Basic Causes of the War 1. Nationalism [National Rivalries] 2. Colonial Rivalries between European Powers 3. Arms Race in Europe 4. Entangling Alliances 5. Practice of Brinkmanship
“The Spark” Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Dutchess Sophie at Sarajevo on 28th June, 1914.
The Assassination Gavrilo Princip shoots and kills the Archduke and his wife on June 28, 1914 in Bosnia
Road to War, 1914 Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary
The Allies France, Russia, Britain, Italy, Japan
Woodrow Wilson [1913-1921] When World War I broke out in August 1914 President Wilson announced that the US would be neutral or impartial in thought as well as deed.
US Loans to the Warring Nations In October 1914, President Wilson allowed a $500 million dollar U.S. loan to the Triple Entente. As a neutral nation, the U.S. eventually loaned the Triple Entente [Allies] $2.3 billion. U.S. loans to the Triple Alliance [Central Powers] were only $27 million.
Lusitania On May 7, 1915, a British passenger ship carrying 128 Americans and 4200 cases of ammunition was sunk by a German U-boat. President Wilson sent a pair of notes to Germany, asking for reparations and a promise that passenger ships would not be sunk. In February 1916, Germany apologized.
America Declares War, 1917 At 8:30 on the evening of April 2, 1917, President Wilson appeared before a joint session of Congress asking for a declaration of war to make the world "safe for democracy." On April 4, Congress granted Wilson's request and the United States was at war with Germany.
War Industries Board The War Industries Board (WIB) was a US government agency established on July 28, 1917, during World War I, and reorganized in 1918 under the leadership of Bernard M. Baruch. The organization encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency and urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products. The WIB set production quotas and allocated raw materials. It also conducted psychological testing to help people find the right jobs
Anti-War Leader: Eugene Debs On June 16, 1918, Debs made a speech in Canton, Ohio in opposition to World War I and was arrested under the Espionage Act of 1917. He was convicted, sentenced to serve ten years in prison and disenfranchised for life.
General John J. Pershing On April 6, 1917, the U.S. joined its allies-- Britain, France, and Russia--to fight in World War I. Under the command of Major General John J. Pershing, more than 2 million U.S. soldiers fought on battlefields in France.
Battle of Cantigny The Battle of Cantigny, fought on 28 May 1918, the second day of the great German offensive, was the first American offensive of World War I. The U.S. forces held their position with the loss of 1,133 casualties
Meuse-Argonne Offensive The Meuse-Argonne Offensive, also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was the final offensive of World War I. It was the biggest operation and victory of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) in that war. The offensive took place in the Verdun Sector, between September 26 - November 11, 1918.
Horrors of the Trenches The intensity of World War I trench warfare meant about 10% of the fighting soldiers were killed.
Wilson’s 14 Points The 'Fourteen Points' were listed in a speech delivered by President Woodrow Wilson of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. This speech was intended to make a plan for peace in Europe after World War I.
Key 14 Points 1. Freedom of the Seas 2. National Self- Determination [Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia] 3. End of Colonialism 4. End of Entangling Alliances 5. League of Nations
Versailles Treaty Big Four Although the armistice signed on November 11, 1918 put an end to the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude a peace treaty.
Big 4 at Versailles 1. George Clemenceau of France Clemenceau was triumphant over Wilson to achieve a treaty that would punish Germany 2. Lloyd George of Britain 3. Victor Orlando of Italy 4. Woodrow Wilson of the US
Terms of Versailles Treaty 1. Germany had admit war guilt 2. Germany lost territory 3. Germany had to disarm 4. Germany lost her colonies 5. Germany had to pay reparations to the Allies 6. League of Nations Germany could not join
US Senate Says No to Versailles Treaty The United States Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, making it invalid in the United States and effectively hamstringing the nascent League of Nations envisioned by Wilson.
Major Problems of Post-War America 1. Unemployment and Inflation 2. Wave of labor strikes, biggest in steel industry 3. Race Riots, biggest in the city of Chicago 4. Disillusionment with war and deep, abiding isolationism 5. Red Scare and Palmer Raids [Attorney-General A. Mitchell Palmer]
Red Scare 1919-20 The term "Red Scare" has been applied to two distinct periods of strong anti-Communism in United States history: first from 1919 to 1920, and second from the late 1940s through the late 1950s. These periods were characterized by heightened suspicion of Communists and other radicals, and the fear of widespread infiltration of Communists in U.S. government.
Palmer Raids The US Department of Justice's General Intelligence Division, headed by J. Edgar Hoover and under the direction of Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer, conducted a series of raids to arrest radicals.
Xenophobia The government deported anarchists like Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman as well as 200 others to Russia. Goldman turned against the Bolsheviks and Communism.
New National Mood in 1919-1020 Post-War Disillusionment Growth of a deep and abiding isolationism Growth of class, ethnic and racial divisions within American society American literature in the 1920s and 1930s reflected this mood.