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New Knowledge of Human Beings and Society (Palmer text, section 29) AP European History Androstic 2012-2013.

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Presentation on theme: "New Knowledge of Human Beings and Society (Palmer text, section 29) AP European History Androstic 2012-2013."— Presentation transcript:

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2 New Knowledge of Human Beings and Society (Palmer text, section 29) AP European History Androstic

3 Cover of the Rudolphine Tables, Johannes Kepler, 1627 Review: What does the illustration to the right illustrate about the views of the Scientific Revolution of the 17 th century?

4 Consequences of the Scientific Revolution  Explosion of scientific thought  Growth of scientific institutions (Royal Society of London (1662), Royal Academy of Sciences (France, 1666)  Scientific publications help spread ideas faster  Scientific improvements (navigation and mapmaking, advancing military technologies, tidal charts, steam power)  Increased skepticism, conflict between science and religion  Confidence in human ability  Reinforcement of natural law/natural rights  Economic and social changes Taxes to pay for development of military Agricultural and industrial improvement

5 Growth of Skepticism  Europeans realized the vastness and difference of the world  Elites became skeptical of old assumptions Need for evidence Decline in which trials (illustrates divide between elite and popular cultures)  Historical scholarship  Chronology  Religious Scholarship

6 Montaigne’s Essay on Cannibals  Example of growing skepticism  Cannibals probably think our customs odd or inhuman  Beliefs are relative to time and place (many beliefs have no scientific foundation)

7 Need for Evidence  Affected law and witchcraft  Sufficient evidence needed regardless of accusation  Confessions gained through torture not sufficient evidence

8 Historical Scholarship  Knowledge of past reliant on remaining evidence  Historical science faced skepticism  Scholars tried to find reliable evidence to determine accurate history  Paleography – deciphering/authenticating manuscripts  Numismatics – study of currency/coinage

9 Chronology  Age of the world, finding common denominator between dating systems of various people  Creation of the world?  Relationship in dates of all civilizations?  Gregorian vs. Julian calendar  Necessity of uniform dating? James Usher: Claimed world was created in 4004 B.C.

10 Religious Scholarship The bible faced textual criticisms that had been applied to secular documents

11 Richard Simon  Critical History of the Old Testament  questioned legitimacy of some books of the O.T. Doubtful/unknown origins Monks made errors in copying Evidence of info inserted later

12 Baruch Spinoza  Developed pantheism – God had no existence apart from the world (some called it atheism)  Denied inspiration of bible, miracles, supernatural  Controversial – people afraid to read his writings

13 John Locke  True knowledge is derived from experience (Who does that sound like?)  Tabula rasa  promoted common sense, improved human society, and confidence in social progress

14 Questions to assess your understanding:  Whose ideas were the basis for Europeans’ (geocentric) view of the universe?  Which astronomers contributed to the destruction of the geocentric view of the universe?  Who postulated the heliocentric view of the universe?  What does empiricism emphasize?  Who created the modern scientific method?  Who put forth the three laws of planetary motion?  Who formulated the law of universal gravitation?  What was Galileo’s greatest achievement?  Who wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres? What is its significance?  Who wrote Principia? What is its significance?  Who postulated the theory of inertia? What did it state?  What are the significant consequences of the scientific revolution?

15 It’s time to learn a new skill!

16 PERSIA How can this strategy be used in AP European History?

17 PERSIA  PERSIA is a strategy of thinking about a civilization/society. The acronym PERSIA stands for:  Political  Economic  Religious  Social  Intellectual  Arts

18 How can PERSIA be useful to you?  When completing an FRQ (Free Response Question) or a DBQ (Document-Based Question), thinking of these societal conditions can help you make connections necessary in your analysis.

19 Example FRQs that could use PERSIA:  Discuss the political and social consequences of the Protestant Reformation in the first half of the sixteenth century. (Test 2)  How and to what extent did the Commercial Revolution transform the European economy and diplomatic balance of power in the period from ? (Test 3)  Compare and contrast the triumph of constitutionalism in England and Holland with the triumph of absolutism in France. (Test 4)

20 How can PERSIA be useful to you?  In multiple-choice questions, you can use PERSIA to eliminate choices (if the question deals with a political characteristic, eliminate choices that deal with economics/religion).  Two examples from past AP Exams follow…

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