18Inspection (7S) Symmetrical & movement with respiration. (4P) Scar. Striae.Stoma.Shape of the umbilicus (inverted, flat, exerted).Shape of the flank (full, straight, empty).Skin lesions.Inspection(4P)Prominent veins (caput medusa, SVC obstruction)Visible Pulsation (aortic aneurysm).Visible Peristalsis (NL in thin, intestinal obstruction).Pigmentation (Cullen’s sign, Gery-Turner’s sign)(1D)Abdominal Distension (fat, fluid, fetus, flatus, faeces).
19Palpation Before starting palpation, remember: Relax the abdominal muscles.If necessary, ask the patient to bend the knee to relax the muscle.Ask if any particular area is tender and palpate that area last.Look into patient facial expression while palpating the abdomen.
21Palpation Superficial Palpation Begin with light pressure in each 9 areas.Start from the Rt. iliac fossa (anti clock wise).Note the presence of any tenderness or lump.
22Palpation Deep Palpation Apply more pressure in each 9 areas.Start from the Rt. iliac fossa (anti clock wise).Note the presence of any deep tenderness or lump.What is the difference between Guarding and Rigidity?
23Palpation Liver Palpation Align your hand parallel to the Rt. costal margin, begin in the Rt. Iliac fossa and ask the patient to breath in & out through the mouth.With each expiration, the hand is moved by 1 or 2 cm closer to the Rt. costal margin.During inspiration, the hand is kept still waiting for liver edge to strike it.
24PalpationLiver SpanUpper liver border is defined by percussing down at Rt. 2nd IC space in MCL, until dullness is encountered.Lower liver border is defined by percussing up at Rt. Iliac fossa in MCL, until dullness is encountered.Measure the distance between the two dull areas.Normal liver span is 10+/-2.
26Palpation Spleen Palpation One-hand technique: start from Rt. iliac fossa toward Lt. costal margin and ask the patient to breath in & out through the mouth. With each expiration, the hand is moved by 1 or 2 cm closer to the Lt. costal margin.Two-hand technique: Lt. hand is placed posterolaterally over Lt. lower ribs and Rt. hand is placed below umbilicus toward Lt. costal margin.If spleen is not palpable, roll the patient to Rt. Side and palpate again.
27Palpation Spleen percussion Castell’s Method: percuss on last Lt. IC space & Lt. ant. axillary line. Normally is resonant and dull if splenomegaly.Traube’s Space: triangle bordered by 6th rib superiorly, Lt. midaxillary line laterally and Lt. costal margin inferiorly. Normally is resonant and dull if splenomegaly.Nixon’s Method: place the patient on Rt. Lateral decubitus position, percuss at midpoint of Lt costal margin and proceed perpendicularly toward Lt. posterior axillary line. Splenomegaly if there is dullness > 8 cm.
30Palpation Kidney palpation Kidney percussion Bimanual palpation (Balloting)Lt. hand is slide underneath the renal angle.Flex the fingers at MCP joints to push the content of the abdomen anteriorly.Place Rt. hand on the top of abdomen at renal angle to palpate for kidney.Kidney percussionKidney is a resonant organ below costal margin.
31How to differentiate between splenomegaly & Lt. kidney enlargement ?
32Anterior Abdominal Wall Mass Ask the patient to fold the arms across the upper chest and sit halfway up. If the mass:Disappear or decrease in size … intra-abdominal mass.Unchanged … mass is within the abdominal wall.
33Percussion Ascites Shifting Dullness: Percuss from the midline out to Lt. flank until dullness is reached.Mark this point and ask the patient to roll toward you.Wait for 30 sec. then repeat percuss again.If the dull area become resonant is indication of ascites.This maneuver is used to detect mild to moderate ascites.
34Percussion Ascites Fluid Thrill: Ask the patient to place the medial edge of his palm firmly on the center of abdomen with fingers directed downward.Flick the side of abdominal wall and feel the thrill by the other hand on the opposite abdominal wall.This maneuver is used to detect massive ascites.
35Percussion Ascites Dipping Maneuver: To palpate for organomegaly with ascites.Both hands are placed flat on abdomen and fingers are flexed at MCPs rapidly to displace the underlying fluid.
36What is SAAG?What is the DDx of portal HTN & non-portal HTN related ascites?
37Auscultation Bowel Sounds: Place the diaphragm of stethoscope any where around umbilicus (around iliocecal valve).Percuss from the midline out to Lt. flank until dullness is reached.Describe it as present or absent. Mark this point and ask the patient to roll toward you.Absent bowel sounds for 3 min. means paralytic ileus.Exaggerated bowel sounds mean intestinal obstruction.
38Auscultation Friction rib Place the diaphragm of stethoscope over liver and spleen.Hepatic causes: liver tumor, liver abscess, and liver infarction.Splenic causes: splenic infarction as in SCA, IE.
39Auscultation Venous Hum Place the bell of stethoscope between xiphisternum & umbilicus.In portal HTN.
40Auscultation Bruits ( use bell of stethoscope) Arterial systolic bruit … over liver … HCC.Renal bruit … on either side of midline above umbilicus … RAS.Epigastric bruit … epigastric area … mesenteric artery stenosis.
41To complete your GIT exam, exam: PRBackLegsGenitalia
42What are the stigmata of CLD? What are the signs of CLD caused by elevated estrogen level?