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AMERICA STRUGGLES WITH POSTWAR ISSUES BY: SAREEN ALI, MADISON MORRISSEY, JESSE PAK, TIAUNDRA CLARKE, ELIZA GUNN Chapter 12.1.

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Presentation on theme: "AMERICA STRUGGLES WITH POSTWAR ISSUES BY: SAREEN ALI, MADISON MORRISSEY, JESSE PAK, TIAUNDRA CLARKE, ELIZA GUNN Chapter 12.1."— Presentation transcript:

1 AMERICA STRUGGLES WITH POSTWAR ISSUES BY: SAREEN ALI, MADISON MORRISSEY, JESSE PAK, TIAUNDRA CLARKE, ELIZA GUNN Chapter 12.1

2 POSTWAR TRENDS Nativism: prejudice against foreign-born people Isolationism: policy pulling away from involvement in world affairs

3 COMMUNISM An economic and political system based on a single-party government ruled by a dictatorship. Involved in Red Scare Most Americans did not support this idea

4 THE RED SCARE After WWI and the Bolshevik Revolution. Nationwide fear of communists, socialists and anarchist. Waving a "red" flag, Communists cried out for a world-wide revolution (abolish capitalism) Radicals and members of the IWW formed the Communist Party. Several dozen bombs were mailed to the government, so General Mitchell Palmer took action.

5 PALMER RAIDS Palmer, Hoover and their agents hunted down suspected Communists, socialists and anarchists. Anarchists were people who oppose any form of judgement. They trampled civil rights and invaded private homes and offices; hundreds of foreign-born radicals were deported. The raids failed to turn up revolutionary conspiracy.-

6 ^^^^ Cartoon showing how Palmer Raids in US help point out the traitors

7 SACCO AND VANZETTI Nicola Sacco- Shoemaker and Bartolomeo Vanzetti-Fish peddler They were foreign-born anarchist who both evaded the war draft. In May 1920, they were charged and arrested for the robbery and murder of a factory paymaster and his guard. They asserted their innocence and provided alibis; the evidence was circumstantial Sacco and Vanzetti were still found guilty and sentenced to death.

8 Sacco Vanzetti case representation

9 LIMITING IMMIGRATION "Keep America for Americans" nativist sentiment Immigrants were willing to work for low wages Americans felt threatened for jobs Nativist feelings fueled by immigrants Immigrants who were anarchists and socialists, were thought to be communists

10 KU KLUX KLAN Formed as a result of Red Scare Used anti-communism as an excuse "100% Americanism" favored white males and native born citizens "Keep blacks in their place" and take Catholics, Jews, and foreign-born people out of the country Used racial violence and secret rituals to recruit million people by 1924

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12 QUOTA SYSTEM Number of immigrants = 600% Emergency Quota Act of 1921 Quota System: system that established max. immigrants that entered US Cut european immigration Law reduced number from 2% of nationals to 150,000 people

13 STRIKES The American Federation of Labor (AFL) pledged to avoid strikes during the war However in 1919, more than 3,000 strikes occurred Employers did not want to give raises or lower hours Employers labeled striking workers as Communists

14 BOSTON POLICE STRIKE Had not been given a strike since the beginning of WWI. Calvin Coolidge called out the National Guard New policemen were hired instead People praised Coolidge from saving Boston from communism and anarchy

15 STEEL MILL STRIKE Wanted the right to negotiate for shorter hours & higher wage Companies hired strikebreakers Linked the strikers to Communists 1923, Companies agreed to 8-hour workday

16 COAL MINERS STRIKE United Mine Workers get new leader -John L. Lewis Protest of low wages and long workdays Palmer got court order to get miners back to work Lewis declared it over but quietly continued Miners got 27% increase and Lewis=national hero

17 LABOR MOVEMENT Labor movements hurt in 1920's Membership dropped 1.5 million because...  work force had immigrants willing to work in poor conditions  language barrier = organization difficulties  migrated farmers were used to relying on self  most unions excluded African Americans 3% whites were union members->1% Blacks Some black unions  mine workers', longshoremen's, railroad porters  Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters o A. Philip Randolph o help gain a fair wage

18  Keep America out of Foreign Affairs  Provide Businesses with tax relief Ch.12.2

19  Outlaw war as an instrument of national policy  More than 60 countries sign pact

20 Raised American tariffs to protect factories and farms Farmers believe it caused agricultural depression – losing more than $300 million annually

21 Series of financial reforms implemented in Germany (new taxes, massive loans) France agrees to evacuate forces from Ruhr

22 Secretary of the Treasury – 3 rd longest tenure of almost 11 years Mellon’s plan was based on tax decreases and improved government efficiency

23 Veterans Bureau Scandal

24 Scandalous group of politicians who abused their power as Harding’s cabinet members

25 Albert Fall, Secretary of the Interior, illegally leases Teapot Dome oil reserves to two other companies Fall receives “gifts” totaling close to $400,000 from oilmen


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