Presentation on theme: "1920s Overview The 1920’s laid the foundation for modern America. Many new inventions, new manners of dress and behavior, and new entertainment and."— Presentation transcript:
1920s Overview The 1920’s laid the foundation for modern America. Many new inventions, new manners of dress and behavior, and new entertainment and leisure activities began in this decade. Prohibition, the sale of alcohol, was started with the 18th Amendment—yet very few people in urban areas followed the law. The decade was all about “pushing the boundaries”: technological and social boundaries were shattered as we embraced an urban future. Often referred to as the “Lost Generation”- innocence lost during the war, driven by greed, materialism, pleasure and shallow
1920’s Slang What can slang terms tell us about an era? With your groups, review the packets of 1920’s slang terms and complete the following: Make a list of all the terms still used today Which ones surprise you? What 5 are the ‘best’ in your opinion? What 5 are the ‘strangest’ in your opinion? Create a list of 10 slang terms from your generation? How is your slang similar to and different from the slang of the 1920s? What slang terms do your parents(or older people) use that you don’t? Create a quick skit with your group using a minimum of 15 terms from the 1920’s. Give the skit a setting( dance hall, speakeasy, party, school, etc.) Each person should have lines!!!!!!!!!!
Post-War Adjustment 1.Hardships of WWI 2. Social unrest/change 3,600 strikes in 1919 Bombs mailed to prominent figures(plans foiled) Simultaneous bombing of 8 U.S. cities(June,2 1919) 18 th -19 th amendment Intense race riots in major cities 1916-1919 Isolationism: pulling away from world events People feared: 1. Immigrants 2. Communism 3. Anarchists
Palmer Raids(Red Scare 1919- 1920) American’s fear communists and anarchists are operating everywhere! Attorney General Mitchell Palmer began Palmer Raids Rounding up suspected communists, deporting and jailing some (without trials) Claim alleged plot to overthrown the U.S. on May Day 1920 600+ deported 10,000+ arrested
Closing the Doors Immigration Act of 1917- but not limited to “homosexuals”, “idiots”, “feeble-minded persons”, "criminals", “epileptics”, “insane persons”, alcoholics, “professional beggars”, all persons “mentally or physically defective”, polygamists, and anarchists. Almost all Asian nations Emergency Quota Act-1921 Only 3% of each ethnic group admitted(1910 census) 805,228 in 1920 to 309,556 in 1921-22 Immigration Act 1924 (National Origins Act) Lower Quota- 2%(1890 census) Japanese Exclusion Act
Sacco and Vanzetti April 15, 1920 gunmen robbed a shoe factory and killed the paymaster and guard Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested; they were known anarchists and Italian immigrants Found guilty and executed in 1927 Evidence against them was controversial; many felt they were innocent.
Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Society in the 1920s: Changing Role of Women Flappers- example of a “new woman.” Short dresses, short hair, wore make-up, smoke and drank in public. Not every woman was a flapper. Working Women- women worked low-paying jobs as clerks or office typists in the cities. Employers were still prejudiced towards women. Women Vote- 19 th Amendment in 1920. Few women voted early in the decade but laid the foundation for future generations.
Life in the Twenties- Smoke, drank, loved to dance (rebels!) Birth Control ^ and Divorces ^ Kids go to school and peer pressure begins 1930 51% of children were in school compared to 6% in 1890
Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Society in the 1920s: American Heroes National Celebrities- Charles Lindbergh was first person to fly solo across the Atlantic. He became instant celebrity Sports Heroes- Sports became big business in the 1920s. Babe Ruth- Most famous player of the 1920s. Hit 60 homeruns for the Yankees in 1927. Jack Dempsey- Heavyweight champion of the world. First boxer to earn $1 million.
Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Mass Media and the Jazz Age Mass Media Radio- Early radio broadcast reached only local audiences. Broadcasts go national by end of the 1920s Results- National networks, advertising becomes prominent, created national culture, music increased in popularity, sports broadcasted, spreads news quickly Movies- Silent movies until 1927 (The Jazz Singer). California becomes movie capital (no rain) Results- Breaks down ethnic barriers to create national culture.
Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Society in the 1920s: Americans on the Move Great Migration- Movement of African-Americans from the South to industrial centers of the NE and Midwest Causes- Decreased cotton prices, lack of immigrant labor, war industries Effects- Higher wages, more educational opportunities, and better standard of living for African-Americans Negatives- Race Riots and growth of the KKK
13 Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Mass Media and the Jazz Age Mass Media Writers- Many were affected by WWI and had some pent up anger. Reflected the 1920s spirit of rebelling against social norms. Collectively known as the Lost Generation F. Scott Fitzgerald- The Great Gatsby—commentary on the illusion of the American Dream. Ernest Hemingway- Served in WWI and wrote about the war (Farewell to Arms, The Sun Also Rises)
14 Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Mass Media and the Jazz Age Jazz Age- Popular urban music of the 1920s. Started in New Orleans and moved North during the Great Migration. Created by and performed mostly by African-American artists, including Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, and “Jelly Roll” Morton.
Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Mass Media and the Jazz Age Harlem Renaissance- Growth of African-American Arts and Literature. African American Literary and Artistic Movement-stressed cultural pride Writers- Zora Neale Hurston and Langston Hughes were the most popular.
Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Cultural Conflicts: Every Action Has a Reaction Prohibition- 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale, transport, or consumption of alcohol Volstead Act- Defined alcoholic beverages and imposed criminal penalties South- Favored, wanted to keep alcohol out of the hands of African-Americans West- Favored, wanted to keep public intoxication, prostitution, and crime under control East- Not favor, mostly ignored by foreign born city dwellers Enforcement- Mostly ignored. Poor punished more than rich, cops open to bribery
Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Cultural Conflicts: Every Action Has a Reaction Prohibition- lawbreakers Speakeasies- “secret” clubs that sold illegal alcohol Bootleggers- someone who makes or sells illegal liquor Moonshiners- homemade alcohol suppliers (bathtub gin) Gangsters- Bootlegging led to bribery and violence. Chicago in the 1920s had 500 gangsters murdered Al Capone- Head of the Chicago Syndicate. Eliminated Irish competitors on 2/14/1929
Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Cultural Conflicts: Every Action Has a Reaction Fundamentalism- A rigid view of religion and literal interpretation of the Bible. Threatened in the 1920s by science. Scopes Monkey Trial- Fundamentalists vs. Modernists Results- Scope was found guilty but the Fundamentalists lose in the long term. Increasing number of Christians come to reconcile science and religion.
Scopes Trial aka The Monkey Trial (1925) Dayton, Tennessee John T. Scopes a substitute biology teacher agrees to include evolution in the curriculum (backed by the ACLU) Challenged the Butler law Trial is a national sensation Creationism vs. Evolution Clarence Darrow (Scopes lawyer) vs. William Jennings Bryan(prosecuting lawyer) Scopes fined $100(a lot), later overturned
Postwar Social Change 1920- 1929 Cultural Conflicts: Every Action Has a Reaction Racial Tensions- Reaction to the rising social status of African-Americans Race Riots- Violent reaction to the Great Migration. 1919 known as Red Summer as riots breakout in major cities (Chicago, Omaha, E. St. Louis) Return of the Klan- Returns in the 1920s and spreads to the Midwest. Capitalized on resulting tensions caused by the Great Migration. Membership peaks in 1925 at 5 million members. United Negro Improvement Association- Founded by Marcus Garvey to promote African-American self-reliance, self-confidence and the resettlement of the Africa.
Ku Klux Klan Inspired by the film, The Birth of a Nation William J. Simmons revived the Klan(Imperial Wizard) Devoted to 100% Americanism-Appeal to patriotic WASP’s Anti-Jewish, immigrant, Catholic, communist, black Reached 4 million members KKK didn’t have to pay taxes and charged $10 to be a member, so they became rich
KKK Cont. Violent!- Lynching, killing, shooting, whipping, branding, tar, and feather, etc. Police and judges ignored violence Postcard of 1920 Duluth lynching
Presidents of the 1920’s Warren G. Harding (1921-1923 #29) Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929 #30)
Warren G. Harding Pledge a “return of normalcy” Established Bureau of Budget to make gov’t fiscally responsible Cut taxes, raised tariffs, reduced debt, helps farmers Cabinet was mostly his poker buddies, “Ohio Gang, “ and most were corrupt Teapot Dome Scandal- Secretary of interior, Albert Fall, leased gov’t oil reserves to private companies and took money; found guilty Harding died before scandal became public knowledge (slightly mysteriously)
Calvin Coolidge: Business of government is Business Passed Dawes Plan: loaned $ to Germany so they could pay France (did to avoid war) Passed Kellogg-Briand Pact: a treaty to outlaw war. It failed to include punishments for future attacks Main business of people is business; pledge prosperity: extremely pro-business Reduced taxes, wages ^ 35%, productivity ^