Presentation on theme: "Period VI – The World Stage A New Century (1890-1920)"— Presentation transcript:
Period VI – The World Stage A New Century ( )
For This Unit ………….. You will understand ………… Impact of Progressivism on Foreign Policy Pan-AmericanismAnnexation of Hawaii Splendid Little War 1898 Yellow Journalism Open Door PolicyRoosevelt Corollary Big Stick Policy Gunboat DiplomacyDollar Diplomacy Wilson Moral DiplomacyWorld War 1 Fourteen Points
New Foreign Policy A policy of “isolationism” Examples? A policy of intervention Examples? Why will the US change?
US Imperialism Mercantilism “sphere of influence” How are these two connected? What is the impact on foreign policy?
1. Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments:
American Foreign Trade: Commercial/Business Interests
2. Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History:
3. Social Darwinist Thinking The White Man’s Burden The Hierarchy of Race
4. Religious/Missionary Interests American Missionaries in China, 1905
5. Closing the American Frontier
International Perspective Label World Map - Territories / spheres of influence Briefly research imperialism and anti- imperialism (use provided internet link) Obtain and read a copy of “White Man’s Burden” by Rudyard Kipling
The White Man’s Burden: Motives for Imperialism The White Man’s Burden Questions Who is Kipling referring to in the first stanza with “Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child”? Who is Kipling writing this poem for? Kipling’s poem lists the White Man’s responsibilities, and then the consequences of those responsibilities. List four of those responsibilities and four of the consequences Hint: most stanzas begin with a responsibility and ends with a consequence! Do you think Kipling supports or opposes imperialism? How does Kipling’s poem reflect Social Darwinism?
REFLECTIVE QUESTION: What is one man’s responsibility to another, or one nation’s responsibility to another?
“Seward’s Folly”: 1867 $7.2 million
The Purchase of Alaska William Seward (New York) served as Secretary of State ( ) Accomplished more than any recent SoS A strong expansionist Tried to convince Congress the need to purchase Danish West Indies and annex Hawaii Achieved the annexation of Midway Island in Pacific, gained rights to build a canal in Nicaragua
Territory had been in dispute between Russia and GB Russia assumed control and established a small colony for seal hunting Became an economic burden under the threat of GB Seward will lobby to purchase from Russia 1867, Congress agreed to purchase for 7.2 million Referred to as “Seward’s Folly” and “Seward’s Icebox” The Purchase of Alaska
“Seward’s Icebox”: 1867
U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s
U. S. View of Hawaiians Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.
U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii 1875 – Reciprocity Treaty 1890 – McKinley Tariff American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani – American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani. Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898
Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan: 1853 The Japanese View of Commodore Perry
Treaty of Kanagawa: 1854
Gentleman’s Agreement: 1908 A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports to laborers entering the U.S. Japan recognized the U.S. right to exclude Japanese immigrants holding passports issued by other countries. The U.S. government got the school board of San Francisco to rescind their order to segregate Asians in separate schools Root-Takahira Agreement.
Lodge Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1912 Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. (R-MA) Non-European powers, like Japan, would be excluded from owning territory in the Western Hemisphere.
The New Imperialism Industrialization intensified US involvement because it needed; 1.Worldwide markets for industrial / agricultural surpluses 2.Needed sources of raw materials Conservatives will hope overseas territory and adventure would be an outlet and safety valve for unhappiness at home They were concerned with growing labor violence, unrest of farmers Advocates of expansionist policy hoped to achieve their ends by economic and diplomatic means, not by military
International Darwinism Imperialism – many nations in Europe were pursuing territory; focus was Africa and Pacific Ocean; US would need to compete, or grow weak and fail; advocates will include missionaries, politicians, naval strategists and journalists Missionaries – Rev Josiah Strong wrote that people of Anglo-Saxon ancestry were the :fittest to survive” and Protestant Americans had the duty to colonize other lands to spread Christianity and W. Civilization (Our Country: Its Possible Future and Present Crisis, 1885); benefits of “superior” civilization to the less fortunate of the world (medicine, science, and technology) ; many travel to Asia, Africa, Pacific Islands ; believed in racial superiority and supremacy of “whites” ; Politicians – republican party was allied w/ business leaders; endorsed use of foreign affairs to search for new markets; Henry Cabot Lodge (Mass.) and T. Roosevelt (gov. of NY)were eager to build US power through global expansion Naval Power – navy Capt. Alfred Thayer Mahan argued a strong navy was crucial to a country’s ambitions of securing foreign markets and becoming a world power (The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1890); US naval strategists persuaded Congress to finance construction of steel navy ships and acquire overseas islands as stations; 1900, 3 rd largest navy Newspapers – increase circulation by printing adventure stories ; increased public interest and stimulated demands for a larger US role
Latin America Blaine and the Pan-American Conference (1889) – result of efforts to establish closer ties; met in Washington DC; decided to create organization for cooperation on trade, etc. ; larger goal of hemispheric cooperation on economic and political issues; continues today as part of Organization of American States (1948) Cleveland, Olney, and Monroe Doctrine – boundary dispute between British colony of Guiana and Venezuela; Pres. Cleveland and SoS Olney push the British to arbitrate; they argue that the MD applies and US was ready to use military force; British will agree to demands; arbitrators will agree British, but LA countries appreciated US efforts to protect them
The Imperialist Taylor
Spanish Misrule in Cuba
Valeriano Weyler’s “Reconcentration” Policy
“Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst Hearst to Frederick Remington: You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!
The Splendid Little War! Expansionists had long coveted Cuba as early as the 1850’s; large sugar investments in 1890’s Causes – public opinion was being swayed by “jingoism”; demand for US to take its place; Cleveland and McKinley felt military action was morally wrong 1.Cuban revolt – nationalists fought to overthrow Spanish rule; 1895 began to lay waste to plantations 2.De Lome letter – (1898) highly critical of pres. McKinley 3.Sinking of the Maine – February 15, 1898, battleship USS Maine exploded in Havana Harbor, killing Yellow Press – sensationalistic newspapers calling for war; printed false and exaggerated stories
De Lôme Letter Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. Criticized President McKinley as weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.
Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain! Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
McKinley’s War Message Reasons for intervention – 1.Put an end to bloodshed and starvation in Cuba 2.Protect the lives and property of US citizens 3.End the injury to trade and commerce 4.End the “constant menace to our peace” Teller Amendment – Congress passed resolution April 20, 1898 authorizing war; added the resolution that the US had no intention of taking political control of Cuba
Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration. Imperialist and American nationalist. Criticized President McKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair! Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.
The “Rough Riders”
Dewey Captures Manila!
Fighting the War The first shots were in Manila Bay, the last shots were fired only a few months later in August; Sec of State John hay called it a “splendid little war” - The Philippines: Commodore George Dewey will defeat Spanish fleet; Manila was taken on August 13 - Invasion of Cuba: most celebrated event of the war was the cavalry charge up “San Juan Hill; Spanish fleet in Santiago Bay was defeated July 3; more than 5,000 Americans will die mostly due to tropical disease (typhoid, malaria, dysentery), less than 500 die in battle
Impact of War The Philippine Question – Treaty of Paris was ratified on February 6, 1899; annexation of the Philippines Insular Case – constitutional rights of Philippine people – Did the Constitution follow the flag?; issue was resolved in a series of SC cases ( ) ; ruling said that const. rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions, power belonged to Congress Cuba and Platt Amendment – troops remained in Cuba until 1901, Cuba had to accept terms: never sign a treaty that impairs w/ independence, never build up excessive debt, permit US to intervene, allow US to maintain naval bases (Guantanamo Bay) Election of Republicans re-nominated McKinley and made war hero T Roosevelt VP; Dems nominated William Bryan; growing prosperity gave McKinley a larger victory Recognition of US Power
The Treaty of Paris: 1898 Cuba was freed from Spanish rule. Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam. The U. S. paid Spain $20 mil. for the Philippines. The U. S. becomes an imperial power!
The American Anti-Imperialist League Founded in Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William Jennings Bryan among the leaders. Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism.
Teller Amendment (1898) Platt Amendment (1903) 1.Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. 2.The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. 3.Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. 4.Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt. Cuban Independence? Senator Orville Platt
Our “Sphere of Influence”
Presidential Foreign Policy PresidentPolicyDescriptionRelated Events Roosevelt Taft Wilson
Open Door Policy China was falling under control of other powers To prevent losing economic access, Sec of State John Hay proposes Open Door Policy; no one openly opposed this and was considered a diplomatic success Boxer Rebellion (1900) nationalism and xenophobia was growing in China; a secret society of Chinese Nationalists (Boxers) attacked foreign settlements and missionaries; US will participate in a multinational force going into Beijing (Peking) 1900, Hay sends a second not to ensure: 1)preserve China's territorial integrity, 2) safeguard equal trade 1930’s, this policy will influence US relations with Japan
Big Stick Policy 1901, Roosevelt will assume presidency – a young expansionist and war hero; his motto “speak softly and carry a big stick” Panama Canal Revolution in Panama (Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty) Hay-Pauncefote Treaty: (1901) treaty with GB; canceled earlier treaty that said any canal in C America was to be under joint US-British control Finished in 1914
Roosevelt Corollary Early century, many LA countries faced mounting debts – 1902, British sent ships to Venezuela to force payment of debt, 1904, it appeared European powers were poised to do the same in Santo Domingo (DR) East Asia Russo-Japanese War: ( ) imperialist rivalry; Japan was winning, Roosevelt intervened to force a diplomatic conference ; Japan will later resent the US Gentleman’s Agreement – major conflict between US and Japan was California law; required Japanese students to attend segregated schools; Roosevelt got Japan to restrict emigrants and Roosevelt would persuade a change in laws Great White Fleet – demonstration of US naval power ( ); great white ships were impressive and Japan will warmly welcome them in Tokyo Bay Root-Takahira Agreement (1908) agreement between US and Japan; pledeged mutual respect for each Pacific possessions, and support for Open Door policy in China
Roosevelt’s Efforts Maintain peace between rival nations Consistently promoted peaceful solutions Awarded Nobel Peace Prize (1906) for efforts in Russo-Japanese War Help to settle conflict between Germany and France over claims to Morocco (Algeciras Conference) Also participated in Second International peace Conference at the Hague in 1907 discussing rules for limiting warfare
Taft and Dollars Taft will adopt a policy that was expansionist but depended more on investors than battleships RR in China – first test of new policy; wanted to include w/ European bankers investing in rail roads in China; gain US involvement in 1911; excluded from Manchuria Intervention in Nicaragua – to protect US interests, intervened in financial affairs(1911); sent in Marines when war broke out in 1912 and stay until 1933 The Lodge Corollary – (1912) addition to MD; non- European powers would be excluded from owning territory in the W Hemisphere ;Taft opposed
Wilson and a Higher Ground In 1912 campaign called for a “New Freedom” in government and promised a moral approach to foreign affairs: he opposed imperialism and “big stick” Righting Wrongs: 1.Philippines – won passage of Jones Act of 1916; granted full territorial status; bill of rights, promised independence 2.Puerto Rico – 1917, Congress granted citizenship and self government 3.Panama Canal – 1914, repealed an exemption ships to pay a toll 4.Conciliation Treaties – ideas of peace shared by Sec of State William Jennings Bryan; negotiate treaties in which nations pledged to submit disputes to an international commission, observe a one year cooling off period before military action (reached a total of 30 agreements
Military Intervention Latin America – went beyond predecessors intervention on financial and political matters; kept Marines in Nicaragua and sent them into Haiti in 1915, and DR in 1916 Mexico – refused to recognize military dictator of General Victoriano Huerta, seized power in 1913; Wilson asked for an arms embargo to Mexico and blocked port of Vera Cruz; 1914 several seaman went ashore in Tampico and were arrested; Wilson orders navy to seize control of Vera Cruz; SA ABC powers mediated Pancho Villa – Huerta fell from power in 1914 and replaced by Venustiano Carranza ; got was challenged by revolutionaries led by Pancho Villa ; led raids across US border and murdered people in Texas and new Mexico; 1916 Wilson orderd General pershing across the border and pursue Villa
Historical Perspective In interpreting this era of foreign policy … William Appleman Williams, and Walter La Feber focused on US desires for oversea markets, raw materials, and investments The economic explanation has been questioned on two levels: 1)historians note that business interests at first opposed to intervention in Cuba; most supported the war only after it had started; 2) stress the importance of noneconomic motives, they point out there both humanitarian and nationalistic reasons for sending troops to Cuba in 1895, influenced by yellow journalism, Americans had no economic reasons for demanding the US go to war Others studying Lodge or Roosevelt say their main interest was establishing US power on the world stage, Roosevelt was often motivated by strategic means, not economic Other historians believe a new generation of foreign policy makers rose to power after 1900 and were critical of mediocre leadership post civil war and were eager to take bold new directions; Roosevelt seen as a realist and Wilson an idealist Historian Richard Hofstadter interpreted Spanish American War from social psychology, he argues that the popular movement for war resulted from a psychic crisis, he said people were expressing aggression built up by economic depressions, closing of the frontier rise of big business and rise of labor radicalism
The Most Famous Recruitment Poster
Don’t Mess with the U. S.
World War I American “Anthem”
Johnnie get your gun, get your gun, get your gun, Take it on the run, on the run, on the run, Hear them calling you and me, Every son of liberty. Hurry right away, no delay, go today, Make your daddy glad to have had such a lad, Tell your sweetheart not to pine, To be proud her boy's in line. Johnnie get your gun, get your gun, get your gun, Take it on the run, on the run, on the run, Hear them calling you and me, Every son of liberty. Hurry right away, no delay, go today, Make your daddy glad to have had such a lad, Tell your sweetheart not to pine, To be proud her boy's in line.
Over there, over there Send the word, send the word over there That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming, The drums rum-tumming everywhere So prepare, say a prayer Send the word, send the word to beware We'll be over, we're coming over, And we won't come back till it's over, over there! Over there, over there Send the word, send the word over there That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming, The drums rum-tumming everywhere So prepare, say a prayer Send the word, send the word to beware We'll be over, we're coming over, And we won't come back till it's over, over there!
Johnnie get your gun, get your gun, get your gun, Johnnie show the Hun you're a son of a gun, Hoist the flag and let her fly, Yankee Doodle do or die. Pack your little kit, show your grit, do your bit, Yankees to the ranks from the towns and the tanks, Make your momma proud of you And the old Red White and Blue. Johnnie get your gun, get your gun, get your gun, Johnnie show the Hun you're a son of a gun, Hoist the flag and let her fly, Yankee Doodle do or die. Pack your little kit, show your grit, do your bit, Yankees to the ranks from the towns and the tanks, Make your momma proud of you And the old Red White and Blue.
A Move Towards War The sequence of events leading from peace in Europe to the outbreak of a general war occurred with stunning rapidity: Sarajevo, June 28, 1914: Serbian terrorist assassinates Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Vienna, July 23: Austrian govt. Issues an ultimatum threatening war against Serbia and invades 4 days later Berlin, August 1: Austria’s ally, German govt. under Kaiser Wilhelm I declares war against Russia Berlin, August 3: Germany declares war against France, and begins invasion of neutral Belgium London, August 4: Great Britain declares war against Germany
Beginnings Nationalism Ethnic groups Adopted “militarism” Unintended “arms race” Creation of alliances
Alliances Triple Entente Great Britain France Russia Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire
Neutrality President Wilson’s first response was to issue a declaration of neutrality Called upon American people to not take sides It was near impossible while protecting US trading rights US found themselves in several roles: 1) a contented neutral country, 2) a country waging war for peace, 3) a victorious world power, and then 4) an alienated isolationist nation
Neutrality? WWI, the trouble for the US came from the efforts of belligerent powers to stop supplies from reaching their enemies (War of 1812) GB was the first to declare a blockade against Germany; including American ships trying to run the blockade Wilson will protest as the right of a neutral nation’s right to freedom of the seas
Submarine Warfare Germany's hope in winning against British naval power lay w/ a new weapon: the submarine Feb. 1915, Germany answered the British blockade by announcing a blockade of its own and warned that any ships attempting to enter “the war zone” risked being sunk on sight Lusitania Crisis – challenged US neutrality; the sinking of a British passenger ship May 7, 1915, most passengers died, including 128 Americans; Wilson responded w/ a message warning Germany would be held to strict accountability if continuing; SoS William Jennings Bryan resigned August 1915, the Arabic was attacked, killing 2 Americans; Wilson was able to get Germany to pledge to give a warning Germany will keep its word until March 1916, when they fired upon the Sussex; Wilson threatened to break diplomatic and Germany backed down Sussex Pledge: Germany promised not to sink merchant or passenger ships w/o due warning; Germany will remain faithful for the remainder of 1916
Economic Links to Europe The US economy had become closely tied to that of the Allied powers War helped the US economy rebound from a recession Orders for war supplies from France and Great Britain The blockade prevented them from shipping to Germany Wilson tolerated the British blockade while resisting the German blockade Between 1914 – 1917; US trade w/ France and Britain quadrupled while trade w/ Germany all but vanished US banks, like JP Morgan, began to make loans; extended as much as 3 billion in loans The loans maintained US prosperity and sustain the Allied effort
Public Opinion The attitudes of America mirrored Wilson’s policies Americans will perceive Germans as “bullies”; strong dislike of Kaiser Wilhelm Ethnic influences: 1914, 30% of US population was 1 st or 2 nd generation immigrants; their sympathy often remained w/ their homeland Americans tended to favor Britain and France British war propaganda
The War Debate Preparedness: Eastern Republicans (T. Roosevelt) called for preparedness; leading the way was the “National Security League” organized by a group of business leaders ; Wilson resists at first, but changed his policy in 1915 and provoked a political storm, esp. among Dems; after a nationwide speaking tour, Wilson convinced Congress to pass the National Defense Act inJune 1916 to increase the size of the army, and amonth later 50 warships were authorized Opposition to War: many Americans in the Midwest and West were opposed; the anti war activists included Progressives, Populists, and Socialists; leaders were William Jennings Bryan, Jane Addams, and Jeanette Rankin; women suffragists were openly opposed
The Election of 1916 Wilson knew he had won 1912 because of a split in the Republican party Charles Hughes became the Rep. nominee “He kept us out of war” ; adopted as a campaign slogan; peace sentiment in the country, and Wilson’s record of progressivism gave Wilson a narrow victory Democratic strength in the west and south overcame Republican dominance of the east
Decision For War April 1917 Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war Unrestricted submarine warfare began in January 1917 Zimmerman Telegram – March 1, 1917; newspaper carried the shocking headline of a secret offer made to Mexico by Germany; aroused nationalism in US Russian Revolution – Wilson wanted war to be fought with a moral purpose, the triumph of democracy; Wilson was bothered that one of the allies was ruled by a Czar; March 15, 1917, he was removed from power
Declaration for War April 2, 1917; Wilson stood before a special session of Congress He asked them to recognize that a state of war existed with Germany He condemned Germany for their submarine policy as “warfare against mankind” He declared “the world must be made safe for democracy” April 6 congress voted for war
Mobilization Mobilization for war was a race against time; Germany was preparing for a knockout blow to end the war: on land Germany planned a major offensive against the Allied lines on the western front; at sea, they unleashed the full power of German submarines Industry and Labor – first contribution was the shipping of supplies; Wilson will create a number of war agencies: War Industries Board, led by Bernard Baruch, set production priorities and established control over raw materials; Herbert Hoover took charge of the Food Administration; Henry Garfield, will lead the Fuel Administration, and directed efforts at conserving coal, and Daylight Savings was put into practice; former Pres. Taft will arbitrate between labor and business, labor will win several concessions Finance – Wilson will mange to raise 33 billion in 2 years with a combination of loans and taxes; four massive drives were conducted to encourage Americans to buy Liberty Bonds; Congress also will increase income taxes
U. S. Food Administration
National War Garden Commission
U. S. Shipping Board
U. S. Fuel Administration
Results of This New Organization of the Economy? 1.Unemployment virtually disappeared. 2.Expansion of “big government.” 3.Excessive govt. regulations in eco. 4.Some gross mismanagement overlapping jurisdictions. 5.Close cooperation between public and private sectors. 6.Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.
Public Opinion and Civil Liberites The US govt. will use techniques of patriotic persuasion and legal intimidation to ensure public support Progressive journalist, George Creel will lead the Committee on Public Information – enlisted voluntary services of artists, writers, vaudeville performers and movie stars to depict the heroism of the “boys” and the villainy of Kaiser Wilhelm; propaganda consisted of films, posters, pamphlets and speakers; all Americans were encouraged to “do your bit” for the war; war hysteria and patriotism often served as an excuse for nativism ; American Protective League attacked all things German Espionage and Sedition Acts – went after Socialists and pacifists who openly opposed the war; Espionage act provided a sentence of 20 yrs for anyone inciting rebellion in the armed forces or obstruct operation of the draft; the Sedition Act prohibited anyone from making disloyal statements or abusive remarks about the government; about 2,00 people overall were prosecuted, half were convicted and jailed, among them was Eugene Debs Case of Schenck vs. US – SC upheld constitutionality of Espionage act in a case involving a man passing out anti-draft pamphlets; 1919, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes concluded that the right to free speech could be limited when it represented a “clear and present danger” to public safety
Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans Espionage Act Espionage Act – forbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military. - ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail. - fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison.
Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans Sedition Act Sedition Act – it was a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about this form of US Govt., the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war.
Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans Schenck v. US Schenck v. US – in ordinary times the mailing of the leaflets would have been protected by the 1 st Amendment. - BUT, every act of speech must be judged acc. to the circumstances in which it was spoken. -The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. [Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes] - If an act of speech posed a clear and present danger, then Congress had the power to restrain such speech.
Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans Abrams v. US Abrams v. US – majority ruling --> cited Holmes’ “Clear and present danger” doctrine. - Holmes & Brandeis dissented: The best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market, denying that a “silly leaflet” published by an “unknown man” constituted such a danger.
Armed Forces Thousands of young men volunteered ; largest number were conscripted into the army by requiring all men between (18-45) to register with the govt. Selective Service Act, 1917 – devised by Sec of War Newton Baker as a democratic method for ensuring that all groups in the population would be called into service; about 2.8 million men would be called by a lottery African Americans – racial segregation applied to the army; almost 400,000 served in the army and only a few were allowed to serve as officers; all were banned from the Marines; W.E.B Dubois believed that the record of service would earn them equal rights at home
1917 – Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of ,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat). 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.
Effects on American Society Women – took jobs vacated by men; their efforts convince the passge of 19 th amendment Migrations – thousands of Mexicans crossed the border to work in agriculture and mining; African Americans also took advantage pf job opportunities and headed north (The Great Migration)
The Girls They Left Behind Do Their Bit!
Women Used In Recruitment Hello, Big Boy!
Even Grandma Buys Liberty Bonds
The Red Cross - Greatest Mother in the World
Opportunities for African-Americans in WW1 “Great Migration.” 1916 – 1919 70,000 War industries work. Enlistment in segregated units.
True Sons of Freedom
African-Americans on a Troop Ship Headed for France
The Committee of Public Information (George Creel) America’s “Propaganda Minister?” Anti-Germanism. Selling American Culture.
The “Mad Brute”
The “Menace of the Seas”
Fighting the War By late 1917, millions of Europeans had been killed in battle by murderous artillery barrages, machine gun fire, and poisonous gas; a second revolution in Russia took them out of the war; Germany was now able to focus on the west Naval Operations – merchant ships headed for Britain were being sunk at a staggering rate ; the US undertook a record setting ship construction project ; US navy also employed a convoy system as escorts for ships American Expeditionary Force – US troops were eager for action; idealism was reflected in George Cohan’s song: Over there, over there Send the word, send the word over there That the Yanks are coming The Yanks are coming The drums rum-tumming ev’ry where The AEF was led by Gen. Pershing
Fighting the War The last German offensive in spring of 1918 along the Marne R. at Chateau-Thierry; Americans stopped the advance in June 1918 and struck back with a successful attack at Belleau Wood Aug – Oct 1918; Americans were able lead an offensive along the Meuse R. and thru the Argonne Forest and drove tried Germans back toward Germany Nov. 11, 1918 the Germans signed a cease fire agreement After only a few months of fighting combat deaths totaled 49,000; many more died from diseases bringing the total deaths to 112,432
Making Peace Pres. Wilson said the US would insist on a “peace without victory” In Jan 1918, he presented Congress with a list of war aims, known as Fourteen Points The Fourteen Points: several related to territorial claims (return of Alsace and Lorraine to the French and German evacuation of Belgium; others were to secure peace: recognition of freedom of the seas, an end to making secret treaties, reduction in arms, self-determination for nationalities in Austria-Hungary, and a general association of nations
Treaty of Versailles The Big Four: Pres Wilson(US), David Lloyd George (GB), Georges Clemenceau (Fr), and Vittorio Orlando (It) Peace Terms Germany was disarmed and stripped of colonies and forced to admit guilt, accept French occupation of Rhineland for 15 yrs, pay reparations; applying self-determination, territories once controlled by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia were taken by Allied powers and granted independence (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were created; signers would join an international peace keeping organization, League of Nations (Article X called for memebrs to be ready to stand by and protect independence and territorial rights of other nations)
Battle for Ratification Increased partisanship after the war; he faced the determined hostility of Henry Cabot Lodge Senators opposed were divided into two groups the irreconcilables who could not accept membership into the League; the reservationist faction (led by Lodge) said the could accept if certain reservations were added; Wilson had the option to accept or fight, he chose to fight Wilson went on a western tour to rally public support; Sept. 25, 1919, Wilson collapsed after a speech in Colorado and returned to DC where he suffered a massive stroke Rejection – the Senate voted twice and was defeated (Nov 1919)
Postwar Demobilization – suddenly, 4 million soldiers were back home; many could not find jobs right away; many will take jobs back from the women and African Americans; the war boom went flat, farmers suffer from falling prices, early 1902’s a recession came w/ 10% unemployment The Red Scare – 1919, growing fears about socialism and communism; anti- German fever turned into anti-Communism; a series of unexplained bombings led AG Mitchell Palmer to establish a special office under J Edgar Hoover to gather info on radicals, he also order the arrests of anarchists, Socialists (Palmer Raids) Labor Conflict – despite war gains for unions, following the war public distrust grew with a series of strikes in 1919; the first major strike was in Seattle, in Boston police went on strike, Gov Calvin Coolidge sent in National Guard to break the strike Race Riots – the migration of African Americans north increased racial tensions, increased competition for jobs and housing; the largest occurred in East St Louis, Illinois in 1917; in 1919, the worst was in Chicago were 40 were killed and 500 injured