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The Red Scare How anarchism, industrial unrest and anti-immigrant sentiment led to a crackdown against “radicals”

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Presentation on theme: "The Red Scare How anarchism, industrial unrest and anti-immigrant sentiment led to a crackdown against “radicals”"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Red Scare How anarchism, industrial unrest and anti-immigrant sentiment led to a crackdown against “radicals”

2 Post World War I End of war brings end of labor shortage and end of government contracts 1. Corporations need fewer workers 2. Returning soldiers need jobs 3. Gains made by unions during war begin to erode Immigrant labor needed during war now seen as undesirable

3 : General Strikes Large strikes in Seattle, Boston, Pittsburgh and other places cripple manufacturers Huge numbers of workers on strike concern business owners, but not enough for them to reform Business owners were angry and fired workers sometimes because of strikes Many resent unions for strikes and begin to blame union activism on “radicals” in the IWW and other organizations Steel stops (with the war effort)

4 “A simple remedy for insomnia for those who lie Awake worrying about being blown out of bed.” - Darling in the New York Tribune

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6 Anarchist Bomb Plots In 1919, several failed bombings are directed at government officials and business tycoons One attack is on the house of US Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer – Although only bomber is killed, Palmer’s house is destroyed and several people injured

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8 A. Mitchell Palmer Presidential ambitions Wanted to use “Red Hunting” to propel him to White House As Attorney General, created the General Intelligence Division to apprehend and deport radicals – Headed by J. Edgar Hoover

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10 Palmer Raids December 1919, 250 suspected radicals rounded up and deported – Including Emma Goldman January 2, 1920, over 4,000 arrests made across the nation – Most are IWW members Many held in secret locations and deported without trial

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12 Other Forms of Red Hunting Vigilantism – American Legion formed in 1919 – “To uphold and defend the Constitution of the United States of America; to maintain law and order; to foster and perpetuate a one hundred percent Americanism” State and local assemblies enacted seditions laws making it illegal to say anything “anti-American”

13 Sacco & Vanzetti Two Italian immigrant anarchists tried for murder during botched robbery Trial a sham (although Sacco, at least, probably guilty) Became a cause for anarchists Executed in 1927 Bartolomeo VanzettiNicola Sacco

14 Wall Street Bombing September 16, 1920 Horse & Buggy dynamite bomb Over 30 killed, hundreds wounded Note: “Remember we will not tolerate any longer. Free the political prisoners or it will be sure death for all of you.” Crime never solved

15 Red Scare Fizzles Out Palmer predicts attempted Communist revolution on May 1, never happens Many critical of “excesses” of raids Attacks on socialists viewed as unwarranted - even by Palmer Unions power is mostly diminished Americans want to think about other things

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17 Guided DBQ Assessment Grade – 15 Points

18 Current event 2011/11/28/nr-sullivan-tweet-brownback- intv.cnn 2011/11/28/nr-sullivan-tweet-brownback- intv.cnn If you are afraid to say something political because you would get in trouble for it… would you even say it?


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