Presentation on theme: "New Knowledge of Human Beings and Society (Palmer text, section 29)"— Presentation transcript:
1New Knowledge of Human Beings and Society (Palmer text, section 29) AP European HistoryAndrostic
2Review:What does the illustration to the right illustrate about the views of the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century?Cover of the Rudolphine Tables, Johannes Kepler, 1627
3Consequences of the Scientific Revolution Explosion of scientific thoughtGrowth of scientific institutions (Royal Society of London (1662), Royal Academy of Sciences (France, 1666)Scientific publications help spread ideas fasterScientific improvements (navigation and mapmaking, advancing military technologies, tidal charts, steam power)Increased skepticism, conflict between science and religionConfidence in human abilityReinforcement of natural law/natural rightsEconomic and social changesTaxes to pay for development of militaryAgricultural and industrial improvement
4Growth of SkepticismEuropeans realized the vastness and difference of the worldElites became skeptical of old assumptionsNeed for evidenceDecline in which trials (illustrates divide between elite and popular cultures)Historical scholarshipChronologyReligious Scholarship
5Montaigne’s Essay on Cannibals Example of growing skepticismCannibals probably think our customs odd or inhumanBeliefs are relative to time and place (many beliefs have no scientific foundation)
6Need for Evidence Affected law and witchcraft Sufficient evidence needed regardless of accusationConfessions gained through torture not sufficient evidence
7Historical Scholarship Knowledge of past reliant on remaining evidenceHistorical science faced skepticismScholars tried to find reliable evidence to determine accurate historyPaleography – deciphering/authenticating manuscriptsNumismatics – study of currency/coinage
8Claimed world was created in 4004 B.C. ChronologyAge of the world, finding common denominator between dating systems of various peopleCreation of the world?Relationship in dates of all civilizations?Gregorian vs. Julian calendarNecessity of uniform dating?James Usher:Claimed world was created in 4004 B.C.
9Religious Scholarship The bible faced textual criticisms that had been applied to secular documents
10Richard Simon Critical History of the Old Testament questioned legitimacy of some books of the O.T.Doubtful/unknown originsMonks made errors in copyingEvidence of info inserted later
11Baruch SpinozaDeveloped pantheism – God had no existence apart from the world (some called it atheism)Denied inspiration of bible, miracles, supernaturalControversial – people afraid to read his writings
12John LockeTrue knowledge is derived from experience (Who does that sound like?)Tabula rasapromoted common sense, improved human society, and confidence in social progress
13Questions to assess your understanding: Whose ideas were the basis for Europeans’ (geocentric) view of the universe?Which astronomers contributed to the destruction of the geocentric view of the universe?Who postulated the heliocentric view of the universe?What does empiricism emphasize?Who created the modern scientific method?Who put forth the three laws of planetary motion?Who formulated the law of universal gravitation?What was Galileo’s greatest achievement?Who wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres? What is its significance?Who wrote Principia? What is its significance?Who postulated the theory of inertia? What did it state?What are the significant consequences of the scientific revolution?
15How can this strategy be used in AP European History? PERSIAHow can this strategy be used in AP European History?
16PERSIA Political Economic PERSIA is a strategy of thinking about a civilization/society. The acronym PERSIA stands for:PoliticalEconomicReligiousSocialIntellectualArts
17How can PERSIA be useful to you? When completing an FRQ (Free Response Question) or a DBQ (Document-Based Question), thinking of these societal conditions can help you make connections necessary in your analysis.
18Example FRQs that could use PERSIA: Discuss the political and social consequences of the Protestant Reformation in the first half of the sixteenth century. (Test 2)How and to what extent did the Commercial Revolution transform the European economy and diplomatic balance of power in the period from ? (Test 3)Compare and contrast the triumph of constitutionalism in England and Holland with the triumph of absolutism in France. (Test 4)
19How can PERSIA be useful to you? In multiple-choice questions, you can use PERSIA to eliminate choices (if the question deals with a political characteristic, eliminate choices that deal with economics/religion).Two examples from past AP Exams follow…