Presentation on theme: "Post WWI & the Roaring Twenties Chapters 19 & 20."— Presentation transcript:
Post WWI & the Roaring Twenties Chapters 19 & 20
Objectives: Identify how the US demobilized after World War I? – Evaluate the impact of demobilization, including the farm crisis, labor unrest, the Red Scare, and racial intolerance.
Demobilization: Soldiers returned to workforce Unemployment rose Wages fell; working conditions worsened Women lost jobs Wartimes shortages left prices high; then market flooded Farm crisis
Farm Crisis U.S. farmers lost markets in Europe Agri. efficiency increased=more food produced = lower prices = farming is less prosperous = many lost farms to bank
Unionization A. Philip Randolf—Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Pullman Co. didn’t recognize union til 1930s
Labor strikes Boston Police Strike Steel Strike United Mine Workers Strike Seattle General Strike (all workers)
Coal Miners: :United Mine Workers
Red Scare: Period of anti- communist hysteria – fear of Bolshevik Revolution – fear of immigrants and labor unions
Palmer Raids: Nov summer 1920 Response to mail bombs Gov’t. office created to gather info on radicals & activists Poor immigrants targeted & arrested
A. Mitchell Palmer J. Edgar Hoover
Alexander Berkman Mollie Steimer Emma Goldman These three people were deported to Russia!
Socialist Party in America: Eugene Debs Collective ownership of industry
Nativism law est. quotas for immigration National Origins Act of set quotas for each 2% of the number of people from that country currently living in the U.S.
Sacco & Vanzetti Trial 2 Italian immigrants, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, convicted of murder & sentenced to death (Probably a Mistake!)
Return of the KKK: Officially dissolved after Reconstruction 1915, Stone Mtn, GA--Joseph Simmons re- establishes Klan
Kidnappings, lynchings, beatings Grew outside of South Discriminated against Jews, Catholics, immigrants, radicals Huge membership
Anti-Lynching Campaign Began by the NAACP – Create anti lynching committee – The Crisis – Limited success
Racial Tensions Lynchings Rebirth of the Klan
African American Migration North: (Great Migration) Reasons: – Economic opportunities – Sharecropping=de facto slavery – Less discrimination Results: – Violence erupts – Chicago riots
Cause: Eugene Williams, Age 17 - Drowned at 29th St. beach, due to exhaustion on account of being unable to come to land due to throwing of stones during riot between whites and African Americans, over use of said beach. One of the rioters, who was accused of having thrown a stone which supposedly struck deceased and caused his drowning, was indicted by on charge of manslaughter.
Whites wielding bricks chasing blacks in a Chicago neighborhood, 1919.
Black Nationalism Pan Africanism – Unite ppl of Afr. descent worldwide – Marcus Garvey – Black nationalism—new political state in Africa – Universal Negro Improvement Assoc. Foster econ. Independence Est. homeland in Africa
Let’s Review: How did the US demobilize after World War I? – How did this impact farmers? – How did this impact labor unions? What was the Red Scare? – What caused this fear? – Who was targeted by this scare? What were race relations like after the War?
Objectives: Discuss the Republican decade. Discuss the impact of the automobile. Identify changing consumer habits. Discuss & evaluate changes in 1920s society including the Scopes Trial, the Lost Generation, Prohibition and the Harlem Renaissance.
Election of 1920: Republican: Warren G. Harding Democrat: James M. Cox
Harding Administration Positive effects: – Economic growth Boom in industry Cut gov. spending Tax cut for rich Reduced debt Fordney- McCumber tariff Negative effects: – Mergers – Struggle for workers, farmers, & labor unions
Harding Scandals: Ohio Gang – corrupt officials in Harding Admin.-- most from OH, Harding’s home state Forbes Scandal – Forbes takes money from Vet. Bureau Attorney Gen. Daugherty – taking bribes Teapot Dome Scandal – Fall takes control of oil reserves & profits
Calvin Coolidge Takes over after Harding dies in office: – Wins 1924 election – Probusiness – Revenue Act of 1926 – Cut gov. spending – Opposed helping farmers & common laborers
Election of 1928 Republican: Herbert Hoover Democrat: Alfred E. Smith
Henry Ford Mass production Assembly line Age of the automobile
Effects of the Automobile Linked rural & urban areas (growth of suburbs) Use of trains & trolleys reduced Auto-touring Social opportunities for teens Reduced sense of community
New consumer practices Installment plans New materials & designs Advertising Retail chain stores
1920s Lifestyles “new woman” – sought social & economic independence College enrollment tripled New fashions
New leisure activities – Dance marathons – Flagpole sitting
Lost Generation War was devastating & useless College life was superficial Pursuit of wealth & status led to emptiness Middle-class life was empty & required conformity
Mass culture/Pop culture Radio, books, magazines
Movies, sports Celebrities & heroes
Jazz & Blues Originated in South Spread nationwide when musicians moved North White musicians too Jazz clubs & big bands
The Jazz Age
Society Americans had divided opinions about social change – Traditional religious values v. New values based on scientific thought – Scopes Trial Questions of appropriate and inappropriate movies & music – censorship
The Moral Question
Scopes Trial :Evolution v. Creationism “Monkey Trial” Dayton, TN
John Scopes, teacher Clarence Darrow, his attorney William Jennings Bryan, prosecutor
Cross by Langston Hughes My old man’s a white old man And my old mother’s black. If ever I cursed my white old man I take my curses back. If ever I cursed my black old mother And wished she were in hell, I’m sorry for that evil wish And now I wish her well My old man died in a fine big house. My ma died in a shack. I wonder where I’m going to die, Being neither white nor black?
James Weldon Johnson Claude McKay
America by Claude McKay Although she feeds me bread of bitterness, And sinks into my throat her tiger’s tooth, Stealing my breath of life, I will confess I love this cultured hell that tests my youth! Her vigor flows like tides into my blood, Giving me strength erect against her hate. Her bigness sweeps my being like a flood. Yet as a rebel fronts a king in state, I stand within her walls with not a shred Of terror, malice, not a word of jeer. Darkly I gaze into the days ahead, And see her might and granite wonders there, Beneath the touch of Time’s unerring hand, Like priceless treasures sinking in the sand.
William H. Johnson Swing Low, Sweet Chariot 1939
Jacob Lawrence Dust to Dust (The Funeral) 1938
Jacob Lawrence Harlem Rooftops
Palmer Hayden, The Janitor Who Paints, 1937
Street Life, Harlem, by William H. Johnson JeunesseJeunesse by Palmer Hayden
Let’s Review: Who were the Republican presidents of the 1920s? What impact did the automobile have on American society? How did consumer habits change in the 1920s? What was the Scopes Trial about? Who were the Lost Generation? What effect did Prohibition have on American society? What was the Harlem Renaissance?