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Labor and Radicalism Why is there no socialism in the United States?

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Presentation on theme: "Labor and Radicalism Why is there no socialism in the United States?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Labor and Radicalism Why is there no socialism in the United States?

2 Industrialization Timeline 1859 Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species 1864 Herbert Spencer’s Principles of Biology 1873 Panic of Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner’s Gilded Age 1877 Hayes’s Compromise and end of Reconstruction 1877 Great Railroad Strike 1883 Railroad companies create four time zones 1883 William Graham Sumner’s What Social Classes Owe to Each Other 1886 Haymarket affair 1886 Santa Clara County vs. Southern Pacific Railroad Company Pullman Strike 1899 Thorstein Veblen’s The Theory of the Leisure Class Themes: Industrialization Corporate Power Social Darwinism Labor Unrest

3 Why is there no socialism in the United States? Werner Sombart, Why Is There No Socialism in the United States? (1906) 1. “American exceptionalism”: There is no socialism in the US because of the promise of social mobility, absence of feudal legacy, diversity due to immigration, and relatively high standard of living. 2. There were “socialist” (radical) movements in the United States: Labor radicalism in 1870s-90s, 1919, and 1930s New Left and antiwar movements in the 1960s Anti-Globalist and environmentalist movements today

4 The Great Railroad Strike of 1877: “Colonel Agramonte’s Cavalry Charging on the Mob, at the Halstead street Viaduct, in Chicago, July 16,” Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, August 11, 1877

5 Gilded Age: Who coined the term?

6 Mark Twain

7 1. Industrialization (Railroads)

8 Major railroads in 1880 with time zones

9 Capital: The race is on: "Admiral" Jim Fisk of the ERIE vs. Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt New York Central Lines.

10 Labor: The Celebration of the Meeting of the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads at Promontory Point, Utah, May 10, 1869.

11 A. J. Russell, “Chinese at Laying Last Rail UPRR,” stereoview

12 Government support: Land grants to the railroads

13 Population growth: “Great Railway Station at Chicago--Departure of a Train,” Appleton’s Journal, 1870 supplement

14 Invention: Thomas Edison with the light bulb, invented in 1879

15 National markets: The first national brand, Uneeda Biscuit (1898, ad from 1900)

16 National markets: Sears and Roebuck Catalog, 1900

17 Economic instability: Run on the Fourth National Bank, New York, 1973

18 2. Corporate Power

19 John D. Rockefeller, Portrait by John Singer Sargent, 1917

20 Corporations had the same rights as persons The 14 th amendment: “Section. 1. …No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” US Supreme Court, 1886, Santa Clara County vs. Southern Pacific RR co. “The defendant Corporations are persons within the intent of the clause in section 1 of the Fourteen Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which forbids a State to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”

21 Next! Cartoon in Puck, September 7, 1904

22 Henry Adams Criticized Corporations in His Autobiography, The Education of Henry Adams, 1918

23 3. Social Darwinism

24 Charles Darwin, author of The Origin of Species (1859)

25 Herbert Spencer, author of social Darwinist doctrines of “survival of the fittest and “laissez faire”

26 Skull Types

27 Andrew Carnegie, Scottish immigrant who built a “vertically integrated” steel company that dominated the steel industry in the laste 19th century

28 Horatio Alger books promoted rags to riches stories

29 4. Labor Unrest

30 Conspicuous Display of Wealth, Millionaire’s Row, New York Carnegie MansionVanderbilt Chateau

31 Jacob Riis, Five Cents Lodging, Bayard Street, c. 1889

32 “Driving the Rioters from Turner Hall,” Harper’s Weekly, August 18, 1877

33 “The Haymarket Riot,” Harper’s Weekly, May 15, 1886

34 “The Haymarket Martyrs,” Anarchy and Anarchists, 1889

35 “The First Dynamite Bomb Thrown in America,” Chicago Inter-Ocean Supplement, 1886

36 Pin Protesting the Executions, Inscribed “Nov. 11, 1887”

37 “Justice Hurling a Bomb,” Graphic News, June 5, 1886

38 Louis Ling, upon being convicted of Haymarket bombing “ What is anarchy? … the fact is, that at every attempt to wield the ballot, at every endeavor to combine the efforts of workingmen, you have displayed the brutal violence of the police club, and this is why I have recommended rude force, to combat the ruder force of the police. Perhaps you think, ‘you’ll throw no more bombs’; but let me assure you I die happy on the gallows, so confident am I that the hundreds and thousands to whom I have spoken will remember my words; and when you shall have hanged us, then—mark my words—they will do the bombthrowing!”

39 The Pullman Strike,

40 John D. Rockefeller Founds a Day Nursery for Children of Working Italian Women, 1895

41 World War I and Civil Liberties Wartime Restriction of Civil Liberties Espionage and Sedition Acts The free speech cases Cultural censorship Anti-German sentiments Jane Addams 1919 Suffrage Prohibition Race riots Strike wave Red Scare Fear of Bolshevism The Palmer Raids

42 Immigration Waves in US History antebellum, —largely northern European, especially England, Ireland and Germany—approx. 4.5 million late —largely Southern and Eastern European, including Polish and Russian Jews, Italian, Greek—approx million also Asian immigrants in the late 19th-early 20th century, in much fewer numbers (for example, Chinese immigrants built US railroads) Immigration Act of 1924 establishes national quotas for immigration - immigration drops sharply after 1965 immigration act reform - immigrants from Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia outnumber those from Europe

43 World War I > Wartime Restriction of Civil Liberties in US History 1798: Alien and Sedition Acts Civil War: Suspension of Habeas Corpus 1917: The Espionage Act : The Red Scare

44 World War I > Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, anarchists censored to two years in penitentiary and fined $10,000 each for opposing the draft, July 9, 1917

45 World War I > Eugene Debs was jailed again under the Espionage Act in 1918

46 World War I > Cartoon against the Sedition Act, 1920

47 World War I > Supreme Court Free Speech Cases Charles Schenk v. United States (1919) convicted under the Espionage Act of 1917 distributed antiwar pamphlets conviction upheld Oliver Wendell Holmes: “man shouting in a crowded theater,” “clear and present danger” Jacob Abrams v. United States (1919) convicted under the Espionage Act distributed pamphlets and agitated against the war conviction upheld Holmes dissented: “the defendants were deprived of their rights under the constitution of the United States” Benjamin Gitlow v New York (1925) convicted under the New York Criminal Anarchy Law of 1902 called for the overthrow of U.S. government the Court upheld the state law but extended the reach of the First amendment Holmes dissented: “government must show the clear and immediate danger.”

48 World War I > The Poster by the Committee on Public Information

49 World War I > Some names changed because of the war with Germany Hamburger - “liberty stake” Sauerkraut - “liberty cabbage” German measles - “liberty measles” dashchunds - “liberty pups” Berlin, Iowa - Lincoln, Iowa Kaiser Street - Maine Way

50 World War I > Cartoon making fun of Jane Addams, 1918

51 Suffrage > Men at the National Anti-Suffrage Association Headquaters

52 Suffrage > The National Women’s Party pickets the White House in January 1917

53 Suffrage > Women’s Suffrage Cartoon

54 Prohibition > Prohibition Cartoon, San Francisco Chronicle, May 1919

55 Prohibition > Cartoon Announcing the End of Crime Due to Prohibition, 1919

56 Race Riots > Police “Rescues” a Black Man During the Chicago Race Riot

57 Strike Wave > The Seattle General Strike

58 Strike Wave > Steel Workers Announce the Walk-Out, October 4, 1919

59 Strike Wave > US Steel Corporation Poster Proclaims Victory

60 Strike Wave > Strike Ballot in Several European Languages, 1919

61 Strike Wave > New York World Cartoon about the Railroad Strike, April 1919

62 Red Scare > Philadelphia Inquirer cartoon against Bolshevism, 1919

63 Red Scare > Literary Digest on the Bombing of Palmer’s Home, June 1919

64 Red Scare > Police searches suspects in Palmer raids

65 Red Scare > Chicago Tribune Cartoon on Foreign Radicals, June 1919

66 Red Scare > Spider-web chart linking women’s rights groups to radicalism, 1922

67 Red Scare > Debs and Palmer on Radicalism Eugene Debs, 1918: “I believe in the Constitution. Isn’t it strange that we Socialists stand almost alone today in upholding and defending the Constitution of the United States? The revolutionary fathers … understood that free speech, a free and the right of free assemblage by the people were fundamental principles in democratic government. … I believe in the right of free speech, in war as well as peace.” Attorney General Mitchell Palmer, 1920: “Like a prairie-fire, the blaze of revolution was sweeping over every American institution of law and order a year ago. It was eating its way into the homes of the American workmen, its sharp tongues of revolutionary heat were licking the altars of the churches, leaping into the belfry of the school bell, crawling into the sacred corners of American homes, seeking to replace marriage vows with libertine laws, burning up the foundations of society. … My information showed that communism in this country was an organization of thousands of aliens who were direct allies of Trotzky. Aliens of the same misshapen caste of mind and indecencies of character, and it showed that they were making the same glittering promises of lawlessness, of criminal autocracy to Americans, that they had made to the Russian peasants.”

68 The Crash > What Caused the Great Depression? Financial panic Stock market crash Land speculation in Florida and Southern California Bank failures Mortgage foreclosures Sales of new goods stagnated after 1926 Unequal distribution of income reduced purchasing power Depression in farming Europe ’ s demand for US goods declines Europe defaults on debt payment Germany stops paying France and Britain France and Britain stop paying US Unavoidable economic cycles or could have been avoided if speculation was curbed and consumption encouraged?

69 New Deal > Stages FDR elected First New Deal ( “ the hundred days ” ) Strike wave Leftist Democrats win the majority in congressional elections Second New Deal ( “ the second hundred days ” ) Supreme Court unanimously declares NRA unconstitutional FDR reelected in a landslide Court-packing FDR proposes but fails to implement unpopular Supreme Court reform Republicans and conservative Democrats regain seats in the House As a reform movement, New Deal is over

70 The Crash > Hooverville, 1933

71 The Crash > Jobs Listed by Race, 1939

72 Labor > Wagner Act, 1935: United Automobile Workers poster addressing Ford workers

73 Labor > Social Security Poster, 1936

74 Labor > AFL and CIO AFL skilled workers only by craft anti-immigrant native-born white male workers only CIO all workers, including semi-skilled (majority) by industry actively recruited immigrants, women, and nonwhites

75 Labor > A CIO poster quoting FDR

76 Labor > The rise in union membership

77 Labor > Compare to 2008

78 Labor > Sit-down strike in Flint, MI

79 Labor > UAW organizers Walter Reuther and Richard Frankensteen pose for press photographers, River Rouge Plant, May 26, 1937

80 Labor > They were approached by Ford Service Department men

81 Labor > Ford men attacked

82 Labor > Reuther and Frankensteen immediately after the incident

83 Labor > Women ’ s sit-down strike in a Goody Nut Shop, 1937

84 Labor > Sit-down strike cartoon, New York World-Telegram, March 1937

85 Labor > CIO photomagazine, Photo-History, July 1937

86 Backlash > Memorial Day Massacre, May 30, The Chicago Police Department shot and killed ten unarmed demonstrators in Chicago during the "Little Steel Strike”; courts declared this “justifiable homicide”

87 Popular Front > Photograph of Diego Rivera ’ s mural destroyed by Nelson Rockefeller, 1933

88 Popular Front > Diego Rivera, Man at the Crossroads, fresco, 1934

89 Popular Front > Scottsboro March announcement, Daily Worker, 1934

90 Popular Front > Artists who were affiliated with the movement Orson Welles Charlie Chaplin Duke Ellington Frank Capra Dorothea LangeJohn Steinbeck

91 Popular Front > “ Here is the artist ’ s version of an ideal picket. The Disney workers make the ideal striker; there are mighty few labor disputes in which just about every striker can make his own picket sign. ” PM (1941)

92 Popular Front > Life of an animator, as the public imagines it and in reality, without union protection. PM (1941)

93 Popular Front > “ It ’ s OK for the seven dwarfs to whistle while they work, but not the girls who work for Disney. Discipline is strict. PM (1941)

94 Prosperity in the 1950s Due to wartime production and Marshall plan Far exceeds the 1920s prosperity GNP increased 250% between 1945 and 1960 Unemployment 5% or lower Inflation, 3% or less per year Private consumption expenditures represented 2/3 of GNP Federal spending expanded for highways, schools, GI Bill : median family income doubled - world’s highest standard of living

95 Labor: the Taft-Hartley Act (1947) Dismantles labor gains of the 1930s (Wagner Act, 1935) Restricted rights of organized labor, outlaws many kinds of labor actions (wildcat strikes, etc.) Salaries are still high because of prosperity The union movement becomes less radical than in the 1930s

96 Counterculture and the New Left Chronology New Left - named in contrast to the “old left” of 1930s, rejected both Stalinism and McCarthyism, believed in social democracy, influenced by the civil rights movement Students for Democratic Society - broad democratic student movement, concerned with poverty, civil rights, antiwar protest The Free Speech Movement - privileged students critiqued the hypocrisy of the univeristy system, influenced by the Beats, civil rights The Antiwar Movement - against the war in Vietnam, initially students, but then became broader, included working class and minorities Counterculture - cultural expression of the “New Left,” encompassed rock music, sexual revolution, groups like hippies, Yippies Important events: 1962 Port Huron Statement by SDS 1964 Free Speech Movement at Berkeley 1967Summer of Love at Haight-Ashbury, San Fransisco 1968Democratic National Convention in Chicago 1969Woodstock SDS self-destructs and fragments; the Weathermen formed as a splinter group

97 Port Huron Statement, Students for Democratic Society, 1962 As we grew, however, our comfort was penetrated by events too troubling to dismiss. First, the permeating and victimizing fact of human degradation, symbolized by the Southern struggle against racial bigotry, compelled most of us from silence to activism. Second, the enclosing fact of the Cold War, symbolized by the presence of the Bomb, brought awareness that we ourselves, and our friends, and millions of abstract "others" we knew more directly because of our common peril, might die at any time. A new left must consist of younger people who matured in the postwar world, and partially be directed to the recruitment of younger people. … A new left must include liberals and socialists, the former for their relevance, the latter for their sense of thoroughgoing reforms in the system. …A new left must start controversy across the land, if national policies and national apathy are to be reversed.

98 Mario Savio, Sproul Hall steps, December 2, 1964

99 Harvard 1969 strike (1969) and Paris School of Fine Arts (1968) posters

100 AntiWar Protests in San Fransco - from pickets to violence

101 Kent State University Protests, May 4, 1970

102 John Filo's Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph of Mary Ann Vecchio, a fourteen-year-old runaway, kneeling over the dead or dying body of Jeffrey Miller, shot in the mouth by an unknown Ohio National Guardsman Student Killed

103 San Jose State protest after the Kent State incident

104 Economy after the Cold War 1930s: dominance of heavy industry—labor-intensive, isolationist, in favor of tariff barriers 1940s-1960s: growth of producers of consumer goods— capital-intensive, in favor of free trade, access to markets From 1970s: deindustrialization; transfer of jobs overseas; growth of service sector

105 Bretton-Woods Conference, New Hampshire, July 1944 International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) Bretton Woods system of exchange rates US dollar replaces the British pound as the main currency for international transactions Dollar value is set at $35 per gold ounce - brings back the gold standard abandoned in the 1930s 1995 – World Trade Organization established to oversee and research global markets; cooperates with IMF and WB

106 WTO members

107 Jane Cover on WTO during 1999 protests in Seattle In my opinion, there are a four big things wrong with the WTO. First, hey are undemocratic and secretive. The WTO can rule that a country's laws and regulations are barriers to free trade, regardless of the fact that those laws were passed by the people or in the public interest. The decisions made by the WTO are heavily influenced by corporations who have access to the negotiations, while public citizens are excluded and have no vehicle to provide input. When I say they are influenced by corporations, I mean specifically that the advisory panels to the WTO are MADE UP OF CORPORATE INTERESTS, called "Industry Sector Advisory Committees". Proceedings are held behind closed doors (in the case of Seattle, the doors are guarded by rows of stormtroopers...) Second, the WTO tramples on human rights. The WTO has ruled that it is: 1) illegal to ban a product because of the way it is produced (ie. Using child or prison labor) and 2) governments cannot ban products from companies who do business with vicious dictatorships (ie. Burma). Third, the WTO is bad for your health. The South African government policy of encouraging the adoption of generic HIV drugs produced locally or imported from countries where they are cheaper is being challenged by the US (speaking for US drug companies) as a violation of free trade. To give another example, some European countries would rather not eat our hormone treated beef. The WTO has said that in order to avoid trade sanctions, or penalties, the countries need to produce scientific evidence that hormone treated beef is dangerous to human health (recall that normally, we require a product to be proven safe, not that it be proven dangerous...) Finally, the WTO is bad for the environment. You may be familiar with the US Endangered Species Act regulations that barr the importation of tuna not caught with dolphin safe nets or shrimp with turtle safe nets. The WTO has ruled that these constitute barriers to free trade. The US has some options. We can stick to our guns and face trade sanctions (tarrifs on our exports), pay a great big fine (paid with taxpayer dollars), or change our regulations. I'm not sure what has happened with the turtles, but in the case of the dolphins, the US has repealed its law. In another example, Venezuala challenged our Clean Air Act regulations requiring gas to be "clean". Because of the WTO ruling, our own standards for the Clean Air Act were relaxed in order to avoid sanctions or fines.

108 Anti-World Bank demonstrator in Jakarta, Indonesia

109 WTO protests in Seattle, 1999

110 Pro-environmentalist cartoon

111 Anti-NAFTA Cartoon

112 Anti-NAFTA Cartoon - Canadian perspective


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