Presentation on theme: "The Role of “Helping” Professionals in Combating Human Trafficking Julie Lewellyn Marywood University."— Presentation transcript:
The Role of “Helping” Professionals in Combating Human Trafficking Julie Lewellyn Marywood University
Definition “The act of recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining a person for compelled labor or commercial sex acts through the use of force, fraud or coercion” (U.S. Dept. of State, 2013, p. 31).
Types of Human Trafficking Labor trafficking Sex trafficking Forced labor Debt bondage Involuntary domestic servitude Recruitment and use of child soldiers (U.S. Dept. of State, 2013).
Statistics Estimated that there are 20.9 million trafficking victims worldwide (U.S. Dept. of State, 2013). Approx. 80% female, 50% children (Dovydaitis, 2010). Estimated that 17,500-20,000 victims are trafficked into U.S. each year (Peters, 2013). Estimated that 100,000-200,000 American children are victims of sex trafficking in the U.S. (Peters, 2013).
Legislative Responses Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children
Research Question What can helping professionals do to aid in the identification, protection and prevention of human trafficking victims? Three perspectives-nursing, criminal justice and social work
Nursing Perspective Harsh working conditions often lead to physical and psychological symptoms/conditions Common physical symptoms/conditions Psychological symptoms/conditions Trafficking victims rarely receive routine health care, but research suggests that receiving emergency care might be fairly common (Baldwin, Eisenman, Sayles, Ryan and Chuang, 2011). ER nurses are in a unique position
Nursing Perspective Signs to look for Signs to listen for What to do ~ treat immediate medical needs ~ build rapport ~ separate from trafficker ~ obtain interpreter, if needed (Cole, 2009; Dovydaitis, 2010).
Nursing Perspective Medical exam- tattoos, GPS tracking devices (Peters, 2013). Collect evidence (Peters, 2013). Ask questions (Sabella, 2011). Educate Offer resources/assistance Respect person’s decision Must report if victim is under 18 years of age (Dovydaitis, 2010).
Nursing Perspective Increase awareness Develop procedures Collaborate with law enforcement and service providers
Criminal Justice Perspective Trafficking Victims Protection Act-gives vital role to law enforcement Environmental signs (Logan, Walker, Hunt, 2009) Physical signs (U.S. Dept. of State, 2013; Ren, 2013; Sigmon, 2008). Impact of trauma (David, 2007)
Criminal Justice Perspective Ensure safety Refrain from wearing uniform or having weapon in sight Obtain interpreter if necessary Make support services available Build rapport (U.S. Dept. of State, 2013)
Criminal Justice Perspective Educate victims about the legal provisions afforded to them in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act 2005 reauthorization (Ren, 2013) Federal assistance benefits (Ren, 2013) Restitution (Ren, 2013; Gallagher & Holmes, 2008)
Criminal Justice Perspective Literature stresses the importance of collaboration between local and federal law enforcement and social service agencies (Wilson & Dalton, 2008) Task forces and protocols for screening potential victims are recommended (Wilson, Walsh & Kleuber, 2006; Wilson & Dalton, 2008; Farrell et al., 2010)
Criminal Justice Perspective Research-2 national studies and 1 in Georgia Majority of law enforcement leaders indicated their staff had not received training on human trafficking and they did not have personnel specifically assigned to the issue (Wilson et al., 2006; Farrell et al. 2010; Grubb & Bennett, 2012)
Social Work Perspective Values and skills are valuable assets in the fight against human trafficking Likely to encounter survivors of trafficking (Macy & Graham, 2012; Stotts & Ramey, 2009) Most critical needs of survivors (Macy & Johns, 2011; Busch-Armendariz, Nsonwu & Heffron, 2014)
Social Work Perspective Conduct needs assessment Address safety and shelter needs Case management and its benefits (Palmer, 2010; Macy & Johns, 2011; Busch- Armedariz et al., 2014; Caliber, 2007) Utilize trauma-informed care practices when assisting survivors (Stotts & Ramey, 2009; Macy & Johns, 2011; Yakushko, 2009; Palmer, 2010)
Social Work Perspective Can identify gaps between needs and resources (Palmer, 2010) Provide education to other professionals and community members (Kotrla, 2010; Androff, 2010; Okech et al., 2011; Palmer, 2010) Conduct awareness campaigns (Okech et al., 2011) Conduct outreach to vulnerable populations (Kotrla, 2010)
Social Work Perspective Address the legal, cultural and socioeconomic factors that sustain human trafficking (Hodge, 2008; Okech et al., 2011; Rijken, 2009)
Ethical Considerations NASW Code of Ethics Human rights violation- United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights Kant’s categorical imperative (Beauchamp & Childress, 2009) Human trafficking violates Kant’s categorical imperative of respect for persons which is inherent in Declaration of Human Rights
Ethical Considerations Trafficking Victims Protection Act places conditions on the rights of victims- hypothetical imperative (Logan et al., 2009) Further consideration needs to be given to TVPA
Summary Helping professionals can play a vital role in combating human trafficking Nurses Law enforcement Social workers Importance of collaboration
References Androff, D. K. (2011). The problem of contemporary slavery: An international human rights challenge for social work. International Social Work, 54(2), 209-222. doi:10. 1177/0020872810368395 Baldwin, S. B., Eisenman, D. P., Sayles, J. N., Ryan, G., & Chuang, K. S. (2011). Identification of human trafficking victims in health care settings. Health and Human Rights, 13(1), 1-14. Beauchamp, T., & Childress, J. (2009). Principles of biomedical ethics (6 th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Busch-Armendariz, N., Nsonwu, M. B., & Heffron, L. C. (2014). A kaleidoscope: The role of the social work practitioner and the strength of social work theories and practice in meeting the complex needs of people trafficked and the professionals that work with them. International Social Work, 57(1), 7-18. doi:10. 1177/0020872813505630
References Caliber. (2007). Evaluation of comprehensive services for survivors of human trafficking: Key findings and lesson learned. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Cole, H. (2009). Human trafficking: Implications for the role of the advanced practice forensic nurse. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 14, 462-470. doi: 10.1177/1078390308325763 David, F. (2007). Law enforcement responses to trafficking in persons: Challenges and emerging good practice. Trends & Issues in Crime & Criminal Justice, 347, 1-6. Dovydaitis, T. (2010). Human trafficking: The role of the health care provider. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 55(5), 462-467. doi: 10. 1016/j.jmwh.2009.12.017 Farrell, A., McDevitt, J., & Fahy, S. (2010). Where are all the victims? Understanding the determinants of official identification of human trafficking incidents. Criminology & Public Policy, 9(2), 201-233.
References Gallagher, A. & Holmes, P. (2008). Developing an effective criminal justice response to human trafficking: Lessons from the front line. International Criminal Justice Review, 18(3), 318-343. doi: 10. 1177/1057567708320746 Grubb, D. & Bennett, K. (2012). The readiness of local law enforcement to engage in US anti-trafficking efforts: An assessment of human trafficking training and awareness of local, county, and state law enforcement agencies in the state of Georgia. Polcy, Practice and Research, 13(6), 487-500. doi: 10.1080/15614263.2012.662815 Hodge, D. R. (2008). Sexual trafficking in the United States: A domestic problem with transnational dimensions. Social Work, 53(2), 143-152. Kotrla, K. (2010). Domestic minor sex trafficking in the United States. Social Work, 55(2), 181-187.
References Logan, T. K., Walker, R., & Hunt, G. (2009). Understanding human trafficking in the United States. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 10(1), 3-30. doi: 10.1177/1524838008327262 Macy, R. J., & Graham, L. M. (2012). Identifying domestic and international sex-trafficking victims during human service provision. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 13(2), 59-76. doi10.1177/1524838012440340 Macy, R. J., & Johns, N. (2011). Aftercare services for international sex trafficking survivors: Informing U.S. service and program development in an emerging practice area. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 12(2), 87-98. doi: 10.1177/1524838010390709
References Okech, D., Morreau, W., & Benson, K. (2011). Human trafficking: Improving victim identification and service provision. International Social Work, 55(4), 488-503. doi: 10. 1177/0020872811425805 Palmer, N. (2010). The essential role of social work in addressing victims and survivors of trafficking. ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law, 17(1), 43-56. Peters, K. (2013). The growing business of human trafficking and the power of emergency nurses to stop it. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 39(3), 280-288. doi: 10. 1016/j.jen.2012.03.017 Ren, X. (2013). Legal protection and assistance for victims of human trafficking: A harm reduction approach. International Perspectives in Victimology, 7(2), 65-76.
References Rijken, C. (2009). A human rights based approach to trafficking in human beings. Security and Human Rights, 3, 212-222. Sabella, D. (2011). The role of the nurse in combating human trafficking. American Journal of Nursing, 111(2), 28-37. Sigmon, J. N. (2008). Combating modern-day slavery: Issues in identifying and assisting victims of human trafficking worldwide. Victims and Offenders, 3, 245-257. doi: 10.1080/15564880801938508 Stotts, E. L. & Ramey, L. (2009). Human trafficking: A call for counselor awareness and action. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 48, 36-47. United Nations. (n.d.). Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Retrieved from: www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtmlwww.un.org/
References U. S. Department of State. (June, 2006). Trafficking in persons report. Retrieved from: www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/65983.htm U. S. Department of State. (June, 2013). Trafficking in persons report. Retrieved from: www.state.gov/documents/organization/210737.pdfwww.state.gov/documents/organization/210737.pdf Victims of Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act of 2000, H.R. 3244, (2000, October 28). Retrieved from: www.state.gov/j/tip/laws/www.state.gov/j/tip/laws/ 61124.htm Wilson, D. G., Walsh, W. F., & Kleuber, S. (2006). Trafficking in human beings: Training and services among law enforcement agencies. Policy, Practice and Research, 7(2), 149-160. doi: 10. 1080/15614260600676833
References Wilson, J., & Dalton, E. (2008). Human trafficking in the heartland: Variation in law enforcement awareness and response. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(3), 296-313. doi: 10. 1177/1043986208318227 Yakushko, O. (2009). Human trafficking: A review for mental health professionals. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 31(3), 158-167. doi: 10. 1007/s10447-009-9075-3