Presentation on theme: "The Big Picture: The end of the war brought peace to Americans, but not peace of mind. Dangers seen and unseen troubled the nation – until a new president."— Presentation transcript:
The Big Picture: The end of the war brought peace to Americans, but not peace of mind. Dangers seen and unseen troubled the nation – until a new president in the White House and a booming economy seemed to smooth the transition from war to peace. CHAPTER 19: FROM WAR TO PEACE
Main Idea: Although the end of World War I brought peace, it did not ease the minds of many Americans who found much to fear in the postwar years. CHAPTER 19 SECTION 1: POSTWAR HAVOC
The First Red Scare Hatred toward Germany after WWI and strong feelings of patriotism led to movement of 100% Americanism, or attacking ideas and people who were viewed as foreign or Anti-American. The Bolsheviks were taking over Russia led by Vladimir Lenin. Wanted to create a governmental system that would have no economic classes and no private property called communism. Communism scared many Americans, communists called for the overthrow of capitalism. Red scare, or the fear of communism, gripped the nation. A. Mitchell Palmer led the federal government’s anti-Communism campaign and an attack on communists called the Palmer Raids. Arrested thousands of suspected radical groups and deported them based on the Alien and Sedition acts. The red scare died down after Americans realized the communist threat was not very great.
Labor Strife Grows During the war President Wilson kept good relations with workers, after the war labor leaders hoped to build upon their gains during the war. After the war Wilson paid less attention to workers and more attention to foreign affairs. Demand for factory goods decreased and returning soldiers expected to return to their jobs in the factories but there were no jobs available. During 1919 there were 3,000 strikes nationwide. Seattle General Strike occurred when workers from all industries took part. They had no major gains for workers. Industry stayed away from Seattle for years to come. Boston Police Strike occurred when the police in Boston went on strike to protest low wages and poor working conditions. Calvin Coolidge shut down the strike with the state militia making him a hero for protecting public safety. Workers would have to wait to make their demands.
Limiting Immigration Nativism rose in the postwar years due to scarcity of jobs and the red scare. Labor leaders and nativists pushed for immigration restrictions on new immigrants to America. Immigration Restriction Act was passed in 1921 that established a quota of immigrants to be allowed into the US from various countries. National Origins Act of 1924 set quotas at 2% of the number of people living in that country allowed in the US in 1890. Goal was to reduce the influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe and Asian countries. Ku Klux Klan reemerged and targeted groups such as Jews, Catholics, and radicals.
Sacco and Vanzetti In May 1920 Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were arrested for armed robbery and murder, both were Italian immigrants. They were also self-proclaimed anarchists, or radicals who sought the destruction of government. As the trial progressed it was obvious that Sacco and Vanzetti were on trial for their political beliefs as well as bank robbery and murder. Evidence against them for bank robbery and murder was weak. Sacco and Vanzetti were sentenced to death and executed in 1927. Very controversial due to the role of political beliefs and their nationality.
Main Idea: New products, new industries, and new ways of doing business expanded the economy in the 1920s, although not everyone shared in the prosperity. CHAPTER 19 SECTION 2: A NEW ECONOMIC ERA
Ford Revolutionizes Industry Henry Ford revolutionized the automobile industry by introducing the Model T a car that the middle class family could afford. He began using interchangeable parts that allowed for cars to be made identically on an assembly line. Allowed for cars to be made cheaply and used unskilled laborers. Ford paid his workers more than any other factory to give them the ability to buy his cars. Other industries began using the assembly line technique to make goods in large quantities and at lower prices. Welfare Capitalism: a system in which companies provide benefits to employees in an effort to promote worker satisfaction and loyalty. The Assembly LineThe Effect on Industry
Industry Changes Society The Automobile benefited other industries as well: steel, oil, glass, rubber, and the tourism industry. As cities grew suburbs were created outside of the urban areas. Car travel made it easier to live in these areas.
The New Consumer New ProductsCreating DemandNew Ways to Pay Explosion of new products and experiences Refrigerators, vaccums, and other household products Radio changes livelihood by connecting Americans to news around the world and entertainment Persuassive advertising emerges in the 1920s to convince Americans to take a greater role in the American economy Americans excited about the opportunity for consumer goods Needed a way to pay for these goods Installment buying- paying for an item over time in small payments (buying on credit)
Weaknesses in the Economy Agriculture did not enjoy prosperity in the 1920s Competition from European crops drove down prices Insects and natural disasters The federal government tried to help with tariff in 1921, did little to help
Main Idea: The nation’s desire for normalcy and its support for American business was reflected in two successive presidents it chose – Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge. CHAPTER 19 SECTION 3: THE HARDING AND COOLIDGE PRESIDENCIES
Harding Presidency Harding was highly appealing to the American Public and he won the Republican nomination. Ran on his campaign for “normalcy.” Harding advocated for “less government in business and more business in government.” Sought to cut the federal budget and reduce taxes on the wealthy. Signed the Fordney McCumber Tariff that raised taxes on foreign grown products but it led to rise in prices of American grown products.
Harding appointed highly skilled people to his cabinet. Andrew Mellon (Treasury Secretary), Charles Evans Hughes (Secretary of State), Herbert Hoover (Commerce Secretary). Also named a number of his friends from Ohio to his cabinet. Teapot Dome scandal occurred when Harding’s Secretary of the Interior accepted bribes in return for allowing oil companies to drill for oil on federal land in Teapot Dome Wyoming. The scandals were too much for Harding, he died touring the US. Calvin Coolidge named President.
The Coolidge Presidency Coolidge was known as “Silent Cal.” Very honest, serious, and straightforward. Got rid of all cabinet members associated with corruption. Re-elected to the Presidency in 1924. Strong belief that business would fuel America’s growth. Businesses would promote arts and sciences as well as fund charities.
Strong belief that the role of government in business should be strictly limited. Wanted to lower taxes and reduce the federal budget. Proposed few laws or policies. Wanted to stop congressional reforms to help farmers and also vetoed a bill to provide a bonus to WWI veterans. Weakened regulations on industry.
Lingering Effects of WWI Europe had a very hard time paying back their war debt. Fordney McCumber Tariff made it even harder. United States began to lend money to Germany so that they could pay back their war debt. Public wanted to reduce the size of the American armed forces to save money and reduce the threat of war. Feared the war was on the way to an arms race. Americans pressured the government to encourage the world to reduce the number of armaments, naval ships, and airplanes. Kellogg Briand Pact was signed as a result of America refusing to join the League of Nations following WWI. Condemned the use of war as a solution to resolving conflicts between countries. 60 nations signed on, no system for enforcement.