Professor Mads Andenæs JUS5240/JUR1240 Comparative Private Law
Going over outline and reading, once again Any questions?
Lecture Outline Autumn 2011 1. Introduction 2. The proposal for a common European sales law 3. Overview of the topics of the course. Placing the proposal for a common European sales law and the DCFR in an international perspective. 4. The discipline of comparative law. Legal transplants and convergence of legal families
Lecture Outline Autumn 2011 5. European Contract Law and international contract law conventions 6. Applying comparative method in private law and contract law in particular. 7. Formation of contracts. 8. Interpretation, Reasonableness, Good faith. 9. Liability and other Remedies.
Updated reading list (on the web site) With web links and other features that may be helpful. Moss, G.C.: Lectures on Comparative Law (160 pages) (to be found in the bookstore Akademika published in "Stensilserien for Institutt for Privatrett-nr 166 IfP " and http://folk.uio.no/giudittm/PCL_Vol15_3%5B1%5D.pdf M Andenas and D Fairgrieve, ‘There is A World Elsewhere’ — Lord Bingham and Comparative Law in M Andenas and D Fairgrieve (eds) Tom Bingham and the Transformation of the Law (Oxford University Press 2009), 402 (Available as ebook from the University Library by using "BIBSYS ASK" online-system and on http://works.bepress.com/mads_andenas/5/) http://works.bepress.com/mads_andenas/5/ Sacco, R.: Legal Formants: A Dynamic Approach to Comparative Law, in 39 American Journal of Comparative Law (1991), pages 1-34,343-402 (Available from the University Library by using "BIBSYS ASK" online-system) Sacco, R.: One Hundred Years of Comparative Law, in 75 Tulane Law Review (2001) 1159-1176 (Available from the University Library by using "BIBSYS ASK" online-system)
Updated reading list Sir Basil Markesinis, Jørg Fedtke, Engaging With Foreign Law (Hart Publishing, Oxford 2009, Comparative Law in Commercial Practice, Ch 10, ISBN-10: 1841139475) p 323-350 (Available as ebook from the University Library by using "BIBSYS ASK" online-system). Moss, G.C.: International Commercial Law, Institute of Private Law, Oslo 2010, pages 101-205 (to be found in the bookstore Akademika published in "Stensilserien for Institutt for Privatrett"/"copy series from the Institute of Private Law" no 185) Kåre Lilleholt, «European Private Law: Unification, Harmonisation or Coordination», i Roger Brownsword, Hans-W. Micklitz, Leone Niglia and Stephen Weatherill (eds.), The Foundations of European Private Law, Oxford 2011, s. 353– 361. Hans-W. Micklitz and Norbert Reich ’The Commission Proposal for a “Regulation on a Common European Sales Law (CESL)” – Too Broad or Not Broad Enough?’, EUI Working Paper LAW 2012/04. http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/20485/LAW_2012_04_ERPL_03.pdf?s equence=3 and VI) and C (ca 430 pages). http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/20485/LAW_2012_04_ERPL_03.pdf?s equence=3
Supplementary reading Principles, Definitions and Model Rules of European Private Law, Draft Common Frame of Reference, DCFR See also: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/policies/civil/policiescivilintro_en.htmPrinciples, Definitions and Model Rules of European Private Law, Draft Common Frame of Reference, DCFR http://ec.europa.eu/justice/policies/civil/policiescivilintro_en.htm Proposal for EU Regulation on Common sales law with other materials on http://ec.europa.eu/justice/newsroom/news/20111011_en.htm http://ec.europa.eu/justice/newsroom/news/20111011_en.htm The EU Consumer Rights Directive, http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/11/pe00/pe00026.en11.pdf http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/11/pe00/pe00026.en11.pdf Sir Basil Markesinis, Jørg Fedtke, Engaging With Foreign Law (Hart Publishing, Oxford 2009, ISBN-10: 1841139475). (Available as ebook from the University Library by using "BIBSYS ASK" online-system) C (ca 430 pages).
Supplementary reading Moss, G.C.: Contract or Licence? Regulation of Petroleum Investment in Russia and Foreign legal Advice, in Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, 1998, pages 186-199Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, 1998, pages 186-199 Moss, G.C.: INTERNATIONAL CONTRACTS BETWEEN COMMON LAW AND CIVIL LAW: IS NON-STATE LAW TO BE PREFERRED? THE DIFFICULTY OF INTERPRETING LEGAL STANDARDS SUCH AS GOOD FAITH, Global Jurist: Vol. 7: Iss. 1 (Advances), Article 3 pp.1-38 Gordley, J., Von Mehren, A., An introduction to the comparative study of private law, Cambridge University Press, 2006. Tetley, W.: Mixed Jurisdictions: Common Laws vs. Civil Law (Codified and Uncodified), part I and part II, (56 pages)http://www.mcgill.ca/maritimelaw/comparative/mixedjur- 1/ http://www.mcgill.ca/maritimelaw/comparative/mixedjur-2/http://www.mcgill.ca/maritimelaw/comparative/mixedjur- 1/http://www.mcgill.ca/maritimelaw/comparative/mixedjur-2/ Joint network on European Private Law, with further links: http://www.copecl.orghttp://www.copecl.org Schulze, R. (ed), “New Features in Contract Law”, Sellier European Law Publishers, 2007
Supplementary reading Introduction to the Principles of European Contract Law, with further bibliographic references:http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu/cisg/text/peclintro.html http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu/cisg/text/peclintro.html UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts, with further bibliographic references:http://www.unidroit.org/english/principles/contracts/main.htmhttp://www.unidroit.org/english/principles/contracts/main.htm Vogenauer, S., Weatherill, S., The Harmonisation of European Contract Law, Studies of the Oxford Institute of European and Comparative Law, 2006 Wilhelmsson, T., Paunio, E., Pohjolainen, A. (eds), “Private Law and the Many Cultures of Europe”, Kluwer Law International, 2007 Zimmermann, M., Reimann, The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law, Oxford University Press, 2006 Zweigert, K. and H. Kötz: Introduction to Comparative Law, 3rd ed Clarendon Press, Oxford 1998: Parts B (except chapter V and VI) and C (ca 430 pages).
The main topics: 2. The proposal for a common European sales law The European Commission proposal for a Regulation on a Common European Sales Law (COM(2011) 635 final). Background and reactions ‘Legal base’ in the EU The Internal Market, consumers, business and contract law
3. Overview of the topics of the course. Placing the proposal for a common European sales law and the DCFR in an international perspective. Follow up from first lecture and Professor Lilleholt’s lecture on European Sales Law.
4. The discipline of comparative law. Legal transplants and convergence of legal families. What is comparative law and what functions may it serve? Law making: legislation, case law Understanding law and legal rules The normative and the factual, effects and context Legal transplants Legal families Convergence of legal families
5. European Contract Law and international contract law conventions Return to the conventions, model laws, EU legislation, and different iniatives. What do they cover or let out? Some differences between international and EU instruments : the international focus on the commercial/professional EU law on consumer protection Conventions optional/declaratory/derogable (freedom of contract), EU directives mandatory
6. Applying comparative method in private law and contract law in particular. The role of comparative law and method in private law Contract law: commercial and consumer law The autonomy of the national
7. Formation of contracts. 8. Interpretation, Reasonableness, Good faith. 9. Liability and other Remedies.
7. Formation of contracts. Offer, accept, binding contract Do offers bind, is ’consideration’ required? To what extent is a universal model found in the conventions and model laws? EU law and the formation of contracts.
8. Interpretation, Reasonableness, Good faith. Interpretation in different national traditions. The role of reasonableness and good faith.
Reading for the next lecture: 4. The discipline of comparative law. Legal transplants and convergence of legal families: Moss, G.C.: International Commercial Law or Lectures on Comparative Law M Andenas and D Fairgrieve, ‘There is A World Elsewhere’ (Available as ebook) Sir Basil Markesinis, Jørg Fedtke, Engaging With Foreign Law (Hart Publishing, Oxford 2009, Comparative Law in Commercial Practice, Ch 10, ISBN-10: 1841139475) p 323-350
Placing the proposal for a common European sales law and the DCFR in an international perspective
A Common European Sales Law? Proposal for regulation: COM(2011) 635 final An optional “2 nd regime” for cross-border contracts Scope: sales of goods, supply of digital content, related services Relevance for comparative law
Contract law in Europe Varies from country to country Private international law Uniform law –CISG –EU legislation, minimum harmonisation, total harmonisation Model laws etc.: UNIDROIT Principles, PECL, DCFR
The process up to CESL The Commission’s Action Plan (2003) CoPECL Network (2005) Draft Common Frame of Reference (2009) –Study Group on a European Civil Code –Acquis Group French texts on terminology and principles (2008) Feasibility Study (2011) CESL (2011)
The DCFR Black letter rules Comments Comparative notes
Contents DCFR Book I General provisions Book II Contracts and other juridical acts Book III Obligations and corresponding rights Book IV Specific contracts and the rights and obligations arising from them Book V Benevolent intervention in another’s affairs
Contents DCFR (ctd.) Book VI Non-contractual liability arising out of damage caused to another Book VII Unjustified enrichment Book VIII Acquisition and loss of ownership in movables Book IX Proprietary security rights in movable assets Book X Trusts
EU legislation on contracts Primarily on consumer contracts Most recent: Consumer Rights Directive (2011/83) –deadline 13 December 2012 –contracts concluded after 13 June 2014
CESL – a second regime Norwegian law German law French law Existing law CESL
Application of CESL Chosen by the parties Cross-border contract (unless otherwise decided) At least one party in a Member State Contract for the sale of goods, for the supply of digital content, related services Trader and consumer or SMB (unless otherwise decided)
Recourse to other law? Autonomous interpretation Issues with the scope of CESL must be settled without recourse to national law
Content of CESL Making a binding contract Interpretation Obligations and remedies Damages and interest Restitution Prescription
Conclusion of contract Definition of contract Offer and acceptance Right to withdraw Defects in consent
Voidability due to mistake Article 48 Inaccuracy in communication
Interpretation Common intention Particular meaning known to the other party Meaning that a reasonable person would give to it Relevant matters –circumstances –practices –good faith and fair dealing
35 DCFR, CESL and the Common Law DCFR Relationship to national legal systems and traditions Special issues relating to the Common Law.
36 DCFR: its general reception Some support from participants Critical approaches typified by Zimmermann and Hugh Collins
37 CESL and its general reception Some support from participants Critical approaches typified by Zimmermann and Micklitz
38 The autonomies of law The autonomies of law as a challenge to a European Civil Code or DCFR National legal systems Private law, public law Commercial law, private law European law in the national traditions of private law A set of false dichotomies?
39 European law and the challenge of common law Common law contracts in areas such as finance, IP Common law practice with US and London firms.
40 The efficiency of the common law World Bank: Doing Business –Understanding regulation 2004 –Removing obstacles to growth 2005 Réponse de l’Association Henri Capitant aux Rapports "Doing business" de la Banque Mondiale - Les droits de tradition civiliste en question
41 How the common law sees itself Tennekoon and Wood
42 The role of legislation in the common law of commerce Contract, case law and default rules in legislation. Limited. No general codifications. Exceptions, insurance codifications.
43 Some features of the common law of England: traditional argument Structure of contract law is different: limited default rules, contract practice aims at providing an autonomous and complete regime. Interpretation of contracts: exclusionary rules (pre-contractual negotiations and postcontractual behaviour) and literalism. Role of good faith. Creditor-friendly.
44 How is the common law developing Law on interpretation of contracts is changing: exclusionary rules and literalism. Role of good faith. Creditor-friendliness is less obvious in insolvency but still more freedom in constructing securities. Structure of contract law remains different in this respect: limited default rules, contract practice aims at providing an autonomous and complete regime. But here many areas follow this direction.
45 Critical perspectives on these common law features Structure of contract law: what is the cost of current contract law practice with no default rules to rely on, transaction cost in contracting, quality of contract terms Interpretation of contracts: did these rules ever provide the benefits envisaged? Creditor-friendliness: the economic cost benefit analysis. Personal credit and security rights. Creditor protection and access to credit without security.
46 Absence of principles P Birks English Private Law
48 The national paradigm and the closed system Did it ever apply? –In legislative reform – In the courts Current developments: Italian and English courts, the US. –Fairchild v Glenhaven Funeral Services Ltd,  UKHL 22. –Sentenza n. 21748 del 16 ottobre 2007 (Sezione Prima Civile, Presidente M. G. Luccioli, Relatore A. GiustiSentenza n. 21748 del 16 ottobre 2007 (Sezione Prima Civile, Presidente M. G. Luccioli, Relatore A. Giusti, “Salute,accanimento terapeutico,stato vegetativo,eutanasia”). –Roper v Simmons 543 US 551 (2005).
49 The positions in the US debate. Harold Koh, Sir Basil Markesinis, Jeremy Waldron, the ‘liberal’ justices Mary-Ann Glendon, The Federalist Society, the conservative justices
50 The positions in the English debate. Sir Basil Markesinis, Lord Bingham: making use of comparative law as a tool John Bell: limitations of context but still of use in policy reform and legal analysis Jane Stapleton, Lord Hoffmann
51 Can courts make use of comparative law? –The use of foreign law –The indirect entry points for foreign law and comparative law
4. Formation of contracts In the international instruments, in the DCFR In national law: different models 52
The discipline of comparative law. Legal transplants and convergence of legal families
The discipline of comparative law. Legal transplants and convergence of legal families 1.The discipline of comparative law. 2.Role of comparative law: law reform, courts (as we just have discussed), the legal practitioner, legal scholarship 3.Legal transplants; what are they 4.Internationalisation, fragmentation and “the convergence of legal families” 5.Comparative law method
1.The discipline of comparative law. ‘A method’, ‘What lawyers do’ Study of foreign law and comparative law, international and comparative law To compare one needs to contrast and delineate: what is different and what is the same, the national, legal families, within the national, across the national, international and regional legal orders Some examples and for discussion
Comparative law controversies Is comparative law possible? Is it an ideological project? (We will return to this under uses for different categories of lawyers.) Some ideological positions for and against comparative law Some ideological positions of comparative lawyers Comparative lawyers and international and European law: and seen the other way round
2. Role of comparative law: a)law reform, b)courts (as we just have discussed and for further discussion here), c)the legal practitioner: the financial lawyer, the commercial lawyer, the family lawyer, the criminal lawyer etc (for discussion) d)legal scholarship: in general and for different disciplines
3. Legal transplants; what are they Student presentation: Chinese and Japanese law Comparing this with Italy and Norway Two positions: Alan Watson, Legal Transplants, (Edinburgh, Scottish Academic Press, 1974); Otto Kahn-Freund, 'On Use and Misuse of Comparative Law' (1974) 37 Modern Law Review 1
4. Internationalisation, fragmentation and “the convergence of legal families. Legal history and comparative law “Legal families”, the broad generalisations: René David Kurt Zweigert and Hein Kötz
Montesquieu De l'esprit des lois (1748) The political and civil laws of each nation should be adapted in such a manner to the people for whom they are framed that it should be a great chance if those of one nation suit another. They should be in relation to the nature and principle of each government; whether they form it, as may be said of politic laws; or whether they support it, as in the case of civil institutions.
Montesquieu De l'esprit des lois They should be in relation to the climate of each country, to the quality of its soil, to its situation and extent, to the principal occupation of the natives, whether husbandmen, huntsmen, or shepherds: they should have relation to the degree of liberty which the constitution will bear; to the religion of the inhabitants, to their inclinations, riches, numbers, commerce, manners, and customs.
Montesquieu De l'esprit des lois (1748) To determine which of those systems is most agreeable to reason, we must take them each as a whole and compare them in their entirety. As the civil laws depend on the political institutions, because they are made for the same society, whenever there is a design of adopting the civil law of another nation, it would be proper to examine beforehand whether they have both the same institutions and the same political law.
4. Internationalisation, fragmentation and “the convergence of legal families. “Legal families”, the broad generalisations: The common law Civil law Scandinavian law Communist legal systems Islamic law. Hindu law, Chinese law Problems and reservations: any utility left Law as antropology
4. Internationalisation, fragmentation and “the convergence of legal families (cont.). Internationalisation Fragmentation “the convergence of legal families” European law: EU, ECHR, internationalisation BUT: Pierre Legrand (1996). European Legal Systems are not Converging. International and Comparative Law Quarterly,45, pp 5281
5. Comparative law method Back to Montesquieu, Alan Watson and Otto Kahn-Freund Context and institutions Different uses? Return to different uses of comparative law, and the role of legal transplants. Method in the law generally reflected in comparative law
Two new articles on the web page Vernon Valentine Palmer ’From Lerotholi to Lando: Some Examples of Comparative Law Methodology’, and Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt ‘Toward an institutional approach to comparative economic law?’
And as promised: A PDF of this article on the reading list : Kåre Lilleholt, «European Private Law: Unification, Harmonisation or Coordination», i Roger Brownsword, Hans- W. Micklitz, Leone Niglia and Stephen Weatherill (eds.), The Foundations of European Private Law, Oxford 2011, s. 353– 361.
Questions for discussion I What is the legal discipline of comparative law? Is it more than a method? What is the method? What are legal transplants, and can you find some different examples? What are legal families, and can one state anything about convergence between them or within them in our times of internationalization?
Questions for discussion II What are the main disagreements about the uses of comparative law? Are there any special issues in the field of private law, or in commercial or contract law? How does this kind of disagreement affect DCFR and CESL?
Vernon Valentine Palmer ’From Lerotholi to Lando: Some Examples of Comparative Law Methodology’ No ‘single exclusive method’ that comparative Teaching, research, of law reform, or historical investigation are too varied ‘a sliding scale of methods and the best approach will always be adapted in terms of the specific purposes of the research, the subjective abilities of the researcher, and the affordability of the costs.’
Vernon Valentine Palmer ’From Lerotholi to Lando: Some Examples of Comparative Law Methodology’ It is also shown that prescriptions about method must carefully distinguish the principal user groups, for the complex methods of scholars may be unworkable in the practical world where comparisons must be cost-justified. NOT: comparative law is always forbidding and difficult. The discipline must be accessible and its methods must be flexible.
Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt ‘Toward an institutional approach to comparative economic law?’ Critical of the ‘New Comparative Economics’ and its use of institutional economics comparative efficiency analysis of legal institutions across numerous jurisdictions. In favour of a more sensitive use of institutional theory in comparative economic law.
Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt ‘Toward an institutional approach to comparative economic law?’ NOT aggregate statistical approaches, BUT deep-level comparative institutional analysis, informed by modern theory of comparative law, legal history and comparative jurisprudence. Discussion of areas where this can contribute ‘to fine-tuning the reform agenda of economic law within the European Union and at the global level’.
Past exam paper Autumn 2008 Please explain the major differences and similarities between two systems of law of your choice belonging to different Legal Families.
Further questions for discussion What are the sources of European Contract Law? What are the main international contract law conventions and model codes? How do they differ in form or effect? Or in content: what do they cover and how do they solutions differ?
The discipline of comparative law. Applying Comparative Method
Further questions for discussion What are the sources of European Contract Law? What are the main international contract law conventions and model codes? How do they differ in form or effect? Or in content: what do they cover and how do they solutions differ?
Past exam paper Autumn 2008 Please explain the major differences and similarities between two systems of law of your choice belonging to different legal families.
Option of second paper So that you can get it back marked before the exams 26 November. Deadline 11 November?
Option of second paper: possible topics Autumn 2011:Compare the rules about the formation of contracts in the transnational restatements, principles, international conventions and the European Commission's proposal for a Common Sales Law Regulation. You find some relevant texts attached, and you may wish to make reference to one or more systems of national law to support your argument.
Option of second paper: possible topics Autumn 2010: Compare the approach to issues of (1) interpretation and (2) formation of contracts in the transnational restatements, principles and international conventions on contract law. You may wish to look into one or more systems of national law to support your argument.
Agree on time for seminar on the optional second paper Which will be useful for those who have answered the paper and those who have not
Dr Herman Bruserud’s lectures 23. okt: 12:15-14:00, rom 365 DN 29 okt: 14:15- 16:00, rom 365 DN 30 okt: 12:15-14:00, rom 365 DN 5 nov: 08:15- 10:00, rom 365, DN One more class: for seminar on the optional second paper
The following topics will be covered in lectures by Dr Herman Bruserud. 7. Formation of contracts. 8. Interpretation, Reasonableness, Good Faith. 9. Liability and other Remedies.
Formation in common law Two main elements: 1) Agreement a) Offer b) Acceptance 2) Consideration Other elements: Intention to create legal relations, Capacity, Formalities 85
The offer in common law Definition – Statement by one person to another person, evincing his/her willingness to enter into contractual relations with that person on certain terms. Distinguish offer from an “Invitation to Treat” – auctions, tenders, Carbolic Smoke Ball. 86
«Consideration» in common law 1) Must be a connection between the consideration and the promise which it is said to support. 2) Must move from the promisee, but not necessarily to the promisor (Coulls v Bagot’s Executor and Trustee). 3) Must be sufficient but need not be adequate (Chappell & Co v Nestle & Co Ltd)– Illegal consideration is not sufficient, and excessively inadequate consideration may not be sufficient. 4) Past consideration is not good consideration (Lampleigh v Brathwait). 87
French law and «cause» Art 1108 of the Code Civil: Consent, Capacity, Object, Cause 88
Formation in the international instruments: UNIDROIT Principles. The Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG) adopted by UNCITRAL. PECL. DCFR. EU consumer law ESL 89
Formation in the UNIDROIT Principles: PICC third edition 2010 CHAPTER 2 — FORMATION AND AUTHORITY OF AGENTS SECTION 1: FORMATION 90
CISG The Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG) adopted by UNCITRAL Part II. Formation of the contract 91
Formation in PECL and DCFR : DCFR: contract as ‘bilateral or multilateral juridical act’. ‘BGB’ translated into English’? Role of legal scholarship. ‘Juridical act’ and ‘contract’, Art II.-1:1010(1) DCFR. PECL: less precise? 92
Formation in PECL: Article 2:101 (1) A contract is concluded if: (a) the parties intend to be legally bound, and (b) they reach a sufficient agreement without any further requirement. (2) A contract need not be concluded or evidenced in writing nor is it subject to any other requirement as to form. The contract may be proved by any means, including witnesses. 93
Formation in DCFR: Article II.-4:101 PECL Article 2:101 para(2) has been removed: (2) A contract need not be concluded or evidenced in writing nor is it subject to any other requirement as to form. The contract may be proved by any means, including witnesses. 94
UNIDROIT PICC and UNCITRAL CISG No such general part relating to the formation of contract law 95
Offer and acceptance in PICC and CISG UNIDROIT PICC and UNCITRAL CISG: An offer must be such that, through its acceptance, a contractcan be brought into existence. It must therefore be sufficiently definite and be based on the intention, on the part of the offeror, to be bound: Art 14 CISG; Art 2.1.2 PICC; Art 2:201(1) PECL; Art II.– 4:201(1) DCFR. 96
Effectiveness and revocal An offer becomes effective as soon as it reaches the offeree; Art 15(1) CISG; Art 2.1.3 PICC. Until that moment the offeror may revoke it at any time. Art 15(2) CISG; Art 2.1.3 PICC. 97
Revocal Even an offer that has already reached the offeree, and has therefore become effective, may however be revoked as long as the revocation reaches the offeree before the latter has dispatched his acceptance. This is not the case if: (i) the offer indicates that it is irrevocable;(ii) the offer states a fixed time for its acceptance; or (iii) the offeree can reasonably rely upon the offer being irrevocable and has already acted in reliance upon the offer. Art 16 CISG; Art 2.1.4 PICC. 98
Rejection and acceptance by statement and conduct An offer also lapses as a result of a rejection reaching the offeror. Art 17 CISG; Art 2.1.5 PICC. Acceptance by means of statement or conduct; the moment when the acceptance becomes effective and the contract is thus concluded; time limits for acceptance and the consequences of late acceptance. Arts 2:204– 2:208 PECL. 99
An offer also lapses as a result of a rejection reaching the offeror. Art 17 CISG; Art 2.1.5 PICC; Art 2:203 PECL. Far reaching agreement on acceptance: acceptance by means of statement or conduct; the moment when the acceptance becomes effective and the contract is thus concluded; time limits for acceptance and the consequences of late acceptance; modified acceptance. Arts 2:204–2:208 PECL; Arts II.– 4:204–4:208 DCFR. 100