doctrine Holmes & Brandeis dissented: The best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market, denying that a “silly leaflet” published by an “unknown man” constituted such a danger.
96 Armed ForcesThousands of young men volunteered ; largest number were conscripted into the army by requiring all men between (18-45) to register with the govt.Selective Service Act, 1917 – devised by Sec of War Newton Baker as a democratic method for ensuring that all groups in the population would be called into service; about 2.8 million men would be called by a lotteryAfrican Americans – racial segregation applied to the army; almost 400,000 served in the army and only a few were allowed to serve as officers; all were banned from the Marines; W.E.B Dubois believed that the record of service would earn them equal rights at home
97 1917 – Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918.4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat).400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units.15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.
98 Effects on American Society Women – took jobs vacated by men; their efforts convince the passge of 19th amendmentMigrations – thousands of Mexicans crossed the border to work in agriculture and mining; African Americans also took advantage pf job opportunities and headed north (The Great Migration)
110 Fighting the WarBy late 1917, millions of Europeans had been killed in battle by murderous artillery barrages, machine gun fire, and poisonous gas; a second revolution in Russia took them out of the war; Germany was now able to focus on the westNaval Operations – merchant ships headed for Britain were being sunk at a staggering rate ; the US undertook a record setting ship construction project ; US navy also employed a convoy system as escorts for shipsAmerican Expeditionary Force – US troops were eager for action; idealism was reflected in George Cohan’s song:Over there, over thereSend the word, send the word over thereThat the Yanks are comingThe Yanks are comingThe drums rum-tumming ev’ry whereThe AEF was led by Gen. Pershing
111 Fighting the WarThe last German offensive in spring of 1918 along the Marne R. at Chateau-Thierry; Americans stopped the advance in June 1918 and struck back with a successful attack at Belleau WoodAug – Oct 1918; Americans were able lead an offensive along the Meuse R. and thru the Argonne Forest and drove tried Germans back toward GermanyNov. 11, 1918 the Germans signed a cease fire agreementAfter only a few months of fighting combat deaths totaled 49,000; many more died from diseases bringing the total deaths to 112,432
112 Making PeacePres. Wilson said the US would insist on a “peace without victory”In Jan 1918, he presented Congress with a list of war aims, known as Fourteen PointsThe Fourteen Points: several related to territorial claims (return of Alsace and Lorraine to the French and German evacuation of Belgium; others were to secure peace: recognition of freedom of the seas, an end to making secret treaties, reduction in arms, self-determination for nationalities in Austria-Hungary, and a general association of nations
113 Treaty of VersaillesThe Big Four: Pres Wilson(US), David Lloyd George (GB), Georges Clemenceau (Fr), and Vittorio Orlando (It)Peace Terms Germany was disarmed and stripped of colonies and forced to admit guilt, accept French occupation of Rhineland for 15 yrs, pay reparations; applying self-determination , territories once controlled by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia were taken by Allied powers and granted independence (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were created; signers would join an international peace keeping organization, League of Nations (Article X called for memebrs to be ready to stand by and protect independence and territorial rights of other nations)
114 Battle for Ratification Increased partisanship after the war; he faced the determined hostility of Henry Cabot LodgeSenators opposed were divided into two groups the irreconcilables who could not accept membership into the League; the reservationist faction (led by Lodge) said the could accept if certain reservations were added; Wilson had the option to accept or fight, he chose to fightWilson went on a western tour to rally public support; Sept. 25, 1919, Wilson collapsed after a speech in Colorado and returned to DC where he suffered a massive strokeRejection – the Senate voted twice and was defeated (Nov 1919)
115 PostwarDemobilization – suddenly, 4 million soldiers were back home; many could not find jobs right away; many will take jobs back from the women and African Americans; the war boom went flat, farmers suffer from falling prices, early 1902’s a recession came w/ 10% unemploymentThe Red Scare – 1919, growing fears about socialism and communism; anti-German fever turned into anti-Communism; a series of unexplained bombings led AG Mitchell Palmer to establish a special office under J Edgar Hoover to gather info on radicals, he also order the arrests of anarchists, Socialists (Palmer Raids)Labor Conflict – despite war gains for unions, following the war public distrust grew with a series of strikes in 1919; the first major strike was in Seattle , in Boston police went on strike, Gov Calvin Coolidge sent in National Guard to break the strikeRace Riots – the migration of African Americans north increased racial tensions, increased competition for jobs and housing; the largest occurred in East St Louis, Illinois in 1917; in 1919, the worst was in Chicago were 40 were killed and 500 injured