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Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy Wanted to end “Dollar Diplomacy”

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Presentation on theme: "Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy Wanted to end “Dollar Diplomacy”"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy Wanted to end “Dollar Diplomacy”
Emphasis on idealism (missionary diplomacy) situational Japanese Twenty-One Demands on China versus support of Nicaraguan dictator, Adolfo Diaz Mexican Revolution 1911 Wilson attacked Huerta for overthrow of Madero Invasion of Vera Cruz, Mexico Carranza and Pancho Villa General Pershing and Mexican expedition Pancho Villa

3 Europe at War Outbreak of war Bosnia Serbia and Black Hand Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand American neutrality Sympathies of American public Allied propaganda

4 Freedom of the Seas Economic interests trumped propaganda Return to Napoleonic practices – seizure and confiscation of goods / blacklisting of American companies Would a Jeffersonian embargo worked against Britain? Trade and loans to Allies tied US closer to them Germany initially unconcerned about trade – later turned to submarine warfare Restricted versus unrestricted warfare The Lusitania and Sussex incidents

5 The Election of 1916 Wilson went into election weak Won in 1912 due to split in Republican Party Progressives complaining Wilson not doing enough Wooed the Progressives Appointed Brandeis to Supreme Court Signed Farm Loan Act Signed Keating-Owen Child Labor Act Helped pass Adamson Act (for 8 hour day for RR workers) T. Roosevelt did not run Key issue was US policy towards war in Europe Wilson stressed preparedness “He kept us out of war”

6 The Road to War Wilson attempted to end the war through negotiations in 1915 and 1916 Germans lifted ban against unrestricted submarine warfare – America began arming merchant ships Zimmerman telegram Congress declared war

7 Mobilizing the Economy
Much of big industry disorganized and slow to respond – most large weapon systems failed to enter system in time to be used Most large weapon systems used by US were European made Conscription hot issue – first draftees hit training camps almost 6 months after declaration of war War Industries Board (WIB) established to coordinate American war effort All railways placed under authority of Sec. of Treasury, Wm. McAdoo

8 Process of building the “home front” long w/ many problems
Wilson appointed Herbert Hoover as food administrator Able to conserve food without rationing “Wheatless Mondays, Meatless Fridays” Backyard vegetable gardens Making use of leftovers Farmers profits surged – increase in income 30%

9 Workers in Wartime Employment and wages increased
Migrations dramatically increased – especially blacks National War Labor Board established to settle labor disputes – resulted in increase of unionization

10 Propaganda and Civil Liberties
Wilson excelled at mobilizing public opinion Established Committee on Public Information (CPI) under George Creel – dramatic increase in US war propaganda for home consumption Those against war: Irish and German Americans, pacifists, and isolationists became targets for abuse by CIP and patriotic public

11 Espionage Act and Sedition Act targeted anyone who expressed opinion against war or government
Eugene V. Debs sentenced to prison for making anti-war speech; citizens jailed for criticizing the draft Espionage Act upheld in Supreme Court case Schenck v. United States – man mailing circulars urging draftees not to report for duty Repression exceeded anything in both Britain and France

12 Wartime Reforms War seemed to confirm beliefs of Progressives as government entered into all aspects of society Partly due to war and progressive push, 18th (prohibition of alcohol) and 19th (women’s vote) amendments passed after the end of the war Efforts to eliminate prostitution (versus European view)

13 Women and Blacks in Wartime
Women expected war to open up more jobs to women – openings were made but not in great number (including factories) and gains were temporary Some women served on Western Front The Great Migration of blacks to the North brought economic benefits Blacks in North resented due to competition Despite discrimination, blacks fared better in North with more opportunity, better schools, and higher wages with less fear of attack

14 Blacks initially not drafted but afterwards conscripted in greater numbers in South than whites
Blacks served in two regular army regiments and numerous national guard units Military units were segregated and most blacks served in labor battalions Blacks units serving under French control served valiantly and were highly decorated

15 General John “Blackjack” Pershing
America in the Trenches American participation in the convoy system drastically reduced losses to submarines The American Expeditionary Force (AEF), commanded by Pershing, did not take the field until late 1917 Pershing refused to allow US troops to augment Allied forces – US troops remained an independent force (except black regiments) US forces suffered 262,725 casualties, fought with increasing skills and helped lead Germany to sue for peace General John “Blackjack” Pershing

16 Preparing for Peace The armistice ending hostilities commenced November 11, 1918 Europe was in a shambles with enormous numbers of dead, many wanting revenge, and ideologies like communism enticing Wilson wanted peace based on his “Fourteen Points” plan

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18 Each flag represents 100,000 dead
World War I Casualties Each flag represents 100,000 dead Each skull represents 100,000 civilian dead Large # of civilian deaths in Germany due to British blockade of German ports Large # of civilian deaths in Russia due to Russian Revolution in 1917 Large # of civilian deaths in Ottoman Empire due to genocide of Christian Armenian population in 1915 More people killed by Spanish Flu in 1918 than WWI

19 Wilson made unprecedented appearance at Versailles
Appealed to Americans for Democratic congress – Republicans won both houses Opposition among Senate Republicans led by Henry Cabot Lodge – did not want America’s sovereignty threatened Wilson’s arrogance and stubbornness caused US to reject treaty and League of Nations Wilson’s behavior may be attributable to a stroke Wilson collapsed campaigning for the treaty President Woodrow Wilson (D) Senator Henry Cabot Lodge (R)

20 Demobilization No plan
Economic chaos ensued as millions of veterans re-entered the work force Military contracts worth billions were cancelled All controls established by the War Industries Board dropped Business boomed as consumers bought up products formerly in short supply – resulting in inflation

21 Cost of living doubled Inflation = labor troubles / strikes for wage increases Work stoppages aggravated shortages / inflation / more strikes Agricultural prices plummeted Unemployment soared

22 The Red Scare Radical elements in unions caused populace to equate unions with threat of communism People viewed violent strikes as precursors to revolution Volatile labor situation exacerbated by anarchist bombings and attempted murders of Rockefeller, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and Attorney General Mitchell Palmer

23 Most radicals not American citizens – WWI enemy Germany replaced by the immigrant (Italian, Jew, Slav), usually an industrial worker Americans felt American way of life in danger – demanded that radicals be suppressed Attorney General Palmer central figure in “Red Scare” 1919 established the General Intelligence Division (D of J) headed by J. Edgar Hoover Arrests of radicals by Hoover brought widespread public acclaim

24 Palmer, with presidential ambitions, planned thousands of arrests
Civil liberties abused by arrests – public gradually turned against Palmer’s methods Palmer announced huge terrorist demonstration on May Day, 1920 – no show made Palmer appear ridiculous and Red Scare subsided

25 Election of 1920 Idealism of Wilson – League of Nations
Cox versus Harding Public disillusioned by war and tired of progressivism Harding called for “Normalcy” The idea of the League defeated

26 Quiz

27 Wilson’s idealism in foreign policy became known as this – replacing Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy
Wilson intervened in this southern conflict World War I was sparked by this event in this year The American’s concern with the war was over this issue American’s were shocked by the sinking of this ship

28 6. America entered the war primarily for these two reasons
7. American rights were severely abridged by these laws signed by Wilson 8. The major issue of the 1916 election was this 9. This coordinated American factories during the war 10. The impact of the war on farmers was this

29 11. The propaganda war was handled by this agency headed by him
12. The Supreme Court upheld the Espionage Act in this case 13. Progressives pushed through these two amendments 14. The Great Migration was this 15. The black contribution to the war was in these two areas

30 16. Wilson’s plan for peace was this
17. Wilson believed that this point would make up for others lost in negotiation 18. He was Wilson’s Republican opponent 19. This event was caused by increasing radicalism in the US 20. He headed the government fight against radicalism 21. Harding’s policy was called this

31 Assignment World War I Assignments
Students will do one assignment from each of the three categories for a total of three assignments. The assignments will be formative grades. The due date for the assignments is TBD. The assignments will each be a minimum of one page in length. The assignments will be typed, double-spaced in a 12 point font. Any assignment that is cut and pasted from the Internet will result in a zero and I will recommend you be dropped from the course Categories and topics can be found on the website > Assignments > WWI


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