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An Evaluation Procedure for Word Net Based Lexical Chaining: Methods and Issues Irene Cramer & Marc Finthammer Faculty of Cultural.

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Presentation on theme: "An Evaluation Procedure for Word Net Based Lexical Chaining: Methods and Issues Irene Cramer & Marc Finthammer Faculty of Cultural."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Evaluation Procedure for Word Net Based Lexical Chaining: Methods and Issues Irene Cramer & Marc Finthammer Faculty of Cultural Studies, Technische Universität Dortmund, Germany

2 Outline Project Context and Motivation Lexical Chaining – Evaluation Steps 1.Preprocessing and Coverage 2.Sense Disambiguation 3.Semantic Relatedness/Similarity 4.Application Open Issues and Future Work

3 Project Context and Motivation Research project HyTex funded by DFG (German Research Foundation) – part of the research unit "Text Technological Modelling of Information" Research objective in HyTex: text-grammatical foundations for the (semi-) automated text-to-hypertext conversion One focus of our research: topic-based linking strategies using lexical and topic chains/topic views

4 Project Context and Motivation Lexical chains Topic chains/views –based on the concept of lexical cohesion, –regarded as partial text representation, –valuable resource for many NLP applications, such as text summarization, dialog systems etc. –(to our knowledge) 2 lexical chainers for German (Mehler, 2006 and Cramer/Finthammer), in additon: research on semantic similarity based on GermaNet by Gurevych et al.

5 Lexical Chaining – Example (back-up slide) Chaining example adapted from (Halliday and Hasan, 1976)

6 Project Context and Motivation Lexical chains Topic chains/views –based on a selection of central words, so called topic words, –intended to support the user‘s orientation and navigation. Steps:  Lexical chains are used to select topic words (1-3 topic words per passage),  topic words are used to construct the topic view (~"thematic index"),  topic words are re-connected via semantically meaningful edges (as in lexical chaining) to construct topic chains

7 Project Context and Motivation Chapter 1.1 text topic word text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text topic word text text text text text text text text text text text text text text topic word text text text text text text text text text text Chapter 1.1 topic word 1 topic word 2 topic word 3 Chapter 1.2 topic word 1 topic word 2 topic word 3 Chapter 1.3 … Chapter 2 … Chapter 3.1 … Chapter 1.2 text topic word text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text topic word text text text text text text text text text text text text text text topic word text text text text text text text text text text Topic View

8 Topic Chains (back-up slide)

9 Lexical Chaining – Evaluation Steps To evaluate our chainer, called GLexi, test data is required; experiments to develop such gold standard for German emphasize: –manual annotation of lexical chains is very demanding, –rich interaction between various principles to achieve a cohesive text structure distracts annotators; results of these experiments partially reported in Stührenberg et al., Our conclusion: Evaluation of lexical chainer might be best performed in several steps.

10 Lexical Chaining – Evaluation Steps Our conclusion: Evaluation of lexical chainer might be best performed in several steps. –Evaluation of coverage –Evaluation of disambiguation quality –Evaluation of semantic relatedness measures –Evaluation of chains wrt. specific application

11 Lexical Chaining – Evaluation Steps Remainder of talk: –very short presentation of GLexi‘s architecture and –exemplary demonstration of applicability of evaluation procedure Resources used: –GermaNet (version 5.0) –HyTex corpus (specialized text) – approx. 29,000 (noun) tokens –set of word pairs + results of human judgement experiment –German word frequency list (thanks to Sabine Schulte im Walde)

12 Lexical Chaining - GLexi Basic modules: –preprocessing of corpora  tokenization, POS tagging, chunking  chaining candidate selection –core algorithm  lexical semantic look-up,  scoring of relation,  sense disambiguation –output creation  rating of chain strength  application specific representation

13 Lexical Chaining - GLexi Preprocessing

14 Lexical Chaining - GLexi Core algorithm: lexical semantic look-up

15 Outline Project Context and Motivation Lexical Chaining – Evaluation Steps 1.Preprocessing and Coverage 2.Sense Disambiguation 3.Semantic Relatedness/Similarity 4.Application Open Issues and Future Work

16 Step 1: Coverage approx. 29,000 (noun) tokens in our corpus split into 56 % in GermaNet44 % not in GermaNet, of these: 15 % inflected12 % compounds17 % remaining, uncovered nouns Coverage without preprocessing: approx. 56 % Approx. 44 % not included in chaining  preprocessing necessary to improve coverage!

17 Step 1: Coverage Coverage without preprocessing: approx. 56 % Lemmatization: increase coverage to approx. 71 % Compound analysis: increase coverage to approx. 83 %  Simple Named Entity Recognition in preprocessing phase Open issues: abbreviations, foreign words, nominalized verbs remaining, uncovered nouns split into: 15 % Named Entities 30 % foreign words 25 % abbreviations20 % nominalized verbs theoretical value – open issue e.g. Medien – Medium (Engl. media – psychic or data carrier) theoretical value – open issue e.g. Agrarproduktion (Engl. agricultural production)  Agrar (Engl. agricultural) + Produkt (Engl. artifact) + Ion (Engl. ion [chem.]) future work: include TermNet (domain specific language) as a resource – for more information: talk by Lüngen et al. – tomorrow, session 6, 10:40 h …

18 Step 2: Chaining-based WSD Approx. 45 % of tokens in our corpus  more than 1 synset Basis for chaining-based WSD: manual annotation Compare manually annotated data and disambiguation decision of semantic measure word A word Bsense A sense BWu-Palmerrank Text Hypertext ,9231 0, manually annotated word senses Text Hypertext1 correct word senses (word A, sense A = 1 and word B, sense B = 1) of word pair on rank 1 (  semantic measure Wu-Palmer best value): correct disambiguation

19 Step 2: Chaining-based WSD Approx. 45 % of tokens in our corpus  more than 1 synset Basis for chaining-based WSD: manual annotation Compare manually annotated data and disambiguation decision of semantic measure word A word Bsense A sense BWu-Palmerrank Text Hypertext ,9231 0, manually annotated word senses Text Hypertext1 correct word senses (word A, sense A = 1 and word B, sense B = 1) of word pair on rank 1 (  semantic measure Wu-Palmer best value): correct disambiguation best value therefore rank 1 compare with manual annotation

20 Step 2: Chaining-based WSD Approx. 45 % of tokens in our corpus  more than 1 synset Basis for chaining-based WSD: manual annotation Compare manually annotated data and disambiguation decision of semantic measure word A word Bsense A sense BWu-Palmerrank Text Hypertext ,9231 0, manually annotated word senses Text Hypertext1 correct word senses (word A, sense A = 1 and word B, sense B = 1) of word pair on rank 1 (  semantic measure Wu-Palmer best value): correct disambiguation compare with manual annotation

21 Step 2: Chaining-based WSD Performance of chaining-based WSD: mediocre! Best semantic measures (Resnik, Wu-Palmer, and Lin): –approx % correct disambiguation compared to manual annotation –majority voting increased performance to approx % Future work –include WSD in preprocessing? –machine learning based new measure?

22 Step 3: Semantic Relatedness Implemented 11 semantic relatedness measures (SRM) (GermaNet: 8 measures, Google co-occurrence counts: 3 measures)  focus this talk: GermaNet measures Evaluation of SRM performance used results of human judgement experiment: –list of 100 word pairs, subject’s judgement of "semantic distance" (35 subjects) on 5-level-scale –compare human judgement and SRM values

23 Step 3: Semantic Relatedness almost 2/3 extreme values (not related / strongly related)

24 Step 3: Semantic Relatedness human judgement experiment example of the results Engl. printerEngl. fin Engl. fluidEngl. water

25 Step 3: Semantic Relatedness all SRM values scatter correlation between human judgement and SRM values low

26 Step 3: Semantic Relatedness Open issues – semantic relatedness: –continuous SRM values necessary / helpful?  instead: classes (e.g. 3 classes: not related, related, strongly related)  machine learning (ML) experiment using parameters of SRM –interactions between SRM quality and disambiguation quality? –combination of GermaNet and Google co-occurrence based measures (and further resources) useful?  integration in ML experiment?

27 Step 4: Application-oriented Evaluation Example: newspaper article about child poverty in Germany Topic words according to lexical chaining results Kind, Engl. child Geld, Engl. money Deutschland, Engl. Germany

28 Step 4: Application-oriented Evaluation Features used in calculation of topic words and views: –chain / meta-chain info:  link density  link strength –in addition to chains:  frequency (relative passage and document)  mark-up application-oriented evaluation  gold standard topic words, topic views, and topic chains necessary manual annotation of topic words and topic views – work in progress – current annotation agreement > 75 % (before accordance) initial results show: link density and frequency are most relevant features

29 Outlook and Future Work To sum up: –Application: use lexical chaining for construction of topic views –Lexical chaining for German corpora: several challenges  coverage, disambiguation, SRM –room for improvement: disambiguation and SRM  possible solutions:  WSD as preprocessing step  alternative SRM (potentially ML based)  additional resources –initial results using lexical chains for construction of topic views  chaining useful!

30 Thank you! Comments, ideas, questions are very welcome.

31 Literature (back-up slide) Alexander Budanitsky and Graeme Hirst Semantic distance in wordnet: An experimental, application-oriented evaluation of five measures. In Workshop on WordNet and Other Lexical Resources at NAACL-2000, Pittsburgh, PA, June M. A. K. Halliday und Ruqaiya Hasan Cohesion in English. Longman, London. Graeme Hirst und David St-Onge Lexical chains as representation of context for the detection and correction malapropisms. In C. Fellbaum, editor, WordNet: An electronic lexical database, chapter 13, pages 305–332. The MIT Press, Cambrige, MA. Alexander Mehler Lexical chaining as a source of text chaining. In Proceedings of the 1st Computational Systemic Functional Grammar Conference, Sydney. Grogory H. Silber und Kathleen F. McCoy Efficiently computed lexical chains as an intermediate representation for automatic text summarization. Computational Linguistics, 28(4):487 – 496.


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