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The Role of “Helping” Professionals in Combating Human Trafficking Julie Lewellyn Marywood University.

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Presentation on theme: "The Role of “Helping” Professionals in Combating Human Trafficking Julie Lewellyn Marywood University."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Role of “Helping” Professionals in Combating Human Trafficking Julie Lewellyn Marywood University

2 Definition  “The act of recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining a person for compelled labor or commercial sex acts through the use of force, fraud or coercion” (U.S. Dept. of State, 2013, p. 31).

3 Types of Human Trafficking  Labor trafficking  Sex trafficking  Forced labor  Debt bondage  Involuntary domestic servitude  Recruitment and use of child soldiers (U.S. Dept. of State, 2013).

4 Statistics  Estimated that there are 20.9 million trafficking victims worldwide (U.S. Dept. of State, 2013).  Approx. 80% female, 50% children (Dovydaitis, 2010).  Estimated that 17,500-20,000 victims are trafficked into U.S. each year (Peters, 2013).  Estimated that 100,000-200,000 American children are victims of sex trafficking in the U.S. (Peters, 2013).

5 Legislative Responses  Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000  United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children

6 Research Question  What can helping professionals do to aid in the identification, protection and prevention of human trafficking victims?  Three perspectives-nursing, criminal justice and social work

7 Nursing Perspective  Harsh working conditions often lead to physical and psychological symptoms/conditions  Common physical symptoms/conditions  Psychological symptoms/conditions  Trafficking victims rarely receive routine health care, but research suggests that receiving emergency care might be fairly common (Baldwin, Eisenman, Sayles, Ryan and Chuang, 2011).  ER nurses are in a unique position

8 Nursing Perspective  Signs to look for  Signs to listen for  What to do ~ treat immediate medical needs ~ build rapport ~ separate from trafficker ~ obtain interpreter, if needed (Cole, 2009; Dovydaitis, 2010).

9 Nursing Perspective  Medical exam- tattoos, GPS tracking devices (Peters, 2013).  Collect evidence (Peters, 2013).  Ask questions (Sabella, 2011).  Educate  Offer resources/assistance  Respect person’s decision  Must report if victim is under 18 years of age (Dovydaitis, 2010).

10 Nursing Perspective  Increase awareness  Develop procedures  Collaborate with law enforcement and service providers

11 Criminal Justice Perspective  Trafficking Victims Protection Act-gives vital role to law enforcement  Environmental signs (Logan, Walker, Hunt, 2009)  Physical signs (U.S. Dept. of State, 2013; Ren, 2013; Sigmon, 2008).  Impact of trauma (David, 2007)

12 Criminal Justice Perspective  Ensure safety  Refrain from wearing uniform or having weapon in sight  Obtain interpreter if necessary  Make support services available  Build rapport (U.S. Dept. of State, 2013)

13 Criminal Justice Perspective  Educate victims about the legal provisions afforded to them in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act  2005 reauthorization (Ren, 2013)  Federal assistance benefits (Ren, 2013)  Restitution (Ren, 2013; Gallagher & Holmes, 2008)

14 Criminal Justice Perspective  Literature stresses the importance of collaboration between local and federal law enforcement and social service agencies (Wilson & Dalton, 2008)  Task forces and protocols for screening potential victims are recommended (Wilson, Walsh & Kleuber, 2006; Wilson & Dalton, 2008; Farrell et al., 2010)

15 Criminal Justice Perspective  Research-2 national studies and 1 in Georgia  Majority of law enforcement leaders indicated their staff had not received training on human trafficking and they did not have personnel specifically assigned to the issue (Wilson et al., 2006; Farrell et al. 2010; Grubb & Bennett, 2012)

16 Social Work Perspective  Values and skills are valuable assets in the fight against human trafficking  Likely to encounter survivors of trafficking (Macy & Graham, 2012; Stotts & Ramey, 2009)  Most critical needs of survivors (Macy & Johns, 2011; Busch-Armendariz, Nsonwu & Heffron, 2014)

17 Social Work Perspective  Conduct needs assessment  Address safety and shelter needs  Case management and its benefits (Palmer, 2010; Macy & Johns, 2011; Busch- Armedariz et al., 2014; Caliber, 2007)  Utilize trauma-informed care practices when assisting survivors (Stotts & Ramey, 2009; Macy & Johns, 2011; Yakushko, 2009; Palmer, 2010)

18 Social Work Perspective  Can identify gaps between needs and resources (Palmer, 2010)  Provide education to other professionals and community members (Kotrla, 2010; Androff, 2010; Okech et al., 2011; Palmer, 2010)  Conduct awareness campaigns (Okech et al., 2011)  Conduct outreach to vulnerable populations (Kotrla, 2010)

19 Social Work Perspective  Address the legal, cultural and socioeconomic factors that sustain human trafficking (Hodge, 2008; Okech et al., 2011; Rijken, 2009)

20 Ethical Considerations  NASW Code of Ethics  Human rights violation- United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights  Kant’s categorical imperative (Beauchamp & Childress, 2009)  Human trafficking violates Kant’s categorical imperative of respect for persons which is inherent in Declaration of Human Rights

21 Ethical Considerations  Trafficking Victims Protection Act places conditions on the rights of victims- hypothetical imperative (Logan et al., 2009)  Further consideration needs to be given to TVPA

22 Summary  Helping professionals can play a vital role in combating human trafficking  Nurses  Law enforcement  Social workers  Importance of collaboration

23 Questions???

24 References  Androff, D. K. (2011). The problem of contemporary slavery: An international human rights challenge for social work. International Social Work, 54(2), 209-222. doi:10. 1177/0020872810368395  Baldwin, S. B., Eisenman, D. P., Sayles, J. N., Ryan, G., & Chuang, K. S. (2011). Identification of human trafficking victims in health care settings. Health and Human Rights, 13(1), 1-14.  Beauchamp, T., & Childress, J. (2009). Principles of biomedical ethics (6 th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.  Busch-Armendariz, N., Nsonwu, M. B., & Heffron, L. C. (2014). A kaleidoscope: The role of the social work practitioner and the strength of social work theories and practice in meeting the complex needs of people trafficked and the professionals that work with them. International Social Work, 57(1), 7-18. doi:10. 1177/0020872813505630

25 References  Caliber. (2007). Evaluation of comprehensive services for survivors of human trafficking: Key findings and lesson learned. National Criminal Justice Reference Service.  Cole, H. (2009). Human trafficking: Implications for the role of the advanced practice forensic nurse. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 14, 462-470. doi: 10.1177/1078390308325763  David, F. (2007). Law enforcement responses to trafficking in persons: Challenges and emerging good practice. Trends & Issues in Crime & Criminal Justice, 347, 1-6.  Dovydaitis, T. (2010). Human trafficking: The role of the health care provider. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 55(5), 462-467. doi: 10. 1016/j.jmwh.2009.12.017  Farrell, A., McDevitt, J., & Fahy, S. (2010). Where are all the victims? Understanding the determinants of official identification of human trafficking incidents. Criminology & Public Policy, 9(2), 201-233.

26 References  Gallagher, A. & Holmes, P. (2008). Developing an effective criminal justice response to human trafficking: Lessons from the front line. International Criminal Justice Review, 18(3), 318-343. doi: 10. 1177/1057567708320746  Grubb, D. & Bennett, K. (2012). The readiness of local law enforcement to engage in US anti-trafficking efforts: An assessment of human trafficking training and awareness of local, county, and state law enforcement agencies in the state of Georgia. Polcy, Practice and Research, 13(6), 487-500. doi: 10.1080/15614263.2012.662815  Hodge, D. R. (2008). Sexual trafficking in the United States: A domestic problem with transnational dimensions. Social Work, 53(2), 143-152.  Kotrla, K. (2010). Domestic minor sex trafficking in the United States. Social Work, 55(2), 181-187.

27 References  Logan, T. K., Walker, R., & Hunt, G. (2009). Understanding human trafficking in the United States. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 10(1), 3-30. doi: 10.1177/1524838008327262  Macy, R. J., & Graham, L. M. (2012). Identifying domestic and international sex-trafficking victims during human service provision. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 13(2), 59-76. doi10.1177/1524838012440340  Macy, R. J., & Johns, N. (2011). Aftercare services for international sex trafficking survivors: Informing U.S. service and program development in an emerging practice area. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 12(2), 87-98. doi: 10.1177/1524838010390709

28 References  Okech, D., Morreau, W., & Benson, K. (2011). Human trafficking: Improving victim identification and service provision. International Social Work, 55(4), 488-503. doi: 10. 1177/0020872811425805  Palmer, N. (2010). The essential role of social work in addressing victims and survivors of trafficking. ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law, 17(1), 43-56.  Peters, K. (2013). The growing business of human trafficking and the power of emergency nurses to stop it. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 39(3), 280-288. doi: 10. 1016/j.jen.2012.03.017  Ren, X. (2013). Legal protection and assistance for victims of human trafficking: A harm reduction approach. International Perspectives in Victimology, 7(2), 65-76.

29 References  Rijken, C. (2009). A human rights based approach to trafficking in human beings. Security and Human Rights, 3, 212-222.  Sabella, D. (2011). The role of the nurse in combating human trafficking. American Journal of Nursing, 111(2), 28-37.  Sigmon, J. N. (2008). Combating modern-day slavery: Issues in identifying and assisting victims of human trafficking worldwide. Victims and Offenders, 3, 245-257. doi: 10.1080/15564880801938508  Stotts, E. L. & Ramey, L. (2009). Human trafficking: A call for counselor awareness and action. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 48, 36-47.  United Nations. (n.d.). Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Retrieved from:

30 References  U. S. Department of State. (June, 2006). Trafficking in persons report. Retrieved from:  U. S. Department of State. (June, 2013). Trafficking in persons report. Retrieved from:  Victims of Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act of 2000, H.R. 3244, (2000, October 28). Retrieved from: 61124.htm  Wilson, D. G., Walsh, W. F., & Kleuber, S. (2006). Trafficking in human beings: Training and services among law enforcement agencies. Policy, Practice and Research, 7(2), 149-160. doi: 10. 1080/15614260600676833

31 References  Wilson, J., & Dalton, E. (2008). Human trafficking in the heartland: Variation in law enforcement awareness and response. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(3), 296-313. doi: 10. 1177/1043986208318227  Yakushko, O. (2009). Human trafficking: A review for mental health professionals. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 31(3), 158-167. doi: 10. 1007/s10447-009-9075-3

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