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What do you think of when you hear "The Roaring Twenties"

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Presentation on theme: "What do you think of when you hear "The Roaring Twenties""— Presentation transcript:

1 What do you think of when you hear "The Roaring Twenties"

2 ● UNDERSTAND REASONS FOR THE RED SCARE ● EXPLAIN THE RADICAL BOMBING AND PALMER RAIDS ● ANALYZE THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS ● DESCRIBE CONFLICTS BETWEEN LABOR AND MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES

3 ● FORMED AFTER THE REVOLUTIONISTS IN RUSSIA OVERTHREW THE CZAR o AMERICAN SAW THE INCREASE IN RADICAL POLITICAL GROUPS IN U.S o INCREASED FEAR OF THE SPREAD OF COMMUNISM IN AMERICA ● AMERICA RESPONDS TO STRESSFUL CONDITIONS BY FEARING OUTSIDERS o LED THE WAVE OF NATIVISM: PREJUDICE AGAINST FOREIGN-BORN PEOPLE & ISOLATIONISM: PULLING AWAY FROM WORLDLY AFFAIRS WHAT IS COMMUNISM? RED SCARE

4 ● ONE PARTY ECONOMIC/POLITICAL GOV’T SYSTEM o CONTROL OVER PROPERTY AND BUSINESS o RUN BY WORKING CLASS ● INTENTIONS: FORM PERFECT SOCIETY = NO MONEY, VIOLENCE, OR WAR ● SOCIAL EQUALITY = NO SOCIAL HIERARCHY ● ONLY WORK IN HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES o TO IMPLEMENT COMMUNISM IS VIA VIOLENT REVOLUTION. ● GOAL : TO ELIMINATE CAPITALISM IN THE WORLD WHY THE FEAR FROM AMERICANS? COMMUNISM

5 ● COMMUNIST AND OTHER RADICAL PARTIES FORMING IN U.S. ● SAW THE VIOLENT REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA ● POSSIBLE REVOLUTION CAN HAPPEN ON U.S. SOIL ● ELIMINATES THE BI-PARTY SYSTEM o DICTATOR RATHER THAN VOTED REPRESENTATIVE. ● GOV’T CONTROL OVER PROPERTY/BUSINESS → XING PRIVATE BUSINESSES o NO SOCIAL/ECONOMIC PROSPERITY AMERICAN FEAR

6 ● TARGETED POLITICAL/FAMOUS FIGURES OF MAJOR CITIES W/ STRIKES ● ITALIAN RADICAL SETS OFF BOMB AT GENERAL ATTORNEY Mitchell PALMER’S HOME. ● WALL STREET BOMBING GAINED THE MOST MEDIA ATTENTION o REPORTED 33 DEAD AND 200 WOUNDED RADICAL BOMBINGS

7 ● LED BY PALMER AND J EDGAR HOOVER ● PALMER BLAMED BOMBINGS ON RADICALS ● SEEKED OUT COMMUNISTS, SOCIALISTS, AND ANARCHISTS ● INVADED PRIVATE HOMES, OFFICES, MEETING HALLS, ETC. ● ARRESTED, JAILED AND DEPORTED MANY FOREIGN RADICALS WITHOUT TRIALS. ● BUT FAILED TO PROVE ANY REVOLUTIONARY CONSPIRACY ● LOST PUBLIC BACKING PALMER RAIDS

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9 SACCO AND VANZETTI

10 ● SET UP A QUOTA SYSTEM: MAX NUMBER OF PEOPLE FROM EACH COUNTRY ● LIMITED EUROPEANS TO 2% OF NATIONAL POP. OF THAT IN 1890 ● DISCRIMINATED AGAINST EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EUROPEANS. ● RESTRICTED ALL ASIAN IMMIGRATION. ● DID NOT APPLY TO THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE ● GOAL: TO DRASTICALLY CUT EUROPEAN IMMIGRATION TO U.S Why was the increase in Immigration negative? EMERGENCY QUOTA ACT 1921

11 ● ESTIMATED 5 MILLION MEMBERS, MEN AND WOMEN ● DEVOTED TO 100% AMERICANIZING THE COUNTRY ● PURPOSE WAS TO: o KEEP MINORITIES IN THEIR PLACE o DESTROYING SALOONS o OPPOSING UNIONS o DRIVING FOREIGN BORNS OUT OF THE COUNTRY ● LOST THEIR APPEAL B/C OF CRIMINAL ACTS REVIVAL OF THE KKK

12 ● GOV’T WOULDN’T ALLOW STRIKING DURING WAR PERIOD ● AFTER WAR, AMERICA SAW MORE THAN 3,000 STRIKES o 4 MILLION PEOPLE ● DUE TO EMPLOYERS REFUSAL TO INCREASE PAY, AND FORBIDDING UNIONS ● EMPLOYERS PERSUADED PEOPLE THAT STRIKES WAS COMMUNISM IN ACTION LABOR TENSION

13 ● POLICE COMMISSIONER REFUSED UNION RECOGNITION ● LED TO STRIKE OF 1,117 OUT OF 1,544 OFFICERS ● STRIKES BECAME VIOLENT, BROKE OUT INTO RIOTS AND LOOTING ● GOVERNOR COOLIDGE CALLED IN STATE GUARD “There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime” ● PARTICIPATING OFFICERS WERE FIRED BOSTON POLICE STRIKE

14 ● MEMBERSHIP DECLINED OVER THE DECADE ● REASONS FOR ITS DECLINE o IMMIGRANTS WILLING TO WORK IN POOR CONDITIONS o DIFFICULTY IN FORMATION DUE TO VARIETY OF LANGUAGES o MIGRANTS FROM THE SOUTH RELIED ON THEMSELVES NOT UNIONS o MOST UNIONS EXCLUDED AFRICAN AMERICANS DECLINE OF UNION’S

15 ● PRESIDENT HARDING INVITED MAJOR POWERS TO WASHINGTON NAVAL CONFERENCE. o SECRETARY OF STATE CHARLES EVANS HUGHES PUSHED THE IDEA FOR NO WARSHIPS TO BE BUILT FOR 10 YEARS o BRITAIN FRANCE U.S. JAPAN AND ITALY WERE TO SCRAP MOST OF THEIR BATTLESHIPS, CRUISERS AND AIRCRAFTS. o AGREED AND SIGNED THE KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT  RENOUNCED WAR AS NATIONAL POLICY  NO WAY TO ENFORCE IT HARDING PRESIDENCY

16 ● FRANCE AND BRITAIN OWED $10 BILLION TO U.S. ● THE FORDNEY-MCCUMBER TARIFF PREVENTED THEM FROM DOING SO o RAISED TAXES ON SOME U.S. IMPORTS TO 60% ● BRITAIN AND FRANCE LOOKED TOWARDS GERMANY BUT UNABLE TO PAY o U.S GAVE GERMANY $2.5 BILLION TO PAY BACK BRITAIN AND FRANCE  B&F PAID BACK U.S WITH ITS OWN MONEY ● SOLUTION CAUSED RESENTMENT TOWARDS U.S. REPARATIONS

17 ● PRESIDENTS FRIENDS WHO HARDING APPOINTED TO HIS CABINET o FRIENDS WERE CORRUPT, USED THEIR OFFICES TO BECOME WEALTHY ● BIGGEST SCANDAL WAS TEAPOT DOME SCANDAL o OIL-RICH PUBLIC LAND AT TEAPOT DOME WYOMING FOR U.S NAVY o SECRETARY OF INTERIOR ALBERT B. FALL TRANSFERRED OIL RESERVES FROM NAVY TO INTERIOR DEPARTMENT  SECRETLY LEASED LAND TO TWO PRIVATE OIL COMPANIES o RECEIVED MORE THAN $400,000 IN LOANS BONDS AND CASH. OHIO GANG

18 WHAT TECHNOLOGICAL INVENTIONS IMPACT YOUR LIFE AND SOCIETY TODAY?

19 ● AUTOMOBILE CHANGED THE LANDSCAPE AND LIFESTYLE OF AMERICANS DRASTICALLY ● CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS FROM DIRT TO PAVEMENT MADE TRAVELING EASY IN ALL WEATHER ● AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURING GREW INTO ONE OF THE NATION’S LARGEST AND MOST IMPORTANT INDUSTRIES. ● ROUTE 66 CONNECTED CHICAGO TO L.A. o AS TRAVELERS CROSSED THE COUNTRY, MANY UPROOTED IN TOWNS ALONG THE WAY IMPACT OF THE AUTOMOBILE

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21 ● NEW ARCHITECTURE STARTED TO BE BUILT o HOMES STARTED TO BE CONSTRUCTED WITH GARAGES AND DRIVEWAYS. o GAS STATIONS WERE POPPING UP ALL OVER AMERICA o THE FIRST CLOVERLEAF INTERSECTION WAS BUILT IN WOODBRIDGE NJ o HOLLAND TUNNEL WAS CONSTRUCTED TO CONNECT NYC TO JERSEY CITY AUTOMOBILES

22 ● ALLOWED OPPORTUNITIES FOR FAMILIES TO TRAVEL ● THE URBAN SPRAWL IMPACTED THE CITIES ● INDEPENDENCE FOR WOMEN ● YOUTH OF AMERICA FOREVER CHANGED o ADULT CHAPERONES DWINDLED o TOOK TO ROAD FOR PRIVATE TIME o JOY-RIDING BECAME POPULAR LIFESTYLE CHANGED

23 ● REPRESENTED NEW FREEDOMS ● TO OTHERS REPRESENTED CRUMBLING MORAL STANDARDS o ERODING AMERICAN FAMILIES o MORALLY CORRUPTING THE YOUTH ● CITIES BEGAN TO HAVE AN ECONOMICAL BASE DUE TO AUTO INDUSTRIES o IMPACTED OTHER INDUSTRIES AS WELL. LIFE-STYLE CONT.

24 ● FIRST BEGAN AS MAIL CARRIERS FOR THE U.S.P.S ● BECAUSE OF WWI AIRCRAFT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED RAPIDLY ● MEANT FOR PEACETIME MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION ● TRANSATLANTIC FLIGHTS OF CHARLES LINDBERGH PROMOTED THE CARGO AND COMMERCIAL AIRLINES. ● PAN AMERICA AIRLINES WAS THE FIRST TRANSATLANTIC PASSENGER FLIGHT AIRPLANES

25 ● USE OF ELECTRICITY ALLOWED FACTORIES TO RELY MORE ON MACHINERY ● ELECTRICITY SPREAD OVER LONGER DISTANCES WITH ALTERNATING ELECTRICAL CURRENT ● NUMBER OF ELECTRIFIED HOMES GREW ● ELECTRIFIED APPLIANCES IN HOMES MADE LIVES EASIER. ELECTRICITY

26 ● ADVERTISING AGENCIES LOOKED TO PSYCHOLOGISTS TO LEARN WHAT APPEALS TO PEOPLE’S DESIRES ● SPECIFICALLY TARGETED WOMEN o ADVERTISED IN WOMENS MAGAZINES o PRODUCT WILL MAKE THEM A GOOD WIFE/MOTHER o PRODUCT WILL LESSEN WORKLOAD ● APPEAL TO BOTH MODERN LIFESTYLE AND ANTI-MODERN LIFESTYLE. ADVERTISEMENT

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33 ● Businesses expanded due to productivity and company mergers ● Rise in Chain stores ● national banks branched out within cities near their main office ● Income gap spread further away. ● farms nationwide suffered loses o overproduction of goods caused prices to drop SUPERFICIAL PROSPERITY

34 ● People started to buy on credit ● Industries put into installment plans o lured average to low wage earners to buy more goods ● Banks provided money on low interest rates. ● Some economists and business owners saw this as sign of “central weakness of a superficial economic prosperity” Superficial Prosperity Cont.


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