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1920s Overview  The 1920’s laid the foundation for modern America. Many new inventions, new manners of dress and behavior, and new entertainment and.

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Presentation on theme: "1920s Overview  The 1920’s laid the foundation for modern America. Many new inventions, new manners of dress and behavior, and new entertainment and."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1920s Overview  The 1920’s laid the foundation for modern America. Many new inventions, new manners of dress and behavior, and new entertainment and leisure activities began in this decade.  Prohibition, the sale of alcohol, was started with the 18th Amendment—yet very few people in urban areas followed the law.  The decade was all about “pushing the boundaries”: technological and social boundaries were shattered as we embraced an urban future.  Often referred to as the “Lost Generation”- innocence lost during the war, driven by greed, materialism, pleasure and shallow

3 1920’s Slang  What can slang terms tell us about an era?  With your groups, review the packets of 1920’s slang terms and complete the following:  Make a list of all the terms still used today  Which ones surprise you?  What 5 are the ‘best’ in your opinion?  What 5 are the ‘strangest’ in your opinion?  Create a list of 10 slang terms from your generation?  How is your slang similar to and different from the slang of the 1920s?  What slang terms do your parents(or older people) use that you don’t?  Create a quick skit with your group using a minimum of 15 terms from the 1920’s. Give the skit a setting( dance hall, speakeasy, party, school, etc.) Each person should have lines!!!!!!!!!!

4 Post-War Adjustment  1.Hardships of WWI  2. Social unrest/change  3,600 strikes in 1919  Bombs mailed to prominent figures(plans foiled)  Simultaneous bombing of 8 U.S. cities(June,2 1919)  18 th -19 th amendment  Intense race riots in major cities  Isolationism: pulling away from world events  People feared:  1. Immigrants  2. Communism  3. Anarchists

5 Palmer Raids(Red Scare ) American’s fear communists and anarchists are operating everywhere!  Attorney General Mitchell Palmer began Palmer Raids  Rounding up suspected communists, deporting and jailing some (without trials)  Claim alleged plot to overthrown the U.S. on May Day 1920  600+ deported  10,000+ arrested

6 Closing the Doors  Immigration Act of  but not limited to “homosexuals”, “idiots”, “feeble-minded persons”, "criminals", “epileptics”, “insane persons”, alcoholics, “professional beggars”, all persons “mentally or physically defective”, polygamists, and anarchists. Almost all Asian nations  Emergency Quota Act-1921  Only 3% of each ethnic group admitted(1910 census)  805,228 in 1920 to 309,556 in  Immigration Act 1924 (National Origins Act)  Lower Quota- 2%(1890 census)  Japanese Exclusion Act

7 Sacco and Vanzetti  April 15, 1920 gunmen robbed a shoe factory and killed the paymaster and guard  Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested; they were known anarchists and Italian immigrants  Found guilty and executed in 1927  Evidence against them was controversial; many felt they were innocent.

8 Postwar Social Change Society in the 1920s: Changing Role of Women Flappers- example of a “new woman.” Short dresses, short hair, wore make-up, smoke and drank in public. Not every woman was a flapper. Working Women- women worked low-paying jobs as clerks or office typists in the cities. Employers were still prejudiced towards women. Women Vote- 19 th Amendment in Few women voted early in the decade but laid the foundation for future generations.

9 Life in the Twenties-  Smoke, drank, loved to dance (rebels!)  Birth Control ^ and Divorces ^  Kids go to school and peer pressure begins  % of children were in school compared to 6% in 1890

10 Postwar Social Change Society in the 1920s: American Heroes National Celebrities- Charles Lindbergh was first person to fly solo across the Atlantic. He became instant celebrity Sports Heroes- Sports became big business in the 1920s. Babe Ruth- Most famous player of the 1920s. Hit 60 homeruns for the Yankees in Jack Dempsey- Heavyweight champion of the world. First boxer to earn $1 million.

11 Postwar Social Change Mass Media and the Jazz Age Mass Media Radio- Early radio broadcast reached only local audiences. Broadcasts go national by end of the 1920s Results- National networks, advertising becomes prominent, created national culture, music increased in popularity, sports broadcasted, spreads news quickly Movies- Silent movies until 1927 (The Jazz Singer). California becomes movie capital (no rain) Results- Breaks down ethnic barriers to create national culture.

12 Postwar Social Change Society in the 1920s: Americans on the Move Great Migration- Movement of African-Americans from the South to industrial centers of the NE and Midwest Causes- Decreased cotton prices, lack of immigrant labor, war industries Effects- Higher wages, more educational opportunities, and better standard of living for African-Americans Negatives- Race Riots and growth of the KKK

13 13 Postwar Social Change Mass Media and the Jazz Age Mass Media Writers- Many were affected by WWI and had some pent up anger. Reflected the 1920s spirit of rebelling against social norms. Collectively known as the Lost Generation F. Scott Fitzgerald- The Great Gatsby—commentary on the illusion of the American Dream. Ernest Hemingway- Served in WWI and wrote about the war (Farewell to Arms, The Sun Also Rises)

14 14 Postwar Social Change Mass Media and the Jazz Age Jazz Age- Popular urban music of the 1920s. Started in New Orleans and moved North during the Great Migration. Created by and performed mostly by African-American artists, including Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, and “Jelly Roll” Morton.

15 Postwar Social Change Mass Media and the Jazz Age Harlem Renaissance- Growth of African-American Arts and Literature. African American Literary and Artistic Movement-stressed cultural pride Writers- Zora Neale Hurston and Langston Hughes were the most popular.

16 Postwar Social Change Cultural Conflicts: Every Action Has a Reaction Prohibition- 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale, transport, or consumption of alcohol Volstead Act- Defined alcoholic beverages and imposed criminal penalties South- Favored, wanted to keep alcohol out of the hands of African-Americans West- Favored, wanted to keep public intoxication, prostitution, and crime under control East- Not favor, mostly ignored by foreign born city dwellers Enforcement- Mostly ignored. Poor punished more than rich, cops open to bribery

17 Postwar Social Change Cultural Conflicts: Every Action Has a Reaction Prohibition- lawbreakers Speakeasies- “secret” clubs that sold illegal alcohol Bootleggers- someone who makes or sells illegal liquor Moonshiners- homemade alcohol suppliers (bathtub gin) Gangsters- Bootlegging led to bribery and violence. Chicago in the 1920s had 500 gangsters murdered Al Capone- Head of the Chicago Syndicate. Eliminated Irish competitors on 2/14/1929

18 Postwar Social Change Cultural Conflicts: Every Action Has a Reaction Fundamentalism- A rigid view of religion and literal interpretation of the Bible. Threatened in the 1920s by science. Scopes Monkey Trial- Fundamentalists vs. Modernists Results- Scope was found guilty but the Fundamentalists lose in the long term. Increasing number of Christians come to reconcile science and religion.

19 Scopes Trial aka The Monkey Trial (1925)  Dayton, Tennessee  John T. Scopes a substitute biology teacher agrees to include evolution in the curriculum (backed by the ACLU)  Challenged the Butler law  Trial is a national sensation  Creationism vs. Evolution  Clarence Darrow (Scopes lawyer) vs. William Jennings Bryan(prosecuting lawyer)  Scopes fined $100(a lot), later overturned

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21 Postwar Social Change Cultural Conflicts: Every Action Has a Reaction Racial Tensions- Reaction to the rising social status of African-Americans Race Riots- Violent reaction to the Great Migration known as Red Summer as riots breakout in major cities (Chicago, Omaha, E. St. Louis) Return of the Klan- Returns in the 1920s and spreads to the Midwest. Capitalized on resulting tensions caused by the Great Migration. Membership peaks in 1925 at 5 million members. United Negro Improvement Association- Founded by Marcus Garvey to promote African-American self-reliance, self-confidence and the resettlement of the Africa.

22 Ku Klux Klan  Inspired by the film, The Birth of a Nation  William J. Simmons revived the Klan(Imperial Wizard)  Devoted to 100% Americanism-Appeal to patriotic WASP’s  Anti-Jewish, immigrant, Catholic, communist, black  Reached 4 million members  KKK didn’t have to pay taxes and charged $10 to be a member, so they became rich

23 KKK Cont.  Violent!- Lynching, killing, shooting, whipping, branding, tar, and feather, etc.  Police and judges ignored violence Postcard of 1920 Duluth lynching

24 Presidents of the 1920’s Warren G. Harding ( #29) Calvin Coolidge ( #30)

25 Warren G. Harding  Pledge a “return of normalcy”  Established Bureau of Budget to make gov’t fiscally responsible  Cut taxes, raised tariffs, reduced debt, helps farmers  Cabinet was mostly his poker buddies, “Ohio Gang, “ and most were corrupt  Teapot Dome Scandal- Secretary of interior, Albert Fall, leased gov’t oil reserves to private companies and took money; found guilty  Harding died before scandal became public knowledge (slightly mysteriously)

26 Calvin Coolidge: Business of government is Business  Passed Dawes Plan: loaned $ to Germany so they could pay France (did to avoid war)  Passed Kellogg-Briand Pact: a treaty to outlaw war. It failed to include punishments for future attacks  Main business of people is business; pledge prosperity: extremely pro-business  Reduced taxes, wages ^ 35%, productivity ^


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