21920s OverviewThe 1920’s laid the foundation for modern America. Many new inventions, new manners of dress and behavior, and new entertainment and leisure activities began in this decade.Prohibition, the sale of alcohol, was started with the 18th Amendment—yet very few people in urban areas followed the law.The decade was all about “pushing the boundaries”: technological and social boundaries were shattered as we embraced an urban future.Often referred to as the “Lost Generation”- innocence lost during the war, driven by greed, materialism, pleasure and shallow
31920’s Slang What can slang terms tell us about an era? With your groups, review the packets of 1920’s slang terms and complete the following:Make a list of all the terms still used todayWhich ones surprise you?What 5 are the ‘best’ in your opinion?What 5 are the ‘strangest’ in your opinion?Create a list of 10 slang terms from your generation?How is your slang similar to and different from the slang of the 1920s?What slang terms do your parents(or older people) use that you don’t?Create a quick skit with your group using a minimum of 15 terms from the 1920’s. Give the skit a setting( dance hall, speakeasy, party, school, etc.) Each person should have lines!!!!!!!!!!
4Post-War Adjustment 1.Hardships of WWI 2. Social unrest/change 3,600 strikes in 1919Bombs mailed to prominent figures(plans foiled)Simultaneous bombing of 8 U.S. cities(June,2 1919)18th-19th amendmentIntense race riots in major citiesIsolationism: pulling away from world eventsPeople feared:1. Immigrants2. Communism3. Anarchists
5Palmer Raids(Red Scare 1919-1920) American’s fear communists and anarchists are operating everywhere!Attorney General Mitchell Palmer began Palmer RaidsRounding up suspected communists, deporting and jailing some (without trials)Claim alleged plot to overthrown the U.S. on May Day 1920600+ deported10,000+ arrested
6Closing the Doors Immigration Act of 1917- Emergency Quota Act-1921 but not limited to “homosexuals”, “idiots”, “feeble-minded persons”, "criminals", “epileptics”, “insane persons”, alcoholics, “professional beggars”, all persons “mentally or physically defective”, polygamists, and anarchists. Almost all Asian nationsEmergency Quota Act-1921Only 3% of each ethnic group admitted(1910 census)805,228 in 1920 to 309,556 inImmigration Act 1924(National Origins Act)Lower Quota- 2%(1890 census)Japanese Exclusion Act
7Sacco and VanzettiApril 15, 1920 gunmen robbed a shoe factory and killed the paymaster and guardSacco and Vanzetti were arrested; they were known anarchists and Italian immigrantsFound guilty and executed in 1927Evidence against them was controversial; many felt they were innocent.
8Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Society in the 1920s: Changing Role of WomenFlappers- example of a “new woman.”Short dresses, short hair,wore make-up, smoke anddrank in public. Not everywoman was a flapper.Working Women- women worked low-paying jobs as clerks or office typists in the cities. Employers were still prejudiced towards women.Women Vote- 19th Amendment in Few women voted early in the decade but laid the foundation for future generations.
9Life in the Twenties- Smoke, drank, loved to dance (rebels!) Birth Control ^ and Divorces ^Kids go to school and peer pressure begins% of children were in school compared to 6% in 1890
10Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Society in the 1920s: American HeroesNational Celebrities- Charles Lindbergh was first person to fly solo across the Atlantic. He became instant celebritySports Heroes- Sports became big business in the 1920s.Babe Ruth- Most famous player of the 1920s. Hit 60 homeruns for the Yankees in 1927.Jack Dempsey- Heavyweight champion of the world. First boxer to earn $1 million.
11Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Mass Media and the Jazz AgeMass MediaRadio- Early radio broadcast reached only local audiences. Broadcasts go national by end of the 1920sResults- National networks, advertising becomes prominent, created national culture, music increased in popularity, sports broadcasted, spreads news quicklyMovies- Silent movies until 1927 (The Jazz Singer). California becomes movie capital (no rain)Results- Breaks down ethnic barriers to create national culture.
12Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Society in the 1920s: Americans on the MoveGreat Migration- Movement ofAfrican-Americans from the South to industrial centers of the NE and MidwestCauses- Decreased cotton prices, lack of immigrant labor, war industriesEffects- Higher wages, more educational opportunities, and better standard of living for African-AmericansNegatives- Race Riots and growth of the KKK
13Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Mass Media and the Jazz AgeMass MediaWriters- Many were affected by WWI and had some pent up anger. Reflected the 1920s spirit of rebelling against social norms. Collectively known as the Lost GenerationF. Scott Fitzgerald- The Great Gatsby—commentary on the illusion of the American Dream.Ernest Hemingway- Served in WWI and wrote about the war (Farewell to Arms, The Sun Also Rises)13
14Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Mass Media and the Jazz AgeJazz Age- Popular urban music of the 1920s. Started in New Orleans and moved North during the Great Migration. Created by and performed mostly by African-American artists, including Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, and “Jelly Roll” Morton.14
15Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Mass Media and the Jazz AgeHarlem Renaissance- Growth of African-American Arts and Literature. African American Literary and Artistic Movement-stressed cultural prideWriters- Zora Neale Hurston and Langston Hughes were the most popular.
16Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Cultural Conflicts: Every Action Has a ReactionProhibition- 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale, transport, or consumption of alcoholVolstead Act- Defined alcoholic beverages and imposed criminal penaltiesSouth- Favored, wanted to keep alcohol out of the hands of African-AmericansWest- Favored, wanted to keep public intoxication, prostitution, and crime under controlEast- Not favor, mostly ignored by foreign born city dwellersEnforcement- Mostly ignored. Poor punished more than rich, cops open to bribery
17Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Cultural Conflicts: Every Action Has a ReactionProhibition- lawbreakersSpeakeasies- “secret” clubs that sold illegal alcoholBootleggers- someone who makes or sells illegal liquorMoonshiners- homemade alcohol suppliers (bathtub gin)Gangsters- Bootlegging led to bribery and violence. Chicago in the 1920s had 500 gangsters murderedAl Capone- Head of the Chicago Syndicate. Eliminated Irish competitors on 2/14/1929
18Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Cultural Conflicts: Every Action Has a ReactionFundamentalism- A rigid view of religion and literal interpretation of the Bible. Threatened in the 1920s by science.Scopes Monkey Trial- Fundamentalists vs. ModernistsResults- Scope was found guilty but the Fundamentalists lose in the long term. Increasing number of Christians come to reconcile science and religion.
19Scopes Trial aka The Monkey Trial (1925) Dayton, TennesseeJohn T. Scopes a substitute biology teacher agrees to include evolution in the curriculum (backed by the ACLU)Challenged the Butler lawTrial is a national sensationCreationism vs. EvolutionClarence Darrow (Scopes lawyer) vs. William Jennings Bryan(prosecuting lawyer)Scopes fined $100(a lot), later overturned
21Postwar Social Change 1920-1929 Cultural Conflicts: Every Action Has a ReactionRacial Tensions- Reaction to the rising social status of African-AmericansRace Riots- Violent reaction to the Great Migration known as Red Summer as riots breakout in major cities (Chicago, Omaha, E. St. Louis)Return of the Klan- Returns in the 1920s and spreads to the Midwest. Capitalized on resulting tensions caused by the Great Migration. Membership peaks in 1925 at 5 million members.United Negro Improvement Association- Founded by Marcus Garvey to promote African-American self-reliance, self-confidence and the resettlement of the Africa.
22Ku Klux Klan Inspired by the film, The Birth of a Nation William J. Simmons revived the Klan(Imperial Wizard)Devoted to 100% Americanism-Appeal to patriotic WASP’sAnti-Jewish, immigrant, Catholic, communist, blackReached 4 million membersKKK didn’t have to pay taxes and charged $10 to be a member, so they became rich
23KKK Cont.Violent!- Lynching, killing, shooting, whipping, branding, tar, and feather, etc.Police and judges ignored violencePostcard of1920 Duluth lynching
24Presidents of the 1920’s Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929 #30) Warren G. Harding ( #29)Calvin Coolidge ( #30)
25Warren G. Harding Pledge a “return of normalcy” Established Bureau of Budget to make gov’t fiscally responsibleCut taxes, raised tariffs, reduced debt, helps farmersCabinet was mostly his poker buddies, “Ohio Gang, “ and most were corruptTeapot Dome Scandal- Secretary of interior, Albert Fall, leased gov’t oil reserves to private companies and took money; found guiltyHarding died before scandal became public knowledge (slightly mysteriously)
26Calvin Coolidge: Business of government is Business Passed Dawes Plan: loaned $ to Germany so they could pay France (did to avoid war)Passed Kellogg-Briand Pact: a treaty to outlaw war. It failed to include punishments for future attacksMain business of people is business; pledge prosperity: extremely pro-businessReduced taxes, wages ^ 35%, productivity ^