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Post WWI & the Roaring Twenties Chapters 19 & 20.

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2 Post WWI & the Roaring Twenties Chapters 19 & 20

3 Objectives: Identify how the US demobilized after World War I? – Evaluate the impact of demobilization, including the farm crisis, labor unrest, the Red Scare, and racial intolerance.

4 Demobilization: Soldiers returned to workforce Unemployment rose Wages fell; working conditions worsened Women lost jobs Wartimes shortages left prices high; then market flooded Farm crisis

5 Farm Crisis U.S. farmers lost markets in Europe Agri. efficiency increased=more food produced = lower prices = farming is less prosperous = many lost farms to bank



8 Unionization A. Philip Randolf—Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Pullman Co. didn’t recognize union til 1930s

9 Labor strikes Boston Police Strike Steel Strike United Mine Workers Strike Seattle General Strike (all workers)


11 Coal Miners: :United Mine Workers


13 Red Scare: Period of anti- communist hysteria – fear of Bolshevik Revolution – fear of immigrants and labor unions

14 Palmer Raids: Nov 1919--summer 1920 Response to mail bombs Gov’t. office created to gather info on radicals & activists Poor immigrants targeted & arrested


16 A. Mitchell Palmer J. Edgar Hoover


18 Alexander Berkman Mollie Steimer Emma Goldman These three people were deported to Russia!

19 Socialist Party in America: Eugene Debs Collective ownership of industry

20 Nativism 1921--law est. quotas for immigration National Origins Act of 1924 -set quotas for each country @ 2% of the number of people from that country currently living in the U.S.

21 Sacco & Vanzetti Trial 2 Italian immigrants, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, convicted of murder & sentenced to death (Probably a Mistake!)


23 Postwar Intolerance

24 Return of the KKK: Officially dissolved after Reconstruction 1915, Stone Mtn, GA--Joseph Simmons re- establishes Klan

25 Kidnappings, lynchings, beatings Grew outside of South Discriminated against Jews, Catholics, immigrants, radicals Huge membership

26 Anti-Lynching Campaign Began by the NAACP – Create anti lynching committee – The Crisis – Limited success

27 Racial Tensions Lynchings Rebirth of the Klan

28 African American Migration North: (Great Migration) Reasons: – Economic opportunities – Sharecropping=de facto slavery – Less discrimination Results: – Violence erupts – Chicago 1919-- riots


30 Cause: Eugene Williams, Age 17 - Drowned at 29th St. beach, due to exhaustion on account of being unable to come to land due to throwing of stones during riot between whites and African Americans, over use of said beach. One of the rioters, who was accused of having thrown a stone which supposedly struck deceased and caused his drowning, was indicted by on charge of manslaughter.

31 Whites wielding bricks chasing blacks in a Chicago neighborhood, 1919.

32 Black Nationalism Pan Africanism – Unite ppl of Afr. descent worldwide – Marcus Garvey – Black nationalism—new political state in Africa – Universal Negro Improvement Assoc. Foster econ. Independence Est. homeland in Africa

33 Let’s Review: How did the US demobilize after World War I? – How did this impact farmers? – How did this impact labor unions? What was the Red Scare? – What caused this fear? – Who was targeted by this scare? What were race relations like after the War?

34 Objectives: Discuss the Republican decade. Discuss the impact of the automobile. Identify changing consumer habits. Discuss & evaluate changes in 1920s society including the Scopes Trial, the Lost Generation, Prohibition and the Harlem Renaissance.

35 Republican Presidency

36 Election of 1920: Republican: Warren G. Harding Democrat: James M. Cox

37 1920 Election

38 Harding Administration Positive effects: – Economic growth Boom in industry Cut gov. spending Tax cut for rich Reduced debt Fordney- McCumber tariff Negative effects: – Mergers – Struggle for workers, farmers, & labor unions

39 Harding Scandals: Ohio Gang – corrupt officials in Harding Admin.-- most from OH, Harding’s home state Forbes Scandal – Forbes takes money from Vet. Bureau Attorney Gen. Daugherty – taking bribes Teapot Dome Scandal – Fall takes control of oil reserves & profits


41 Calvin Coolidge Takes over after Harding dies in office: – Wins 1924 election – Probusiness – Revenue Act of 1926 – Cut gov. spending – Opposed helping farmers & common laborers

42 Election of 1928 Republican: Herbert Hoover Democrat: Alfred E. Smith

43 Henry Ford Mass production Assembly line Age of the automobile

44 Effects of the Automobile Linked rural & urban areas (growth of suburbs) Use of trains & trolleys reduced Auto-touring Social opportunities for teens Reduced sense of community

45 New consumer practices Installment plans New materials & designs Advertising Retail chain stores


47 1920s Lifestyles “new woman” – sought social & economic independence College enrollment tripled New fashions

48 New leisure activities – Dance marathons – Flagpole sitting

49 Lost Generation War was devastating & useless College life was superficial Pursuit of wealth & status led to emptiness Middle-class life was empty & required conformity

50 Mass culture/Pop culture Radio, books, magazines

51 Movies, sports Celebrities & heroes

52 Jazz & Blues Originated in South Spread nationwide when musicians moved North White musicians too Jazz clubs & big bands

53 The Jazz Age

54 Society Americans had divided opinions about social change – Traditional religious values v. New values based on scientific thought – Scopes Trial Questions of appropriate and inappropriate movies & music – censorship

55 The Moral Question

56 Scopes Trial :Evolution v. Creationism “Monkey Trial” Dayton, TN

57 John Scopes, teacher Clarence Darrow, his attorney William Jennings Bryan, prosecutor

58 Prohibition Increased crime – Bootlegging – Speak easies

59 Prohibition

60 Gangsters/The Untouchables

61 Prohibition, Gangsters, & the Liquor Business




65 Harlem Renaissance

66 Harlem, a neighborhood in New York City, was the center of the African American political, cultural, and artistic movement in the 1920s and early 1930s.


68 1930 1920 1911


70 Harlem Renaissance Source of pride for African Americans New respect for black theater Celebration of ethnic identity Exposure of African American struggles


72 Louis Armstrong Duke Ellington

73 Langston Huges & Zora Neale Hurston Josephine Barker

74 Cross by Langston Hughes My old man’s a white old man And my old mother’s black. If ever I cursed my white old man I take my curses back. If ever I cursed my black old mother And wished she were in hell, I’m sorry for that evil wish And now I wish her well My old man died in a fine big house. My ma died in a shack. I wonder where I’m going to die, Being neither white nor black?

75 James Weldon Johnson Claude McKay

76 America by Claude McKay Although she feeds me bread of bitterness, And sinks into my throat her tiger’s tooth, Stealing my breath of life, I will confess I love this cultured hell that tests my youth! Her vigor flows like tides into my blood, Giving me strength erect against her hate. Her bigness sweeps my being like a flood. Yet as a rebel fronts a king in state, I stand within her walls with not a shred Of terror, malice, not a word of jeer. Darkly I gaze into the days ahead, And see her might and granite wonders there, Beneath the touch of Time’s unerring hand, Like priceless treasures sinking in the sand.



79 William H. Johnson Swing Low, Sweet Chariot 1939

80 Jacob Lawrence Dust to Dust (The Funeral) 1938

81 Jacob Lawrence Harlem Rooftops

82 Palmer Hayden, The Janitor Who Paints, 1937

83 Street Life, Harlem, by William H. Johnson JeunesseJeunesse by Palmer Hayden

84 Palmer Hayden

85 Let’s Review: Who were the Republican presidents of the 1920s? What impact did the automobile have on American society? How did consumer habits change in the 1920s? What was the Scopes Trial about? Who were the Lost Generation? What effect did Prohibition have on American society? What was the Harlem Renaissance?

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