Presentation on theme: "WWI ended in 1918 The US now back to Isolationism- policy of pulling away form involvement in world affairs Economy changed Unemployment for returning."— Presentation transcript:
WWI ended in 1918 The US now back to Isolationism- policy of pulling away form involvement in world affairs Economy changed Unemployment for returning soldiers (or took jobs away from women and minorities) Farmers and factory workers suffered as wartime orders diminished Nativism- prejudice against foreign-born people
Fear of Communism- Red Scare Communism—economic, political system, single-party government Ruled by dictator No private property 1919 Vladimir I. Lenin, Bolsheviks, set up Communist state in Russia U.S. Communist Party forms; some Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) join Bombs mailed to government, businesses; people fear Red conspiracy Palmer Raids- US Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, hunted down communists, socialist, and anarchists -Failed, could not find evidence of a revolutionary conspiracy
Red Scare fed people’s suspicion of foreigners and immigrants “ Keep America for Americans” Anti immigrant attitudes had been growing in the US ever since the 1880s when immigrants were arriving from southern and eastern Europe.
Nativists believed that because the US now had fewer unskilled jobs available (coal mining, steel production, textiles) then fewer immigrants should be let into the country. The need for unskilled labor decreased after the war Immigration after the war: 600% increase 1919-141,000 1921- 805,000 Emergency Quota Act of 1921- set up Quota System Limited immigration Set the max number of people allowed from specific countries 2% of the population that was in the US in 1890. Targeted southern and eastern Europe (Roman Catholics and Jews) Prohibited Japanese Immigration (broke the Gentleman’s Agreement)
Groups of people used anti communism as an excuse to harass groups of people unlike themselves The KKK- devoted to 100% Americanism 1924 membership reached 4.5 million “white male persons, native-born gentile citizens” KKK opposes blacks, Catholics, Jews, immigrants, unions, saloons Klan controls many states’ politics
“Power of the Purse” Only shop at KKK approved stores
During war- strikes forbidden (could not interfere with war effort) After war- 3,000 strikes Employers did not give raises, forbade unions, saw strikers as communist 4 million workers walked off the job
Union membership declines Much of the workforce consisted of immigrants willing to work in poor conditions Since immigrants spoke in different languages, it was hard to organize immigrants into a union Farmers who had migrated to cities to find factory jobs were used to relying on themselves Most unions excluded African Americans
Republican President 1921-1923 “normalcy” or the simpler days before the Progressive Era 1921 Washington Naval College Invited several major powers Sec of State Charles Hughes “no more warships be built for 10 years” Urged 5 major powers: US, France, GB, Japan, Italy scrap many of the battleships, cruisers, and aircraft carriers *** First time in history powerful nations agree to disarm *** foreshadow *** 1928- 15 world power nations sign the Kellogg-Briand Pact which renounced war as a national policy
Frank Kellogg- diplomat Will Kellogg- cereal guy VS
High tariffs- help American businesses Britain and France repay war debts ($10 billion) Pay in one of two ways: selling good to the US (imports) or collecting reparations from Germany In 1922, Forney- McCumber Tariff 60% tax on import Ex: A foreign good cost the US $300. US citizens will have to pay_______ with the 60% tax? What does this tariff encourage Americans to do?
Limited role for government in businesses (Laissez Faire) Cabinet members- people who advise the president Hoover-sec of commerce Andrew Mellon- sec of the treasury (wealthiest man in US) Ohio Gang- the president’s poker playing cronies Used their office position to become wealthy through graft Teapot Dome Scandal- sec of interior Albert Fall Oil rich public land in Teapot Dome Wyoming and Elk Hills, CA reserved for Navy- Fall leased land to 2 private oil companies. This means $$$ for Fall.
Republican president 1923-1929 Favored government policies that would keep taxes down and business profits up, and businesses more available credit in order to expand. Goal- keep government interference in business to a minimum and to allow private enterprise to flourish Continued to place high tariffs Reduced income taxes- people had more $$ in their pockets Wages and productivity rose because of new technology
1920-1929 prosperous Annual income rose 30% from $522 to $705 Installment Plan- buying goods on credit Pushed by advertisers Some economist and business owners not for installment plan. Saw it as getting out of hand Banks loaned money with low interest rates Goods and Prices, 1900 and 1928 1900 wringer and washboard $5 brushes and brooms $5 Sewing machine (mechanical) $5 1928 washing machine $150 vacuum cleaner $50 sewing machine (electric) $60
Most Americans focused on present, not worried about future Idea: what could go wrong with economy? Technological and economic changes Laissez Faire Life seemed easier and more enjoyable for many Little warning for what is about to come
18 th amendment- prohibition 1919 19 th amendment – women’s suffrage 1920 Bootleggers, speakeasies, organized crime Modernism vs Traditionalism fundamentalism-living based off of biblical text Scopes trial- fight over evolution and the role of science and religion in public schools and society Urban Sprawl Flapper Double standard Teens turn rebellious- spinning more time with friends and less time with family Harlem Renaissance
1910-1920 Great Migration 5.2 million moved to cities New goals Migration was an expression of their changing attitude toward themselves “black is beautiful” Push- racial violence, economic discrimination, natural disasters in south (1927 flood) Pull- job opportunities, better pay in the north (still encountered discrimination
Marcus Garvey- Jamaica, AA live in a separate society Radical messages of black pride Created the UNIA and 1918 move to NY Black nationalist fraternal organization founded by Garvey Mass meetings, heartfelt speeches, parades, message of pride Encourage followers to go back to Africa to help natives throw off white oppressors Convicted of mail fraud and jailed Legacy: black pride, economic independence, reverence for Africa