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**for image processing and computer vision**

2D Gabor functions for image processing and computer vision Nicolai Petkov Intelligent Systems group Institute for Mathematics and Computing Science

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**Primary visual cortex (striate cortex or V1)**

4/14/2017 Brodmann area 17 Wikipedia.org

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**References to origins - neurophysiology**

4/14/2017 Neurophysiology: D.H. Hubel and T.N. Wiesel: Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat's visual cortex, Journal of Physiology (London), vol. 160, pp , 1962. D.H. Hubel and T.N. Wiesel: Sequence regularity and geometry of orientation columns in the monkey striate cortex, Journal of Computational Neurology, vol. 158, pp , 1974. D.H. Hubel: Exploration of the primary visual cortex, , Nature, vol. 299, pp , 1982.

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**References to origins - neurophysiology**

4/14/2017 Hubel and Wiesel named one type of cell "simple" because they shared the following properties: Their receptive fields have distinct excitatory and inhibitory regions. These regions follow the summation property. These regions have mutual antagonism - excitatory and inhibitory regions balance themselves out in diffuse lighting. It is possible to predict responses to stimuli given the map of excitatory and inhibitory regions.

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**Receptive field profiles of simple cells**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain How are they determined? recording responses to bars recording responses to gratings reverse correlation (spike-triggered average) Why do simple cells respond to bars and gratings of given orientation?

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**References to origins – modeling**

4/14/2017 1D: S. Marcelja: Mathematical description of the responses of simple cortical cells. Journal of the Optical Society of America 70, 1980, pp 2D: J.G. Daugman: Uncertainty relations for resolution in space, spatial frequency, and orientation optimized by two-dimensional visual cortical filters, Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 1985, vol. 2, pp J.P. Jones and A. Palmer: An evaluation of the two-dimensional Gabor filter model of simple receptive fields in cat striate cortex, Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 58, no. 6, pp , 1987

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2D Gabor function 4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain

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**Parametrisation according to:**

4/14/2017 N. Petkov: Biologically motivated computationally intensive approaches to image pattern recognition, Future Generation Computer Systems, 11 (4-5), 1995, N. Petkov and P. Kruizinga: Computational models of visual neurons specialised in the detection of periodic and aperiodic oriented visual stimuli: bar and grating cells, Biological Cybernetics, 76 (2), 1997, P. Kruizinga and N. Petkov: Non-linear operator for oriented texture, IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, 8 (10), 1999, S.E. Grigorescu, N. Petkov and P. Kruizinga: Comparison of texture features based on Gabor filters, IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, 11 (10), 2002, N. Petkov and M. A. Westenberg: Suppression of contour perception by band-limited noise and its relation to non-classical receptive field inhibition, Biological Cybernetics, 88, 2003, C. Grigorescu, N. Petkov and M. A. Westenberg: Contour detection based on nonclassical receptive field inhibition, IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, 12 (7), 2003,

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**Preferred spatial frequency and size**

4/14/2017

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**Preferred spatial frequency and size**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Wavelength = 2/512 Frequency = 512/2

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**Preferred spatial frequency and size**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Wavelength = 4/512 Frequency = 512/4

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**Preferred spatial frequency and size**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Wavelength = 8/512 Frequency = 512/8

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**Preferred spatial frequency and size**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Wavelength = 16/512 Frequency = 512/16

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**Preferred spatial frequency and size**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Wavelength = 32/512 Frequency = 512/32

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**Preferred spatial frequency and size**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Wavelength = 64/512 Frequency = 512/64

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Orientation 4/14/2017

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Orientation 4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Orientation = 0

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Orientation 4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Orientation = 45

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Orientation 4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Orientation = 90

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**Symmetry (phase offset)**

4/14/2017

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**Symmetry (phase offset)**

4/14/2017 Space domain Space domain Phase offset = 0 (symmetric function) Phase offset = -90 (anti-symmetric function)

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Spatial aspect ratio 4/14/2017

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**Spatial aspect ratio Space domain Frequency domain Aspect ratio = 0.5**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Aspect ratio = 0.5

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**Spatial aspect ratio Space domain Frequency domain Aspect ratio = 1**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Aspect ratio = 1

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**Spatial aspect ratio Space domain Frequency domain Aspect ratio = 2**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Aspect ratio = 2 (does not occur)

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**Half-response spatial frequency bandwidth b (in octaves)**

4/14/2017 Half-response spatial frequency bandwidth b (in octaves)

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**Preferred spatial frequency and size**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Bandwidth = 1 (σ = 0.56 λ) Wavelength = 8/512

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**Bandwidth Space domain Frequency domain Bandwidth = 0.5**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Bandwidth = 0.5 Wavelength = 8/512

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**Bandwidth Space domain Frequency domain Bandwidth = 2**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Bandwidth = 2 Wavelength = 8/512

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**Bandwidth Space domain Frequency domain Bandwidth = 1 (σ = 0.56 λ)**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Bandwidth = 1 (σ = 0.56 λ) Wavelength = 32/512

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**Bandwidth Space domain Frequency domain Bandwidth = 0.5**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Bandwidth = 0.5 Wavelength = 32/512

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**Bandwidth Space domain Frequency domain Bandwidth = 2**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain Bandwidth = 2 Wavelength = 32/512

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**Semi-linear Gabor filter What is it useful for?**

4/14/2017 Semi-linear Gabor filter What is it useful for? Receptive field G(-x,-y) Convolution followed by half-wave rectification Output of Input Ori = 0 Phi = 90 edges Ori = 180 Phi = 90 edges Ori = 0 Phi = 0 lines Ori = 0 Phi = 180 lines bw2 = 2

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**Receptive field G(-x,-y)**

Bank of semi-linear Gabor filters Which orientations to use 4/14/2017 Receptive field G(-x,-y) frequency domain Ori = For filters with s.a.r=0.5 and bw=2, good coverage of angles with 6 orientations

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**Bank of semi-linear Gabor filters Which orientations to use**

4/14/2017 Input Output frequency domain Filter in Ori = For filters with sar=0.5 and bw=2, good coverage of angles with 12 orientations

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**Bank of semi-linear Gabor filters Which orientations to use**

4/14/2017 Result of superposition of the outputs of 12 semi-linear anti-symmetric (phi=90) Gabor filters with wavelength = 4, bandwidth = 2, spatial aspect ratio = 0.5 (after thinning and thresholding lt = 0.1, ht = 0.15).

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**Receptive field G(-x,-y)**

Bank of semi-linear Gabor filters Which frequencies to use 4/14/2017 Receptive field G(-x,-y) frequency domain Wavelength = (s.a.r.=0.5) For filters with bw=2, good coverage of frequencies with wavelength quadroppling

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**Receptive field G(-x,-y)**

Bank of semi-linear Gabor filters 4/14/2017 Receptive field G(-x,-y) frequency domain Wavelength = For filters with bw=1, good coverage of frequencies with wavelength doubling

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**References to origins - neurophysiology**

4/14/2017 Complex cells Their receptive fields do not have distinct excitatory and inhibitory regions. Response is not modulated by the exact position of the optimal stimulus (bar or grating).

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**Gabor energy filter Receptive field G(-x,-y) Input**

4/14/2017 Gabor energy filter Receptive field G(-x,-y) Input Convolution followed by half-wave rectification Output of Gabor energy output Ori = 0 Phi = 90 Ori = 180 Phi = 90 Ori = 0 Phi = 0 Ori = 0 Phi = 180

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**Gabor energy filter Input Gabor energy output**

4/14/2017 Gabor energy filter Input Gabor energy output Orientation = superposition Result of superposition of the outputs of 4 Gabor energy filters (in [0,180)) with wavelength = 8, bandwidth = 1, spatial aspect ratio = 0.5

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**Bank of semi-linear Gabor filters How many orientations to use**

4/14/2017 Result of superposition of the outputs of 6 Gabor energy filters (in [0,180)) with wavelength = 4, bandwidth = 2, spatial aspect ratio = 0.5 (after thinning and thresholding lt = 0.1, ht = 0.15).

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**More efficient detection of intensity changes**

4/14/2017 Space domain Frequency domain dG/dx dG/dy

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**More efficient detection of intensity changes**

4/14/2017 Gradient magnitude Canny

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**Contour enhancement by suppression of texture**

with surround suppression This slide illustrates our work in biologically motivated image processing. An input image is shown on the left. The image in the middle shows the result of Canny edge detection. On the right you see the result of an additional processing step called surround suppression. The response to an edge is attenuated and eventually completely suppressed by the presence of other edges in the surrounding. The result is that texture edges mutually suppress each other and disappear while contour edges are relatively unaffected. This work had impact in computer science, electrical engineering, psychophysics and neuroscience. (The referred papers are well/highly cited.) Canny [Petkov and Westenberg, Biol.Cyb. 2003] [Grigorescu et al., IEEE-TIP 2003, IVC 2004]

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