Presentation on theme: "Lecture 2 Learning Outcomes"— Presentation transcript:
1Lecture 2 Learning Outcomes The organisation as a system in uncertain timesThe planned approach to change managementThe emergent approach to change managementOrganisational Development (OD) and changeModels of Organisational Change
3A view of organizations Organizations are individuals and groups that interact within a formal structure. Structure is created by management to establish relationships between individuals and groups, to provide order and systems and to direct efforts to carry out goal seeking activities.Mullins (2005, p. 32)
4The organisation as a system Source : Senior & Fleming Organisational Change Informal SubsystemsFormal SubsystemsInputsMaterialsResources* Goal achievement* Employee SatisfactionOutputsENVIRONMENTThe Organization
5Change throughout the ages As we approach the 21st century the pace and scale of the change demanded of organizations and those who work within them are enormous. Global competition and the advent of the information age, where knowledge is the key resource, have thrown the world of work into disarray. Just as we had to shed the processes, skills and systems of the agricultural era to meet the demands of the industrial era, so we are now having to shed ways of working honed for the industrial era to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the information age……Organizations are attempting to recreate themselves and move from the traditional structure to a dynamic new model where people can contribute their creativity, energy and foresight in return for being nurtured, developed and enthused.Jones, Palmer, Osterweil and Whitehead (1996)
6An uncertain futureThe pace of change is quickening and the future becomes more unpredictableAn increasingly competitive environment for businessChanges in employment trendsMakes planning for the future increasingly difficultAn increased need to understand the environment in which an organization operates, to be able to analyze the factors that trigger organizational change
7Environmental turbulence Level 1 – predictable – characterized by the stability of marketsLevel 2 – Forecastable by exploitation – complexity of the environment increasesLevel 3 – Predictable threats and opportunities – Even more complex as the organization’s ability to respond becomes more problematicLevel 4 – Partially predictable opportunities – Turbulence increases with the addition of global and socio-political changesLevel 5 – Unpredictable surprises – Turbulence increases further with unexpected events and situations occurring more quickly than the organization can respond
8Change Management Two dominant approaches :- The Planned Approach – 1940sThe Emergent Approach – 1980s.
9The Planned Approach Kurt Lewin There is little question that the intellectual father of contemporary theories of applied behavioral science, action research and planned change is Kurt Lewin. His seminal work on leadership style and the experiments on planned change which took place in World War II in an effort to change consumer behaviour launched a whole generation of research in group dynamics and the implementation of change programs.(Schein, 1988: 239)
10Lewin’s philosophy The resolution of social conflict The problems of minority or disadvantaged groupsA strong belief that only the permeation of democratic values into all facets of society could prevent the worst extremes of social conflict.
11The main elements of Planned change Field TheoryGroup DynamicsAction ResearchThe Three-Step model.
13Group Dynamics… the word ‘dynamics’ … comes from a Greek word meaning force. … ‘group dynamics’ refers to the forces operating in groups. … it is a study of these forces: what gives rise to them, what conditions modify them, what consequences they have, etc.(Cartwright, 1951: 382)
19The Coping CycleStage 1 – Denial: When faced with the need to make or accept significant changes, the first reaction by many people or groups is to deny there is a need for change.Stage 2 – Defence: Once people realise that change is taking place and they cannot stop it, they may feel rejected and depressed. This can turn into defensive behaviour whereby people will defend their past practices and behaviours and deny that the new ways are suitable to them and their jobs.Stage 3 – Discarding: If people realise that the change will take place whether they like it or not, and that it does affect them and that they need to adjust to the new situation, they begin the process of discarding past behaviour – recognising that what was suitable in the past is no longer suitable for the current situation.
20The Coping Cycle (Continued) Stage 4 – Adaptation: No proposed change is ever likely to be 100% suitable at the outset. Therefore, for change to be successful, not only must those affected by it adapt to the new ways, but the new ways must also be adapted to fit in with the existing people and circumstances.Stage 5 – Internalisation: The is the stage of the Coping Cycle where change becomes fully operational, and new ways of working and behaving have been developed. People reach the point where, psychologically, they see the changes not as new but as normal – they way things should be.
21Organisation Development (OD) The standard-bearer for Planned changeIt is an industryIt regulates itselfIt has its own qualificationsIt has approved tools and techniques.
22OD (Continued)Organization development is a unique organizational improvement strategy that... has evolved into an integrated framework of theories and practices capable of solving or helping to solve most of the important problems confronting the human side of organizations. Organization development is about people and organizations and people in organizations and how they function. OD is also about planned change, that is getting individuals, teams and organizations to function better.(French and Bell, 1995: 1–2)
23OD – core valuesThe needs and aspirations of human beings provide the prime reasons for the existence of organisations within society.Organisational prioritisation is a legitimate part of organisational culture.Change agents are committed to increased organisational effectiveness.OD places a high value on the democratisation of organisations through power equalisation.
24Main approaches to OD Empowering employees to act Creating openness in communicationsFacilitating ownership of the change process and its outcomesThe promotion of a culture of collaborationThe promotion of continuous learning.Hurley et al (1992)
25Greiner’s red flagsFlag 1: Putting the individual before the organization. The obsession of OD with individual behavior change caused less focus on the formal organization — its strategy, structure, controls, and so on.Flag 2: Informal before formal organization. There was also an overemphasis on interpersonal values (e.g., openness, trust, etc, hierarchy, and accountability). Again, an opportunity was missed to produce a wider impact.Flag 3: Behavior before diagnosis. OD was preoccupied with behavior change along the lines of OD’s core values, not on diagnosing whether the existing behaviour was compatible with the strategic thrust or culture of the organization.Flag 4: Process before task. With its emphasis on how one person should relate to others, OD became enamored with the human dynamics of working together, assuming that team building was the preferred alternative.(Greiner and Cummings, 2004: 378–379)
26Greiner’s red flags (Continued) Flag 5: Experts before the manager. OD programs were designed and conducted by expert consultants. NTL had become an elitist organization of trained experts.Flag 6: Package before the situation. Potential clients for OD activities usually preferred packaged change programs — formal activities that were structured, tangible, and easy to explain to employees. The unfortunate result was that organizations were frequently shoehorned to fit the OD program’s characteristics rather than customizing the program to fit the uniqueness of the client organization.(Greiner and Cummings, 2004: 378–379)
27The expansion of ODOD has adopted an Open Systems perspective which allows it to look at organisations in their totality and within their environments.This organisation-wide perspective caused OD practitioners to broaden out their perspective in two interrelated ways. Firstly, they developed an interest in managing organisational culture. Secondly, they developed an interest in organisational learning.OD practitioners have become involved in transforming organisations in their totality rather than only focusing on changes to their constituent parts.
28OD dilemmasOver the years, OD practitioners have sought to focus more on organisational transformation initiatives and less on group behaviour change. This has led to two fundamental dilemmas.Dilemma One: OD ExpertiseThe group behaviour focus is well-understood, accepted and supported by tried and tested tools and techniques.The organisational transformation focus is unclear, less developed and more contentious.Dilemma Two: OD ValuesThe group behaviour focus promotes humanistic and democratic values through participative learning.The organisational transformation focus is more autocratic, less participative and less about individual and group learning.
29Planned change Summary Moving an organisation from one stable state to anotherTop-downFinite objectivesMust be self-sustainingIs a collaborative processIs a cyclical process:DiagnosisActionEvaluationFurther actionFurther evaluation.
30Planned change Criticisms Assumes environmental stabilityIgnores power and politicsToo reliant on managersNot applicable to situations that need rapid, directive transformational changeIt is a ‘one best way’ approachLimited applicability.
31Models of organisational change IncrementalPunctuated EquilibriumContinuous Transformation.
35Comment and conclusion Organizations operate in multiple environments (temporal, external and internalSchein (1988) suggests that that organizations have to continually achieve external adaptation and internal integrationOrganizations need to be able to anticipate, where possible, opportunities and threats and react with knowledge to the ‘unpredictable surprises’There needs to be an understanding of formal aspects of organizational life and how to respond to pressures from the environments in which the organization operatesChange is leveraged through strategy, structure and operational processes
37Activity ( Senior & Fleming) List factors that you can think, of which could affect what or how an organization chooses to produce or sell, how the goods and services might be marketed, and the way in which work might get done.Has your organization, or one with which you are familiar, changed in the areas highlighted above?Have you personally changed how you choose or buy your products and services over the last few years? If so, identify some examples and think why this might be the case.